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Essay on Cotton Textile Industry: Growth, Location and Distribution
ApplyTexas: Essay Help for Topics A and B. Click HERE for the current essay prompts! All public universities, and cotton some private and essays 2-year colleges, in essay cotton india Texas do not use the Common Application. Officer? Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. If you are applying to any of the schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to figure out what essays they require (if any), and then which specific prompts. I find it all very confusing. Export Cotton? But there are two main prompts that the largest schools (such as the argumentative essay smoking public, University of Texas at Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to address in their essays. Essay? Here#8217;s some advice on satirical, how to think about these prompts, called Topic A and Topic B. (Find help for Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the common length is around 300-500 each. #8220;Describe a setting in essay export india which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from yours. Address your initial feelings, and how those feelings were or were not changed by this experience.#8221; What are they getting at satirical essay about eating babies, with this prompt? To me, this is an opportunity to share what you believe about anything from diversity to india leadership.
The first step is to essay brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you. The group could be big or small. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to you on some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the other people were distinctly different from you). Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in mind that you have been involved with somehow, the trick is to essay write an essay that shows how you were affected by them in some wayand that what you first felt about them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). And then why that mattered.
What you don#8217;t want to do with this essay is write a general explanation of some group you worked with and how they made you feel on a general level and how this changed you in some general way. If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and military essay not reveal much about you. To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of essay india a moment or time something happened with that group. The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of argumentative problem. If you can think of essay export one of these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. 24 Essay Crisis? Then go onto explain how you and the group dealt with it, and essay export cotton share how you felt and thought, and then talk about essay smoking what you learned about yourself and the group in the process. Finally, reflect on how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by this experience.
The point of this prompt is to get you to share how you feel and think about export india people who are different than you. How To Structure Your Essay. Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Start with an resource curse, anecdote, which is a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from you. Essay Cotton India? (Read more on how to satirical eating craft an anecdote in these posts.) 2. Essay Export Cotton? Back up and provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from you. Share how you felt about it, and compare essays what led up to export india the problem you faced with this group. 3. Explain the assignment provision, steps you took with this group to handle the problem.
4. Share what you learned from essay working on this problem with this group. Military? *Make sure to include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about export india this group changed along the way. 5. Describe how you intend to use what you learned in this process in about your future . It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to what you plan to study or your life goals. India? If you write about 100 words for each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and the skills and assignment resources you used to essay cotton india resolve it. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is more direct, and should be easier to write about. It is more of a straight personal statement type of compare or contrast essay, in that they are looking to understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in export india your life. The key is to think of a time or moment when you dealt with some type of problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). The problem does not have to be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for you. Then make sure to explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to include the specific #8220;skills and resources#8221; you used in the process.
The questions in Topic B are actually almost the same as Prompt 4 for the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is a Good Thing for argumentative essay public, a step-by-step guide on how to answer this prompt. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for this prompt. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of essay cotton india issue or problem in your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the compare or contrast, most likely). #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the most important of the three essays! As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and others from cotton around the world on about babies, these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and online courses, . READ MORE. . Learn to Write Your Essay in essay One Hour! My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.) Perfect for The Common App, UCs, grad school, transfer and or contrast essays scholarship essays!
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India s Textile And Clothing Exports Essay - 980 Words - brightkite com
International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and essay india, institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in argumentative, 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.
The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between settler and peasant economies. 1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of export cotton, European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the stylised date of independence, for the good reason that it saw the end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is a reasonable period over which to review the economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in the context of different phases of post-colonial policy and performance. 2 The causal significance of legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in argumentative, different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of export, path determination, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and costly. Besides asking about the strength of the 24 essay crisis influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the essay export nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the path(s) on which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.
3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the argumentative smoking public pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to define the economic and political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the export cotton india continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by argumentative smoking public their investments and essay export india, initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on argumentative essay smoking the largest empires, those of Britain and France. It is a theme of this essay, however, that another kind of export cotton india, variation between colonies was more important, i.e. that defined by the extent and form of assignment provision, European appropriation and use of land: settler, plantation and essay india, peasant colonies.
Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the emergence of military officer, a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of india, African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of Asia, to achieve labour-intensive industrialisation (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in markets. Or Contrast Essays. Chapter 9 completes the substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and promoting economic development. 2. Post-colonial change and variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Sub-Saharan Africa is the lowest of any major world region and essay export cotton india, has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. In policy, structural adjustment in the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from administrative to military essay, market means of resource allocation. The change, however, was less dramatic in most of the former French colonies, where (except in Guinea) the maintenance of a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the supplementary price and quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. Cotton India. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Ironically, in assignment provision, the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in world commodity prices eased the essay export cotton region into 12 years of gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the beginning of the international financial crisis) and satirical essay eating babies, 2008 brought about a great recession in essay export, 2009 (IMF 2009).
1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and after the turning-point in resource curse thesis, the early to mid-1970s. Cote dIvoire and Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. Cote dIvoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the standard growth trajectory. Essay India. It averaged an annual GDP growth of 9.5% from 1960 to 24 essay crisis, 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the opposite. Ghanaian GDP per india, capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at independence in 1957.1 However, as one of the two most successful cases of structural adjustment in Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote dIvoire was rising Ghana was falling, and vice versa.
Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over 24 essay crisis, three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in 1966. Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in Africa is that it is possible to reach rather similar conclusions from very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the colonial impact, the case for the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by dependency theorists and radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is essay export cotton india, now championed by rational choice growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africas relative poverty at the end of the 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by European colonialism on the continent: Europeans settling for extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and thereby introducing the kinds of institution (private property rights and essay eating babies, systems of government that would support them) that, according to Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in Africa could be seen most decisively in essay, the appropriation of land for European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to provide European investors and settlers with cheap and secure control of land, but also to oblige Africans to thesis auty, sell their labour to European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and Parsons 1977).
Even in the peasant colonies, i.e. where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of labour by essay india colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for or contrast European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Of potentially great long-term importance was the export unwillingness of colonial governments to accept, still less promote, the emergence of markets in land rights on land occupied by Africans, whether in settler or peasant colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of both dependency theory and rational choice institutionalism, the original sin of 24 essay crisis, colonialism in Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and accumulation necessary to drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by the then small group of liberal development economists between the 1950s and 1970s. At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to favour a leading role for cotton the State in compare or contrast, the search for development in mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the essay india late colonial State for eating introducing statutory marketing boards and essay export cotton india, thereby laying the foundation of provision, what he considered to be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in Africa are rare (but see Duignan and Gann 1975).
Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the abolition of internal slave trading and slavery, the introduction of mechanised transport and essay cotton, investment in infrastructure, and 24 essay crisis, the development of export cotton, modern manufacturing in the settler economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of economic globalisation, some economic liberals have argued that the British empire pioneered the resource curse thesis auty process through its general opposition to tariff protection (1846-1931) and by other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the essay cotton india protectionism of the French empire. It is also much less true of the final 30 years of assignment, British rule in Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the essay export india creation of marketing boards. From the 24 essay crisis perspective of institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Writing in the tragic optimist tradition of Marxs writings on British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at the beginning of colonial rule and increasingly common by the end of it. For them, as for Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the pioneer of capitalism. 11 Besides optimism and cotton india, pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of its legacy, is that its importance has been over-rated.
There are different routes to this conclusion. Many historians are struck by about babies the brevity of colonial rule south of the export Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in about babies, most of cotton, tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by the weakness of the essays colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in india, the peasant economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of Africans, through their economic rationality and entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the arguments of Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). Building on the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to smoking public, raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the cotton foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the primacy of foreign agency in determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and key role in establishing the extraverted pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the situation and trends at satirical about eating babies, the beginning of colonial rule, which in most of Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the European Scramble, from 1879 to circa 1905.
At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of essay export, cultivable land in military, relation to the labour available to till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). This did not mean resource abundance as much of Africas mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. For example, many of the major discoveries (notably of oil in essay cotton, Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana) were to occur only during the period of officer, decolonisation. Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of animal manure. Sleeping sickness prevented the use of large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in india, the forest zones and 24 essay crisis, much of the savannas. Export. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for compare or contrast farm work. The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to raise labour productivity in craft production. Cotton. Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the thinness of the essay soils constrained the returns on labour (Austin 2008a).
All this helps to export, explain why the productivity of African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over resource auty, several centuries, cf. the essay underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in turn, ironically, aggravated the argumentative essay smoking scarcity of labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the cotton structure of incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by the middle of the 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in the 16th and 17th centuries. While damaged by the aggravated Dutch disease effects of the Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the first decade of the 19th century when that trade began to 24 essay crisis, be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and larger scale for internal as well as overseas markets. Given the relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of scale in production, it was rare for the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to essay cotton, persuade people to sell their labour rather than work for themselves) to be low enough for or contrast a would-be employer to afford to pay it. Hence the labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the form of slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).
14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to achieve and sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Atlantic slave trade, in that larger States would have had stronger incentives and capacities for export rejecting participation in curse thesis auty, it (Inikori 2003). This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Ethiopia was the exception that proved the rule, with its fertile central provinces and large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and modernising State that, alone in Africa, had the india economic base to resist the Scramble successfully. 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the moti (. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at assignment, a time when the industrialisation of Europe was creating or expanding markets for various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on intensive agriculture and also the essay export cotton specific qualities of particular kinds of land in various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in 24 essay crisis, land-extensive primary production.
By the essay india time of colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. From Senegal to Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and palm oil, and from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to be cheap, viz. for taxpayers in Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Thus, any growth in 24 essay crisis, government expenditure was supposed to be financed from essay export cotton higher revenues, as it was in compare or contrast essays, Ghana in the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to essay cotton india, fund the creation of essay about, what became the countrys best-known hospital and india, school, as well as a new harbour and compare or contrast, more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by the colonys increasing exports of essay cotton india, cocoa beans. In practice the French were equally committed to covering costs. In French West Africa too there was a major programme of public works in the 1920s, although, as also in Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the argumentative essay 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of reasons) entering the post-war era with a new public commitment to be seen to promote actively the export development of the 24 essay crisis economies over which they presided. Developmental language was partly redeemed by greater spending. Cotton. In principle this came partly from the metropolitan taxpayer.
However, in the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from Africa than it spent in assignment, Africa. In British West Africa the new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the export cotton boards received for the crop on provision the world market. The surpluses were kept in London, in British government bonds, as forced savings from export cotton india African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the British metropolitan economy to recover from the post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the colonial power made some difference to the lives of those subjected to European rule. Officer Essay. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to cotton india, greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (indirect rule) and the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is officer, arguable that, in economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the composition of their respective African empires. French rule, like British, relied on African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on export cotton abolishing African monarchies (as in 24 essay crisis, Dahomey, in export cotton, contrast to the British treatment of the structures and dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an abortive attempt at abolition, Ashanti). Essay Smoking. In West Africa the French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to the colonial legacy in Ghana and Cote dIvoire. Export Cotton. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at independence, when Cote dIvoire was in the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to do by the 1980s.
3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here. 4 Gross national incomes in resource, PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. Export Cotton. ) 19 The contention here that the differences between the legacies of British and French rule in officer, Africa are primarily attributable to variations in the composition of the essay cotton African empires concerned may need to be qualified in the light of compare or contrast, valuable recent research by Thomas Bossuroy and Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in five African countries and found that in the former British colonies in their sample, Ghana and Uganda, the links between origin, migration, education and occupational achievement appear much looser than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote dIvoire and Guinea3 (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 2). In explanation, they emphasise the importance of export cotton, greater investment in education in the British colonies than the French colonies in argumentative public, their sample. Export. This is a novel and important line of essay public, inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and cotton, Uganda, for reasons that are only partly and provision, indirectly connected to their respective British legacies, were the two major growth successes of structural adjustment in Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for educational, physical and occupational mobility from the export mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in resource curse, the data and essay export cotton india, which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in officer, Cote dIvoire.
Finally, the contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the era of Corvee and settler agriculture in Cote dIvoire, before the cotton india economy took off in the 1950s and 1960s. Assignment Provision. As of 1990, helped by the legacy of the Ivorian miracle, in a sample of 26 former British and essay export, French colonies in tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the former French colonies that had the higher per capita incomes in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and Africas specialisation in primary product exports. 20 The extraversion and assignment provision, monoculture of African economies is widely lamented and essay cotton india, condemned as a victory of essay public, colonial interests over African interests. The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to be set against cotton india, the long-run income gain to be expected from the babies exploitation of comparative advantage. But again, although the location of a colonial economys comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on it raised the question of what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of how the costs and benefits would be distributed.
Conflicts of ideology, and especially the balance of power between different interest groups, worked out variously across the cotton range of African colonies. The most fundamental difference was between the peasant and settler economies. Let us consider the contrasting cases of export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by the eve of the European partition of the continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in export agriculture. In West Africa in particular it was in the joint interests of the assignment population, European merchants and the colonial administrations to further this. In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to enter to grow cocoa beans. But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to be eclipsed by African ones in Cote dIvoire following the abolition of essay export india, Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of African small capitalists and peasants in the growing and local marketing of compare or contrast, export crops paid off in what became Ghana and Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. The efforts of export, W. Curse. H. Lever, the soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the necessary coercive support, to establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to essay cotton india, 1925, but they were always rebuffed in 24 essay crisis, favour of continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.
Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the requirements of efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). Essay Export Cotton India. The positive contribution of the administrations was to reinforce and permit the exploitation of these economies comparative advantage in export agriculture. They did this partly by investment in transport infrastructure, investment to which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in Ghana (for example) it upheld the indigenous customary right of farmers to ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of any later litigation about the ownership of the land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to satirical about eating, create, in the case of Ghana, what became for nearly 70 years the worlds largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of labour be reduced far below what the physical labour-land ratio implied.
C. H. Feinsteins quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in the labour market, most of South Africas mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a free market comparative advantage in mining, it was only after several decades of using extra-market means to essay export, repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to stop Africans from working on European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the economic legacies of European rule for assignment provision poverty in settler and peasant economies is complicated by the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is clear that the distribution of wealth and export, income was, and has remained, much more unequal in the settler economies than in the peasant ones. Preliminary findings by Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and Paul Mosley (2008) support the proposition that possession of land put a floor under real wages in the peasant colonies, enabling labourers migrating into export-crop growing areas to military, share in the gains from essay india exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and Asian middlemen and African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).
Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the 1920s and 1930s in the peasant colonies of Ghana and Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. In contrast, it was only in the 1970s that the real wages of black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the officer essay sample taken by Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley it was only in the pure settler economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in the peasant colonies of cotton, Ghana or Uganda nor even in the intermediate case of public, Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over periods of longer than 15 years within the 20th century. This pattern in real wages, together with the long-term expansion of African export agriculture which underpinned the growth of real wages in essay cotton india, the peasant colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of falling infant mortality in Ghana and Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of both known mineral deposits and the kinds of military officer, land suitable for profitable export agriculture. Cotton. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and peasant production.
They had to rely on seasonal exports of 24 essay crisis, male wage labourers, and on growing the less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the timing of whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by cotton Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the colonial period in Ghana and even in the semi-settler economy of Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is extended to poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to compare or contrast, have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. It was particularly in (selected areas of) the less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali and the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in their own output and productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in relation to the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).
25 Poor as was the record of settler colonialism for the living standards of the indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on essay export a large scale, for settlers or for companies, that the earlier and larger beginnings were made in officer essay, modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in cotton, Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and generally having a higher proportion of labour to capital at any given level of output. A region in which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to follow either route in the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was stabilised from the 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by compare or contrast essays the time most of the export cotton rest of Africa achieved independence. The artificially low cost of black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and assignment provision, cement manufacture) did not suffice. Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the essay export india revenue used by officer essay governments to invest in manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. Cotton India. The large European populations were a source of both educated workers and curse auty, capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at export, the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and Jordan 2000). Assignment. Moving up the value chain became an ambition of essay, substantial proportions of satirical essay babies, white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in Southern Rhodesia from 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the Pact government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in electricity and essay cotton, steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).
Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in response to essays, the challenge of the new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Besides these settler colonies, there was a third case of precocious growth of modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. This was absolutely not a case of settler independence or autonomy. As in southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for essay export india import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and part of the market.5 South Africa remained the flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the scope for further expansion was increasingly restricted by the high price of skilled labour in an economy where only a minority of the population had access to secondary education and by assignment provision the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the low level of black wages. If the radical school was right about the india contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the system was now a brake, not a booster, on the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. This im (. Assignment Provision. ) 28 Back in 1960 modern manufacturing in South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. In the cotton india rest of 24 essay crisis, Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. There were only two countries in which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.
Southern Rhodesia (16%) and the Belgian Congo (14%). Essay India. Next, on 9.5%, the semi-settler economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). The latter was a peasant colony but, as the administrative and commercial centre of French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the curse thesis supply of people with managerial experience, technical expertise and access to capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to establish local factories to protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the essay export relative scarcity of labour and the small markets, together with the military officer essay comparative advantage in essay cotton, land-extensive primary production, it is not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the colonial period. Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for military manufactured goods were supplied largely by monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to industrialisation in 1960, the more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of 1950 Dakars electricity was the essay export cotton most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).
30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. In the long term the most fundamental change of the colonial period was probably the start of essay public, sustained population growth, which in aggregate can be dated from the end of the 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the suppression of slave raiding, the post-1918 peace within Africa and export cotton, public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is argumentative essay smoking public, difficult to determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is estimated to have doubled to about 200 million between 1900 and 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). So the demographic conditions for cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in energy supply and export, labour quality. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to facilitate the acquisition of new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from low or non-existent levels and in essay smoking, many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and 1960.
This was especially helped by essay export African politicians gaining control of domestic budgets during the 24 essay crisis transition to independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from 971,000 to 2,913,000 and secondary enrolment was raised from export india 28,000 to 135,000 (Sender and argumentative smoking public, Smith 1986, 62). In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the Central African Federation (within which most of the essay electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to figures for the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the argumentative smoking popularity of industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to embark on essay export cotton india labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Those that sought to industrialise opted for capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of curse thesis auty, economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Markets and African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. Export Cotton India. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in the choice of products and in the means and organisation of production in various contexts before, during and since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the other major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).
The colonial impact on African entrepreneurship and on the markets in which they operated again turned to a large extent on whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between settler and plantation colonies, on one hand, and essay, peasant (and rural capitalist) colonies, on the other, was far from purely exogenous to African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to tip the balance of the argument among colonial policy-makers in favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to leave agricultural production in African hands. As we saw in chapter 6, British West Africa was the major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and export cotton, Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to grow additional grain to supply internal markets.
But the governments reacted by trying to drive Africans out argumentative essay public of the essay export cotton india produce market and into assignment, the labour market by reserving land for essay cotton india Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the time that African squatters could work for themselves rather than for satirical eating their European landlords (Palmer and essay export cotton, Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). African production for the market proved resilient, however, and 24 essay crisis, the governments eventually accepted this and shifted to imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. Export Cotton India. In Kenya it was only in the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the government lifted restrictions on African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Thus, to the extent that African production for essay the market in the late 19th century was greater in what became the essay cotton peasant agricultural-export economies than in compare, what became the settler economies, that contrast was reinforced by government actions in the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the maintenance of African ownership of land necessarily entailed support for African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in Ghana protected the property of agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving the ownership of essay, a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of legal disputes about the ownership of the about eating land on which they stood.
But in settler and peasant colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and export india, usually hostile to the emergence of land markets in areas controlled by Africans. Assignment Provision. This policy eventually changed in export, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of land sales and individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). In West Africa, without the settler pressure on African access to land, and given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the political case nor the economic case for compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to be able to hire labour. About. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.
But in West Africa, the region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the essay replacement of the slave market by resource curse a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the continued use of forced labour by colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the International Labour Office in Geneva. The embarrassment of this contributed to essay export cotton india, further reluctant and gradual reform. Argumentative Essay Public. By the end of the essay india Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. Indeed, Cooper went on to show that in London and satirical about babies, Paris the long-run fiscal implications of cotton, having to provision, give workers in Africa the same rights as workers in Europe contributed to the decisions to export cotton, withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the end of slavery and the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of continued large-scale participation in international trade. As early as 1907 the chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to Ghana following bad publicity about slave-grown cocoa in the Portuguese colony of Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). 24 Essay Crisis. By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to the modernisation of labour institutions in Africa.
35 Colonial rule facilitated the import of capital into this capital-scarce continent. Essay Export. But only in mining, and to some extent in settler and plantation agriculture, did this happen on satirical babies a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. India. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the only comprehensive study for the colonial period. According to Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of which 42.8% was in South Africa. Assignment Provision. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only essay cotton india GBP 3.3 in 24 essay crisis, the French colonies and GBP 4.8 in British West Africa.
Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and essay cotton india, almost 46% of the non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Governments, and to some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the export-import trade. In Nigeria and Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). In institutional terms the public colonial period saw the eventual abolition of human pawning, with its replacement by export india promissory notes and, in those areas of West Africa where it was possible, by loans on the security of cocoa farms. It also saw the introduction of modern banking, but the military banks were much more willing to accept Africans savings than to offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and the export-import trade, banking in export india, colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and the increasing presence of European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the military officer chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). Organised resistance to European cartels mostly emerged later and export cotton india, was largely confined to particular colonies, given the tradition of cocoa hold-ups with which African farmers and 24 essay crisis, brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in Ghana and the indigenous banking movement in Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). Until the advent of independence it remained the essay india case in the peasant colonies that the markets dominated by Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the markets populated by Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the settler colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in the export-import as well as in 24 essay crisis, the domestic exchange sectors.
Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the overall expansion of the economies, especially in West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the old African sector became the informal sector, the old European sector the formal one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the essay cotton india familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of 24 essay crisis, cheap credit from the formal sector for informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the more economically successful peasant colonies saw the continuation of a tradition of entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from artisanship and trade, and eastern and essay export cotton india, southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through ( ) Western education and modern sector employment. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on smoking public this, for example in the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in certain sectors (Austin 1996b).
38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in economic development, at least in enforcing the india rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the historic constraint on political centralisation in Africa, namely the difficulty of raising revenue. Beyond this we need to consider the size of the State and the nature of authority and legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the State to the Stateless and replacing patrimonial authority by bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Although European empires introduced to officer essay, Africa the possibility of raising loan finance (at least in essay export cotton india, an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in essays, their resort to cotton india, money markets by the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and military, balance its budget. The introduction in each colony of a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the autonomy to export cotton, print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).
The French colonies used the assignment provision French franc. Essay Cotton India. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the rules ensured that it was always convertible at par with the provision metropolitan pound. It was only at independence that the new African governments had the essay cotton option of creating national currencies, an option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon 24 essay crisis taxes on trade and people, rather than on land or agriculture. It was the above-mentioned discovery, during the Second World War, that the export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the major fiscal innovation of colonial rule. Essay Cotton India. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for example, transform educational opportunities for assignment provision their populations. The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only beginning to be understood. By the 1980s the limits of the device had become clear, as ordinary traders and producers could evade it by export india trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to assignment provision, one of the more notorious legacies of the colonial partition of Africa: the imposition of boundaries dividing people of shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to be of questionable economic viability and the creation of some States so large as to india, be potentially ungovernable.
There is much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in 24 essay crisis, their origin and that at least some of them have subsequently acquired social reality and even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Again, while the colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in place of which they were imposed; and some of them formed parts of larger regional units (notably French West Africa). Essay India. While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in most African countries for political competition over resources. 42 From the late 1970s onwards a generation of historians and anthropologists tended to argue that ethnicity in Africa, far from being primordial, was created, or at least greatly entrenched, by essay eating babies colonial strategies of divide and essay india, rule (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). Recent historiography has shown that the emphasis on essay babies the capacity of colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and india, chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and essays, peoples to influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). By no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and reified by the interaction of colonial and African elites (Prunier 1995).
Whatever the precise division of responsibility in this interaction, there is general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and conflict since colonial rule than before it. This matters for economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by public opinion and by some economists (notably Easterly and Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for export cotton india rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and Jeanneney 2000), and it is arguable that the salience of ethnicity in African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the difficulties of enlarging the economic cake in African conditions and of the 24 essay crisis continued weakness of essay export cotton, State capacity. 43 Amidst the varying and/or poor growth records of post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. that while Botswana did not have the beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the full settler colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and as a result escaped the worst of the extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-settler colonialism. In my view two considerations point to a different conclusion. Satirical Eating Babies. First, without the discovery of diamonds, it is hard to cotton, see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. Indeed, during the first three decades of auty, indendence the non-diamond mining sector of Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).
Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in Bechuanaland. By the criterion of the number of Africans per administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to accept early decolonisation. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in essay cotton, colonial economies (Marseille 2005). If so, it is ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on the spot expressed concern about their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the latter case is that a few years later the British governments attitude to the Biafran secession was influenced by the interests of British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of colonial legacies in or contrast, relation to the longer-term dynamics of essay export cotton, economic development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by compare simultaneous shortages of labour and essay, capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in West Africa, and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. Colonial governments and European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in southern Africa) in institutions designed to develop African economies as primary-product exporters. Satirical Essay Babies. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to operate, i.e. the continued existence of slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to promote migrant labour flows in settler economies. But there were changes and export, variations.
While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between peasant and settler colonies. 46 In British West Africa in particular there was a genuine coincidence of interest between African farmers, European merchants and colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africas comparative advantage in land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at least enabled many of the slave-owners to become employers instead. In these cases the British government (and the curse French in Cote dIvoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. Export India. It was in those peasant colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in 24 essay crisis, purchasing power and had the most improvement in essay export cotton india, physical welfare.
In the same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move up the value chain. Thus, the smoking public first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of essay india, educated (and cheap) labour and sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in education and other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to assignment provision, the prospect of a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 Settler colonies had a worse record for essay export cotton india poverty reduction, especially considering the mineral resources of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of compare or contrast essays, white-ruled economies that, especially in South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for a partly politically-impelled policy of import-substituting industrialisation to achieve some success. Thus, the rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into export, structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to the fall of apartheid. 48 As promoters of market institutions, the colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and satirical about babies, a lot more land sales, and a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by 1960 than there had been in 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to colonial policy, i.e. the sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the essay factor ratios and, on resource curse thesis auty the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.
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Boone, Catherine. Export India. 1992. Merchant capital and provision, the roots of State power in Senegal, 1930-1985 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bossuroy, Thomas, and Denis Cogneau. 2009. Social mobility and colonial legacy in five African countries. Unpublished working paper, Paris: Paris School of Economics and cotton, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement. Bowden, Sue, Blessing Chiripanhura, and Paul Mosley, 2008. Measuring and explaining poverty in six African countries: A long-period approach. Journal of assignment provision, International Development 20: 1049-79. Brett, E. A. 1973.
Colonialism and underdevelopment in East Africa: The politics of economic change, 1919-1939 . London: Heinemann. Cooper, Frederick. 1996. Decolonisation and African society: The labour question in French and British Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cowen, M. P., and export cotton, R. W. Shenton. 1991. Bankers, peasants and land in public, British West Africa, 1905-37. Journal of Peasant Studies 19, no. 1: 26-58. Duignan, Peter, and L. H. Gann.
1975. Export Cotton. Economic achievements of the colonisers: An assessment. In Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 , vol. 4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. L. H. Military Officer. Gann and Peter Duignan, 673-96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Easterly, William, and Ross Levine.
1997. Essay Cotton India. Africas growth tragedy: Policies and argumentative essay public, ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112, 1203-50. Fall, Babacar. 1993. Le travail force en Afrique occidentale francaise, 1900-1945 . Paris: Karthala. Feinstein, C. H. 2005.
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4: 467-84. Heap, Simon. Export Cotton. 1990. The development of 24 essay crisis, motor transport in essay export india, the Gold Coast, 1900-39. Journal of Transport History 11 no. 2: 19-37. Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and power in Africa: Comparative lessons in authority and control . Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s Gold Coast did not correspond to what is now Ghana. However, Southern Rhodesia is used because colonial Zimbabwe is essay cotton, a contradiction in terms. Belgian Congo is used because of its clarity as there is satirical essay about eating, more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the cotton india motives for colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in Europe and the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the rival European powers finally scrambled for Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the smoking public costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for (in particular) those lagging within Europe to seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by extending it into essay export cotton, annexation (Britain). 3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here.
4 Gross national incomes in provision, PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in essay cotton india, the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the or contrast essays black labour force was stabilised from the essay export cotton 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Their purchasing power provided part of the market for Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the argumentative public likely underestimation of the informal sector. This implies an even smaller share for modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the formal sector. 7 As of essay export, 1950 Dakars electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).
3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on satirical eating 05 October 2017. URL : http://poldev.revues.org/78 ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and comparative economic history, focusing on essay export india long-term economic development, at the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.
Published by the Graduate Institute | Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.
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Essay on India s Foreign Trade - Economics Discussion
ALSB 3.0: Resume action behavior like the Skip action. I have a Proxy Service that receive a array. India? Then I do a For Each action to go through the array and call a Service callout for each element of the array. Public? I also want to continue the processing of the export india array if a Service callout return a failed message. Reading the documentation, I think this was the solution of my scenario: Resume message flow after an error is essay public, handled by an error handler. This action has no parameters and can only be used in error handlers. But the Resume action in cotton the Error Handler is going to the next Stage, not to the next action in the For Each, just like the Skip action. There something I#039;m missing? When you call a service route, the response will be in the variable $body.
What I suspect you want to happen is you want to map the assignment provision response body of the service route to the response of essay export cotton india your service. This can be confusing, so what I tend to do is have a step with a new assign. I have an XQuery that maps the public response of the route sevice to the service response. Export India? I assign this to argumentative essay, a variable. I then do a replace. I find it confusing doing a replace when both the variables are called body. These steps should be performed on the response pipeline. Hope this makes sense. hey their, i have installed windows 7 on export cotton india, my x200. afore i have cleaned up all partiton incl. the service partition. now my question: how can i create a service partiton with the same behaviors like the resource original one (access the partition via the thinkvantage button and so on). i hope, someone can help me. You need a set of recovery disks to re-create the partition.
If you haven#039;t burned them when you first got the machine, they can be purchased directly from Lenovo or other online sources. Hope this helps. In daily use: R60F, R500F, T61, T410. Collecting dust: T60. Enjoying retirement: A31p, T42p, Non-ThinkPads: Panasonic CF-31 CF-52, HP 8760W. Starting Thursday, 08/14/2014 I#039;ll be away from the forums until further notice.
Please do NOT send private messages since I won#039;t be able to cotton, read them. Thank you. I#039;m trying to grant the JDBC datasource suspend/resume action to essay, the #039;Operator#039; role. I understand this is an admin task and essay export india the #039;Operator#039; role cannot do this. Essay Eating? I#039;ve tried to edit weblogic.management.runtime - JDBCDataSourceRuntime - suspend/resume policy Mbean via the essay export JMX editor and added the Opertor role in a new policy, but I haven#039;t been successful.
Is it possible to provide a user with a script (which can run as an Admin user), without providing the compare or contrast essays admin credentials to an operator user, so that he can resume a suspended data source? theoretically you could remove the domain admins from the local administrator group. BUT this you should first test in cotton india a lab to see what happens after removal on 24 essay crisis, the SCOM server. Microsoft MVP - Directory Services. My Blog: http://blogs.msmvps.com/MWeber. Disclaimer: This posting is provided AS IS with no warranties or guarantees and confers no rights.
Please make Photoshop#039;s step backward command maintain current layer selection (like the undo command#039;s behavior). So that when using the step backward to undo something it doesn#039;t unnecessarily select a different layer . Export? The current step backward layer change issue is inconvenient because it causes unnexpected layer selection change. Essay? Has this happened yet ( an upgrade that fixes the step back layer switch problem ) in any updates? Arghhh very annoying. I#039;m trying to grant the essay JDBC datasource suspend/resume action to 24 essay crisis, the #039;Operator#039; role. I understand this is an export cotton admin task and the #039;Operator#039; role cannot do this. 24 Essay Crisis? I#039;ve tried to edit weblogic.management.runtime - JDBCDataSourceRuntime - suspend/resume policy Mbean via the JMX editor and export india added the Opertor role in satirical about eating a new policy, but I haven#039;t been successful. Is it possible to provide a user with a script (which can run as an Admin user), without providing the admin credentials to an operator user, so that he can resume a suspended data source?
Hi I am trying to test my conncetion pool using WLST testPool().. Here are the steps i followed. wls:/Mydomain/domainRuntime/ServerRuntimes/ms1/JDBCServiceRuntime/ms1/JDBCDataSourceRuntimeMBeans/testdatasrc x = cmo.testPool() Getting value of cotton india x =None (i did test from essay, admin console test success) If i uncheck TestConncetionsOnReserve and apply above wlst command getting same error what i am getting in admin console. Warning! Connectivity to backend database not verified. This is essay export cotton, either because required connection pool attribute TestConnectionsOnReserve has not been enabled, or an invalid value has been specified for attribute TestTableName. Please check the server log for more details..
Only case when test is compare or contrast essays, succesful i am getting *None* I am using iPhone 4. I would like to essay export cotton india, get an app which plays music from the resume point just like what we are having for 24 essay crisis, videos. Essay Export? Thank you very much in advance. 24 Essay Crisis? Thanks for all of your responses. I#039;ve been researching and trying different things and have yet to india, come up with a viable solution. I prefer to go the free route when I purchase my media streaming software, however, I don#039;t mind paying to provision, have something once I feel it works.
I would also like to mention, I want a media server which streams media(music/video) to all of essay export cotton my devices(xbox360, Wii, PS3, Iphone). 24 Essay Crisis? Here is my current configuration: Imac 20( 2 GH intel core 2 duo, 4 gb memory, running ps3 Media Server) Apple Extreme Router. Essay Export Cotton India? Sony Vaio Laptop(winamp remote) My media has been produced by using my Imac with handbrake software(video) and Itunes for music. I have tried PS3 media server and it seems to work wirelessly with my xbox360 just fine, however, the PS3, Wii and or contrast Iphone are a different matter. I get errors on ps3(this video content cannot be played (8002288d8). The Wii and iphone wont recognize PS3 Media Server. My windows PC(Sony Vaio-Windows 7) has software I#039;ve downloaded called WINAMP Remote which seems to do all I want except, my xbox, Wii, PS3 all work but the video quality stinks(digitized flickering, poor quality overall).
The iphone app(Orb-Free) video has a great picture but stutters frequently and stops. Cotton India? Audio over 3g stutters(meaning I have to essays, hit play very frequently cause it stops) also. All this being said, I still am searching for essay cotton, a media server which can stream seemlessly to any of argumentative essay smoking my devices. Any input would be greatly appreciated. Export Cotton? We are seeing different behavior from the compare essays PRE function based on whether the cotton india type is Before Modified Record Saved or When Modified Record Saved. Should the 24 essay crisis PRE function work the same for both as long as there is not a Wait action in the WMRS workflow? Explaination: The Tier field changes AND now equals Tier 2, AND Application is equal to #039;FSCM#039; The same expression fires only cotton india, as designed in BRMS, but in WMRS it fires every time a SR is in Tier 2 and IndexedPick4 = #039;FSCM#039;, regardless of whether a change was made to 24 essay crisis, the Tier field. Try changing your syntax around to export, something like -: +i.e.
Previous value of Tier is not equal to 2 - BA and current value of Tier equals 2 - BA and IndexedPick4 equals FSCM. Replace with the appropriate syntax+ I had purchased two Iphone 4's without contract and enjoyed not having the bill and extra fees every month. Through the compare or contrast prepaid carrier, my son and I didn't even know we could use a laptop or anything with our phones. Luck would have it, the only thing I had left through Verizon was my USB device that I put on my computer and after 3 years, it broke. I went to Verizon to essay export cotton india, purchase a new one, and pay cash for it to not be under contract, the first salesman assured me it was compatible like the other but after four days I had to smoking, take it back for lack of connection. 79.00 was what I paid, when returned, of course I got stuck paying the restocking fee of export 35.00 and a new sales person named Cofe (at Jonesboro location) comes to assist me.
He talked me into the wifi jetback for 20 or so with the NEW TWO YEAR CONTRACT as he understood I would be needing for portable devices. Had to pay full price for 24 essay crisis, it and essay export wait for my 50 bucks on the rebate card. He spots my son scoping out the 4S, he said he could make the deal worth my while if we wanted to get newer phones. never telling me how much the military essay cost. Against my better judgement, we got new phones, promised new free Lifeproof cases, etc. Essay Cotton? I told him my funds were tight and I only wanted a plan of about 160 or 180 total for all. 24 Essay Crisis? Paid the essay export india small amount he said was due, then get a bill for 443 a couple days later. We kept going over the data on our phones, not knowing that he in about eating babies fact set us up to pay 220 a month for 10 gb data, use of jetpack and essay export cotton two smart phones. Paying over for what we had on the mifi we didn't know exitsted caused us to 24 essay crisis, have 30 too much on device and usually 30 overcharge data. Fianlly look at bill wondering why I couldn't get it paid up and 6 calls to cotton, customer service, digging through receipts, 10 hours of phone bill hunting, and satirical essay numerous hours on the phone brought to my attention that he had set me up on almost the most expensive plan, charged us 99 each for cotton india, cases, 99 for two new contracts and swiped a gift card for 24 essay crisis, 400 to my account without any knowledge.
Also, this was a new plan since not under contract, and HE TOOK OUR PHONES that I could've sold for a small chunk and essay cotton there is not a trace of where they went? He made himself a sale that day!! They have removed some of the charges since I took back the FREE cases, etc., but this has been a horrible experience. I begged the people to please let me out of assignment provision my contract because now I am unemployed and sure cant afford this and I feel like he did some underhanded tactics selling and not starting the plan off right. He didn't have to essay cotton, sell me the jetpack, we can run laptop of phones, and I guess if I were only gonna get 99 bucks for a three month old phone, I wouldve taken it elsewhere. It's amazing that of all documents scanned in My Verizon, it does not really show a trade in, which he didn't explain anyway, nor does it show what or the essay actual value. I get horrible service in my area and it drags on the web.not taking long to cotton, use the curse thesis auty data. In the last week, my phone was cut off so I had to go to the prepaid place and port over.
Paid enough to essay india, keep my son's phone and satirical essay about babies laptop and got told if I dont have remaining balance in a few days, they won't port my number back to essay cotton india, Verizon, service interrupt on all and then the process server will get to 24 essay crisis, bang on my door. I have never been so disgusted with service and some of the people in that building by export their actions. Argumentative? One tried but of course he took up for essay cotton india, his dude Cofe. I don't know what to military officer, do now, try to pay it or tell them take the phones and export cotton india FIND MY OLD ONES then go back prepay. Read this customer service specialist, because I am pretty sure DECEIT, RUNNING GIFT CARDS, AND WRONGFULLY SETTING UP NEW CONTRACT is 24 essay crisis, grounds for an official claim. How did y'all like that bid long confusing mess of a story? :/ Uhhhh, hmmmmm, WHAT. Sorry, I have no idea what you are ranting about. I think I would be more upset for essay cotton india, running over my phone. I#039;ve updated to iOS 7 and essay iTunes 11.1 and cotton found that things seem drastically different. Argumentative Smoking? How i used to do podcasts: Subscribe to a podcast in iTunes on my Mac. Sync to iPhone using a cable.
What used to happen: Podcasts that were selected to export cotton, sync did if there were unplayed episodes. The Music player would list only those podcasts where there were unplayed episodes. Now things have changed. I immediately was told that none of my podcasts were playable without the Podcast app. I downloaded it and essay babies installed it. What is export cotton, happening now: Still subscribing to a podcast in iTunes on my Mac. Sync to iPhone using a cable. Podcasts showing unplayed in iTunes on my Mac = 46.
Podcasts showing unplayed in the Podcast app = 57 - the difference appears to be that the podcast app is showing non-downloaded podcasts. Podcast app showing all podcasts whether or not there are any to play. The list includes podcasts that are not supposed to sync to my phone. The Podcast listing appears to be in a random order (actual list shown)- Apple Keynotes (no episodes) This week in Photo (8 episodes) Jake and Amir (no episodes) Podcast Beyond (no episodes) Accidental Tech Podcast (no episodes) Vector (1 episode) Podcasts with no new episodes now show a new episode though it looks like the episode is not downloaded. I#039;m not sure why what is being shown in 24 essay crisis iTunes is not being shown in the Podcast app. Is there anyway to get the old behavior using the Podcast app? Additional information.
Can this be right? I spoke to Apple support who said that the essay india settings for provision, podcast syncing in iTunes are no longer being used since Apple moved to their Podcast app. This may explain why I see all 45 podcasts on my iphone when I only have 15 of them set to export india, sync. She also said that I would need to manually sync listened/unlistened podcasts between my Mac and provision my mobile devices since podcasts were no longer being synced from iTunes. Cotton India? Can anyone verify? We run into different behavior of the Thread Context ClassLoader on OC4J 10.1.3.1.0 (which is OK) and OC4J 10.1.3.2.0 (here we have problems). It appeared in the Threads directly and assignment indirectly (e.g. Cotton? through Timer) created by 24 essay crisis our application. Threads, created by OC4j (e.g. the cotton Thread, where our start-up servlet are running) are OK.
Thread Context ClassLoader (could be received from Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader()) on OC4J 10.1.3.1.0 in all threads is the same ClassLoader instance as the current ClassLoader (could be received from getClass().getClassLoader()). Curse? Actually the same is true for essay export, JBoss, WebLogic and WebSphere. Thread Context ClassLoader on OC4J 10.1.3.2.0 is NOT the same ClassLoader instance as the current ClassLoader, it is even the instance of the essay smoking different Class. This ClassLoader does not see classes, available at application level, which causes multiple problems. Is it possible to configure OC4J 10.1.3.2.0 to behave similar to OC4J 10.1.3.1.0? We tried to use “userThreads”, but it did not help. To investigate this problem we created a simple Web Application, which has Start-up Servlet, creates one thread and export cotton india one Timer Task. 24 Essay Crisis? From each point it is checking if Thread Context ClassLoader is the same ClassLoader instance as the current ClassLoader and export printing Class Loaders if they are different. In addition it checks if correct parser accessed (should be xerces, which is in the Web App classpath and for which we added a shared library). Satirical About Eating Babies? Below you could see what we received on OC4J 10.1.3.1.0 (which is OK) and OC4J 10.1.3.2.0: E:OracleAS_1j2eehomejava -Xms128m -Xmx1024m -jar oc4j.jar -userThreads. 07/04/30 10:33:00 Oracle Containers for J2EE 10g (10.1.3.1.0) initialized.
07/04/30 10:39:31 ------In StartupServlet Init----- 07/04/30 10:39:31 +++++++ Executing Code in the StrtServlet. ++++++++ 07/04/30 10:39:31 +++++++ (this Thread created by App Server) +++++++++ 07/04/30 10:39:31 ClassLoaders: fromClass = getClass().getClassLoader() = TestL. Cotton? 07/04/30 10:39:31 fromThread =Thread.currentThread().getContextCla. ssLoader() = TestLoaders.web.TestLoaders:0.0.0*******class oracle.classloader. 07/04/30 10:39:31 ******* THE SAME CLASSLOADER USED IN BOTH PLACES. ******* 07/04/30 10:39:31 DocumentBuilderFactory = org.apache.xerces.jaxp.DocumentBuild. Assignment? 07/04/30 10:39:31 C O R R E C T . 07/04/30 10:39:31 -CWD- =E:OracleAS_1j2eehome; uer directory = E:OracleAS_1 07/04/30 10:39:31 Constructing the Timer Task. Export? 07/04/30 10:39:31 Starting some Timer.
07/04/30 10:39:31 Some Timer is started . 07/04/30 10:39:31 ------All actions done Successfully-------- 07/04/30 10:39:41 +++++++ Executing Code in the new Thread. ++++++++ 07/04/30 10:39:41 ClassLoaders: fromClass = getClass().getClassLoader() = TestL. 07/04/30 10:39:41 fromThread =Thread.currentThread().getContextCla. ssLoader() = TestLoaders.web.TestLoaders:0.0.0*******class oracle.classloader. 07/04/30 10:39:41 ******* THE SAME CLASSLOADER USED IN BOTH PLACES. ******* 07/04/30 10:39:41 DocumentBuilderFactory = org.apache.xerces.jaxp.DocumentBuild. 07/04/30 10:39:41 C O R R E C T . Argumentative? 07/04/30 10:40:31 +++++++ Executing the export Session Timer Task. ++++++++ 07/04/30 10:40:31 ClassLoaders: fromClass = getClass().getClassLoader() = TestL.
07/04/30 10:40:31 fromThread =Thread.currentThread().getContextCla. ssLoader() = TestLoaders.web.TestLoaders:0.0.0*******class oracle.classloader. 07/04/30 10:40:31 ******* THE SAME CLASSLOADER USED IN BOTH PLACES. ******* 07/04/30 10:40:31 DocumentBuilderFactory = org.apache.xerces.jaxp.DocumentBuild. 07/04/30 10:40:31 C O R R E C T . Essay Eating Babies? 07/04/30 10:44:01 Shutting down OC4J. C:oc4jj2eehomejava -Xms128m -Xmx1024m -classpath .;oc4j.jar;C:oc4jj2eehom. eproperties -Xdebug -Xnoagent -Djava.compiler=NONE -Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socke. t,address=3999,server=y,suspend=n -jar oc4j.jar -userThreads. 07/05/01 21:14:33 ------In StartupServlet Init----- 07/05/01 21:14:33 +++++++ Executing Code in the StrtServlet. ++++++++ 07/05/01 21:14:33 +++++++ (this Thread created by App Server) +++++++++ 07/05/01 21:14:33 ClassLoaders: fromClass = getClass().getClassLoader() = TestL.
07/05/01 21:14:33 fromThread =Thread.currentThread().getContextCla. Essay Cotton? ssLoader() = TestLoaders.web.TestLoaders:0.0.0*******class oracle.classloader. Essay? 07/05/01 21:14:33 ******* THE SAME CLASSLOADER USED IN BOTH PLACES. Essay Cotton? ******* 07/05/01 21:14:33 DocumentBuilderFactory = org.apache.xerces.jaxp.DocumentBuild. 07/05/01 21:14:33 C O R R E C T . 07/05/01 21:14:33 -CWD- =C:oc4jj2eehome; uer directory = C:oc4jj2eehome. 07/05/01 21:14:33 Constructing the Timer Task. Essay Public? 07/05/01 21:14:33 Starting some Timer. 07/05/01 21:14:33 Some Timer is started . 07/05/01 21:14:33 ------All actions done Successfully-------- 07/05/01 21:14:33 Oracle Containers for J2EE 10g (10.1.3.2.0) initialized.
07/05/01 21:14:43 +++++++ Executing Code in the new Thread. ++++++++ 07/05/01 21:14:43 ClassLoaders: fromClass = getClass().getClassLoader() = TestL. Essay Cotton India? 07/05/01 21:14:43 fromThread =Thread.currentThread().getContextCla. ssLoader() = [ThreadContextLoader, current context: TestLoaders.web.TestLoaders. 07/05/01 21:14:43 Chain of ClassLoaders from Class. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- TestLoaders.root:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.Polic. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- default.root:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyCla. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- system.root:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClas. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- oc4j:10.1.3 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoade. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- api:1.4.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoader. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- jre.extension:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyCl. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- jre.bootstrap:1.4.2_08 --- class oracle.classloader.Polic.
07/05/01 21:14:43 --- null --- 07/05/01 21:14:43 ********** End of Chain of assignment ClassLoaders ************** 07/05/01 21:14:43 Chain of ClassLoaders from Thread. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- oc4j:10.1.3 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoade. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- api:1.4.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoader. Export Cotton? 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- jre.extension:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyCl. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- jre.bootstrap:1.4.2_08 --- class oracle.classloader.Polic. 07/05/01 21:14:43 --- null --- 07/05/01 21:14:43 ********** End of assignment provision Chain of ClassLoaders ************** 07/05/01 21:14:43 DocumentBuilderFactory = oracle.xml.jaxp.JXDocumentBuilderFac. 07/05/01 21:14:43 WRONG . Should be org.apache.xerces.jaxp.DocumentBuilderFact. 07/05/01 21:15:33 +++++++ Executing the Session Timer Task. ++++++++ 07/05/01 21:15:33 ClassLoaders: fromClass = getClass().getClassLoader() = TestL.
07/05/01 21:15:33 fromThread =Thread.currentThread().getContextCla. ssLoader() = [ThreadContextLoader, current context: TestLoaders.web.TestLoaders. 07/05/01 21:15:33 Chain of ClassLoaders from Class. Export Cotton? 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- TestLoaders.root:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.Polic. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- default.root:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyCla. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- system.root:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClas. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- oc4j:10.1.3 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoade.
07/05/01 21:15:33 --- api:1.4.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoader. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- jre.extension:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyCl. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- jre.bootstrap:1.4.2_08 --- class oracle.classloader.Polic. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- null --- 07/05/01 21:15:33 ********** End of military essay Chain of ClassLoaders ********** 07/05/01 21:15:33 Chain of ClassLoaders from Thread. Essay Export? 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- oc4j:10.1.3 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoade.
07/05/01 21:15:33 --- api:1.4.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyClassLoader. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- jre.extension:0.0.0 --- class oracle.classloader.PolicyCl. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- jre.bootstrap:1.4.2_08 --- class oracle.classloader.Polic. 07/05/01 21:15:33 --- null --- 07/05/01 21:15:33 ********** End of assignment provision Chain of ClassLoaders ********** 07/05/01 21:15:33 DocumentBuilderFactory = oracle.xml.jaxp.JXDocumentBuilderFac. 07/05/01 21:15:33 WRONG . Should be org.apache.xerces.jaxp.DocumentBuilderFact. Essay Cotton India? Any help will be greatly appreciated. Resource Curse Thesis? Sorry for confusion, version of cotton india OC4J does not really meter, but jdk does. It happened that in smoking public the case where everything OK (OC4J 10.1.3.1.0) I accidentally used jdk 1.5. Now I tried both (OC4J 10.1.3.1.0 and cotton OC4J 10.1.3.2.0) with j2sdk1.4.2_14 (besides I tried j2sdk1.4.2_09 and military essay _08) and export cotton j2sdk1.5.0_06. Argumentative Smoking? With JDK 1.5 everything is OK and with JDK 1.4 we have a problem, described in essay cotton india the previous posting. I believe now I should reformulate my initial question: Is it possible to configure OC4J 10.1.3 running under j2sdk1.4.2_14 to force Thread Context ClassLoader to behave similar to OC4J 10.1.3 under j2sdk1.5.0_06?
If yes, how we could do it? I'm thinking about satirical eating babies upgrading my P-35 MS-7345. I really like the MSI brand. Essay Export? I'm going on 5 years, but because of curse thesis auty possible GPU issues (like screen ghosting, Non-responding, and timer continues to cotton india, spin, even when I make a very simple video action, like adding a transition, everything freezes and hangs, to the point of rebooting. Essay? Some people have asked if i updraded Win7 drivers for the MSI boardw hich i'm sure i did. Some asked me to check the board for bad or damaged caps, so I checked both the GPU, and essay export cotton india Mobo, but could not see anything. Then someone told me it could be the Power supply. really? In looking at Video cards, Like the PNY Quadro 600 ($150.00) requires a PCi-E 2.0x16, which I have now, but the higher end cards like the PNY Quadro 2000, ($400.00) and others, reqiuire a PCI-E 3.0x16. Don't know if i should wait to compare essays, get a new mobo, before I buy a new card, becuz it's going to be a while. Essay Export India? I don't want to buy the Q600 DDR3 now, to be obsolete and assignment a non-performer compared to the Q2000 DDR5, which would be more faster, then I wonder, i7, more DDR3 memory, and a new Mobo, then use a slower DDR3?
Ummmmmm. To be honest, I like MSI, I bought my new MSI Platinum five years ago, and love it! I'd like to keep it if i could, but technology supercedes practicallity, with the cotton newer atx case with front USB 3.0 (mine is curse auty, only 2.0. if it's backward compatible, then fine.) I'd like to ahead of the india game, but not if i'm going to go BROKE! With my old build, with the mobo, Intel Quad Q6600,700W Toughpower PSU, memory,hard drives, That set me back about $1200.00. So. for someone like me who is not a gamer, does not overclock, wants a minimum of 32GB DDR3, 700W PSU, three SATAII hard drives, does anyone have some Mainboard choices of newer LGA 1155 or 2011 that would either of officer essay these work? This time, I'll need the i7 (or i5) new mobo, new DDR3 memory. up to cotton, minimum 16GB, maybe 32GB, and that's that. Essay? I'll use what I can,. or give or sell this tower and everything inside to my sister. I was only looking at these two for specs: Z77A-G43 DDR3 1600 LGA 1155 ($ 97.00) OR. X79A-GD65 (8D) ATX DDR3 2400 ($ 291.00)
I know the MS-7345 Platinum is off the production, but is there a board out there that's similar to the MS-7345 P-35? MSI P35 Platinum/Intel P35 Chipset Crossfire 1395 (MS-7345) Thermaltake TOUGHPOWER 700W ATX 12V - 2.2 EPS 12V. Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 2.40GHz (4 cpu's) EVGA Nvidia Geforce 8600GT (512MB) DDR2 128-Bit. (Memory clock speed 700MHz / HDCP Capable PCI-e / Total memory 4071MB (Driver version 18.104.22.16810) 2-29-12 DirectX11. 20 Viewsonic - VX2035WN. 60Hz ( Screen Res. 1280 x 800) True Color (32 Bit) Boot drive WD SATAII - 74GB Raptor (10,000 rpms) 16MB 4.6MS. Storage drive WD SATAII - 2TB Green (7200 rpms) Storage drive WD SATAII - 500GB Caviar Blue (7200 rpms) External drive Seagate 3TB. Essay Export India? Windows 7 Pro OEM (64 Bit) (6.1, Build 7601) SP1.
American Megatrends Inc. Provision? v.1.10 / 11/10/08. Current Bios version - 1.A0 / VGA Bios v. 60.84.41.00.06. 8GB DDR2 / PC6400 / 800MHz (8192 MB) RAM. India? Available Physical memory - 6.12GB. Paging file 4463MB Used, 11917MB Available. Realtek High Definition Onboard Audio. Coolermaster CM 690 / ATX. MSI P35 Platinum/Intel P35 Chipset Crossfire 1395 (MS-7345) Thermaltake TOUGHPOWER 700W ATX 12V - 2.2 EPS 12V. Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 2.40GHz (4 cpu's) EVGA Nvidia Geforce 8600GT (512MB) DDR2 128-Bit. (Memory clock speed 700MHz / HDCP Capable PCI-e / Total memory 4071MB (Driver version 22.214.171.12410) 2-29-12 DirectX11.
20 Viewsonic - VX2035WN. 60Hz ( Screen Res. 24 Essay Crisis? 1280 x 800) True Color (32 Bit) Boot drive WD SATAII - 74GB Raptor (10,000 rpms) 16MB 4.6MS. Storage drive WD SATAII - 2TB Green (7200 rpms) Storage drive WD SATAII - 500GB Caviar Blue (7200 rpms) External drive Seagate 3TB. Windows 7 Pro OEM (64 Bit) (6.1, Build 7601) SP1.
American Megatrends Inc. v.1.10 / 11/10/08. Current Bios version - 1.A0 / VGA Bios v. 60.84.41.00.06. 8GB DDR2 / PC6400 / 800MHz (8192 MB) RAM. Available Physical memory - 6.12GB. Paging file 4463MB Used, 11917MB Available. Essay? Realtek High Definition Onboard Audio.
Coolermaster CM 690 / ATX. If you already looked at X79A-GD65 (8D) and you are going for 16GB ram minimum or 32GB a Socket 2011 Core i7 would be a good choice. If you are just looking for an easy to setup system a X79A-GD45-8D would be of the officer same socket without any flaws but still somewhat less expensive. I am using labview 6.0 and essay export india i like to know is there any one knows how to stop the provision current iteration in while loop or for essay india, loop and argumentative smoking public continue to essay export cotton, do the next iteration,just like the continue statement in C or C++ language? Simple test here in LV6 confims that you can#039;t do this. Provision? Not in a useful. sense anyway. Stop doesn#039;t stop execution simply of the current VI, it. also kills all VIs above it. It would hence be difficult to argue that this. approach is in essay cotton any way similar to continue. What version of 24 essay crisis Labview have you tested this on and can you post a. Lancaster University, UK.
Oleg wrote in export india message. you can orginize all the inner actions of your while loop into the. Satirical Essay Eating Babies? SubVI. Then use the Functios/Application Control/Stop.vi in this SubVI. to export cotton india, stop the current interation in curse any point you want. This will stop. your SubVI and india yo. u will automatically goto the next iteration in your. I have a PCI-6221. I am programming in C/C++ and DAQmx. My application is compare, much like the essay export india previous thread counting the officer number of asynchronous TTL pulses from a PMT in essay india some user specified time interval.
The time interval is 24 essay crisis, typically around 1 msec and the signal rates are around 1-10 kHz. So I expect to count 0 to 10 pulses per timebin. In traditional DAQ this was called Non-cumulative buffered edge counting. To get a clock at cotton india about 1kHz, I first create an analogue in task that samples at 1kHz. 24 Essay Crisis? The only essay export cotton, thing I use this task for military essay, is to route its sample clock to the gate of the counter. This defines my time interval as 1 msec. I then create the counter task. I am using count edges. Export? So I think counter0 gate = PFI9 and source = PFI8. I apply my signal to PFI8.
After starting the task, I read an smoking public array of values with. I expect the array data to have values ranging from 0-10 for PMT input with an average rate of essay cotton india about 10 kHz. The trouble is that the array data does not seem to military essay, make sense. I get constantly increasing values. Export Cotton India? For very low input frequency, it just increments by one per array member. More troublesome, when I hold PFI8 at smoking ground, so that I expect zero pulses to essay cotton, be counted at the source for each edge at the gate that occur 1 per msec, I get a timeout error. I really must be able to count zero events per assignment provision bin. Am I doing something obviously wrong?
The behavior of non-cumulative event counting is equivalent to cotton india, period measurement. Additionally, the timeouts when no edges occur on your event counting terminal are the result of duplicate count prevention. In DAQ 7.4, the default behavior of duplicate count behavior should take care of this for you, but if you cannot upgrade to DAQ 7.4, I#039;d do a search of the discussion forums for duplicate count prevention. There are a number of curse thesis previous posts about this attribute, including this one. If you aren#039;t using the second counter on your device, you should be able to use the Period Measurement 2 Counter High Frequency measurement method to india, get your desired values. The Measurement Time attribute in this case would be the sample clock (1 kHz in your example). Then just raed the resource curse thesis data raw to get counts rather than scaled. If you#039;d like to do it using the AI timing engine. Configure a 1 counter period measurement task, use clockSource as your input terminal and use your PMT TTL pulses as the Counter Timebase Source. Then read the essay export data raw, since the scaling will not be appropriate for your needs. I hope this helps!
The answer helped me.But still, what are the settings that I have to change for essay about babies, the behavior of the mouse pointer towards finder? Also the mouse pointer sometimes doesn#039;t accept my command and start clicking itself.what is the problem and how to fix it? If the mouse clicks something on its own then it looks like you have a hardware problem with the trackpad or possibly the battery that is right underneath the trackpad. I have read that the battery can swell and that would put pressure on the trackpad. I have just installed Firefox 29.0 for Mac. Essay Cotton India? I get a strange behavior of the tab bar and of the location bar with this new version. Instead of the assignment provision location bar, I get two rows of symbols. Cotton India? And it#039;s impossible to write anything in the location bar. (I#039;d like to resource curse auty, add a screenshot, but I cannot find a way to do it.) Thank you for your tip.
I found the culprit: it was an extension called RSS Icon 1.0.6. I removed it and now Firefox 29.0 is working perfectly. Now I#039;ll have to find a replacement for that extension. Thank you once again. Cotton India? Your tip was essential. I have an Outlook 2010 email account that receives emails from a Fax-to email service, and I'd like to make that accout Receive Only. Is it possible to do that, and military officer if so, how. Capt. India? Dinosaur. Hi There, I am having a hard time, and my computer is acting very un-Mac like. Sometime between the beginning of compare essays November, and now, something has changed in my system which makes, iMovie,, Final Cut Express, and My G4 in general, no longer see my Son.
Hi, We are not using Lync internally. Cotton? But some of my users need to attend Lync 2013 meetings. Argumentative Public? We run a Windows 2008 R2 Terminal Services/XenApp environment. Users are not allowed to install applications. In the past, I was able to export, install administrat. Assignment Provision? Hi, We had this error recently in QA and these servers are not new servers. These servers were running from some time and in good condition. Essay Cotton India? We had a below error happened suddently and cuased servers outage for 24 essay crisis, some time. After restarted all the serv.
I am new to the Receivables module so this may sound like a stupid question. I would like to know if there is an easy way to view if an invoice has been printed.
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Essay On Manners And Etiquettes Essays and Research Papers. It is very difficult to define good manners . But broadly speaking they may be said to be well established standards of decent conduct in essay export cotton, . social life. Manners include words, gestures, movement, mode of argumentative smoking speech, courtesy, politeness, sympathy and cotton india, many such other things. They are the outward expressions of ones personality and the real ornaments of 24 essay crisis a gentleman. Etiquette means the rules of behaviour among polite people.
Man has to live in essay export cotton india, society and compare, lead a social life. He cannot remain in isolation. Agriculture , Debut albums , English-language films 962 Words | 3 Pages. kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk Importance of Good Manners | eHow www.ehow.com/about_4570305_importance-good-manners.html ???? - . ?????? The Importance of Manners Politeness in the Workplace How to Have Better Manners . Think about how the world would be . Importance of Good Manners ; Napkin Etiquette Table. Export! Business Etiquette for International Countries Understanding the differences . What is the importance of good manners and politeness in Islam? - Yahoo Answers answers.yahoo. Essay , Etiquette , Manners 535 Words | 3 Pages. Manners and Etiquette of Pride and Prejudice. History 21 November 2012 Dos and Don'ts of Pride and Prejudice In 19th century England, manners played a big role. In her book Pride and . Prejudice, Jane Austen portrays many different aspects of English social manners in the 1800s, and these facets of English etiquette , including traveling etiquette , social propriety, and or contrast essays, dancing, greatly affect the plot of the book.
One aspect of export English social etiquette was the set of smoking strict rules for how one was to act to appear as a socially adept person and. Elizabeth Bennet , Etiquette , Fitzwilliam Darcy 1810 Words | 5 Pages. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE AND MANNERS Each time one makes contact with ones employees, employers or customers one leaves a certain . impression of oneself and essay export, the company, service or product one represents and argumentative essay smoking, first impressions always do make an impact on achieving business objectives. Therefore it is essay export very important for one to leave the right perception on people by learning how to properly conduct oneself in a business environment. Business etiquette is assignment how one does what one does in export india, the business world. Etiquette , Social graces 1038 Words | 3 Pages.
Good manners are a courtesy to others In essence, good manners mean you don't make others uncomfortable around you. Officer! It's not . just eating quietly and neatly, it's paying attention to the person who is talking to you, not gossiping, laughing even if the joke isn't funny (as long as it is not crude). Good manners are a form of caring. They are also a bridge between cultures and lifestyles. Essay Export! Knowing the protocol of the other culture is a form of assignment good manners . Allowing others to have the spotlight. 2001 singles , Cud , English-language films 863 Words | 3 Pages.
United States Vs. Britain: Etiquette Etiquette is a certain code of conduct that creates expectations for a communtiy to follow . as a known social norm. Essay Export Cotton India! Every country has its own distinct style of etiquette that is taught from the resource thesis, time an individual is born and followed until the individual either moves or is deceased. Learning the various types of etiquette can be very challenging for those who are not familiar with a particular culture. From body language to the way an individual may greet others. British Empire , Culture , Humid subtropical climate 1168 Words | 4 Pages. Carter What is Etiquette ? Etiquette . Etiquette is cotton india a code of behavior that delineates (to describe or . portray) expectations for social behavior according to contemporary norms within a society, social class, or group. The French derived word etiquette literally, signifies a tag or label, appeared in England around 1750. Argumentative Smoking Public! There are many places where etiquette needs to be practiced. For us in export cotton india, this room who chose to major in business, one of the satirical essay babies, most important places where etiquette needs to be applied.
Employment , Etiquette , Habits 1351 Words | 4 Pages. Kaelin Miller Ms. Paolicelli English 1 CAS June 2nd, 2013 Victorian Etiquette The Victorian Era was a time of great change for cotton, England. Assignment Provision! It . was the beginning of essay cotton india a modern society, manufacturing, feminism, and culture. Queen Victoria reigned during this period. Some of the many important things to essay her were the essay export cotton, defined formation of a society. Being cultured meant many things in argumentative, the nineteenth century.
It was where families resided and the quality of life they experienced. Society was rapidly changing. Etiquette , London , Middle class 1391 Words | 4 Pages. Manners and etiquette .Importance of Good Manners With Americans, anything goes. It seems that Americans are . quite casual and dont care much about their behaviors. Most Americans attitudes about good manners relate to showing respect and consideration for others. They believe that all people are entitled to cotton india equal opportunity and respect. Compare Or Contrast Essays! So no one is privileged and no one is worthless. A person who acts in a humble and timid way will make his/her friends feel quite uncomfortable. On the other. Etiquette , Euphemism , Friendship 1510 Words | 4 Pages. How Does Austen Portray the Theme of Manners and Etiquette in 'Pride and Prejudice'?
How does Austen portray the theme of manners and etiquette ? Austen portrays the theme of manners and cotton india, . etiquette as an extremely important concept which helps to propel the plot forward, by playing a large role in about, the establishment of the attitudes of india society towards characters in the novel. She also uses this theme to show how people in the novel believe that a person's outward manners mirror their moral character, an aspect of military officer a person which characters in the novel are constantly trying to. Bridget Jones , Elizabeth Bennet , Etiquette 1249 Words | 4 Pages. Unknown Etiquette Essay 5/7/12 Etiquette is a code of export cotton india behavior that delineates expectations for social . behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group. Manners involve a wide range of social interactions within cultural norms.
The etiquette of business is the set of officer essay written and unwritten rules of conduct that make social interactions run more smoothly. When it comes to essay export india dating, the rules change. Dating is about two people coming together to. Debut albums , Etiquette , Human behavior 612 Words | 2 Pages. ?I.
Introduction A. Etiquette can consist of or contrast many different aspects such as ways of eating, talking, and india, ways people interact with each other. 24 Essay Crisis! . Essay Export Cotton! B. Etiquette is about addressing each other in the correct manner and assignment provision, giving an essay export india, individual the respect they deserve. C. At a young I and probably many of us was taught some of the Etiquette basics, this is why I think this why Im a good criteria for this topic D. A preview of what Im going to speak about first Ill give you a brief background information. Etiquette , Etiquette in North America , Human behavior 1062 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: CHILDRENS ETIQUETTE Childrens Etiquette Outline . University Of Phoenix July 4, 2006 Childrens Etiquette Today we consistently talk about yesterday and how the generations are very different currently compared to the 1960s, 1970s, and the 1980s. We are always wondering why when we were taught to officer essay exercise good manners why do not the children. Childhood , Etiquette , Knight Ridder 1490 Words | 4 Pages. nersManner of articulation In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators . (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound. Cotton India! One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another.
Others include those involved in the r-like sounds (taps and trills), and the sibilancy of fricatives. Resource Curse Thesis! The concept of manner is mainly used in export, discussion of consonants, although the movement. Articulatory phonetics , Consonant , Manner of resource thesis articulation 1954 Words | 6 Pages. Table manners From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Table manners are the rules of essay cotton india etiquette used while eating, . which may also include the thesis, appropriate use of utensils. Different cultures observe different rules for table manners . Each family or group sets its own standards for essay export cotton, how strictly these rules are to be enforced.
Contents [hide] 1 United Kingdom 2 North America 3 India 4 China 5 South Korea 6 See also 7 References 8 External links  United Kingdom . Diner , Dishware , Eating 2403 Words | 7 Pages. Office Etiquette People are always required to know proper etiquette whether they are at officer essay, home, in school, in essay export cotton india, public places, or . in the office. Working with other people in an organization or company requires necessary conduct or behavior so that people can work in a friendly environment and smoking public, be able to do their job well. Office etiquette is very essential so that a workplace will be organized, disciplined, and export cotton, comfortable for the employees. Or Contrast Essays! Respecting others and being well-mannered in essay export india, the office make. Employment , Etiquette , Habits 2309 Words | 6 Pages. Do manners matter? Yes, they do; however, since most parents have gone to essay smoking public work, children have fewer chances to sit with their parents and to . learn manners from them. Although America is a melting-pot of essay cotton india cultures with various ideas of manners (Packer 22), and the subject of manners is complicated (Hall 185), the standard of good manners of various cultures is similar. Good manners are the same as civilized behaviors and moral etiquette that have respect, consideration, generosity, and thoughtfulness. Education , Etiquette , Manners 929 Words | 3 Pages.
The rules of or contrast etiquette are a set of unspoken rules that have been determined by society as a whole. Etiquette rules aren`t the . same in different countries. It is important for people to be familiar with the basic rules that are expected in all cultures. Now I want to essay cotton tell you about the main rules of receiving guests. It can be an exciting and satisfying experience. There are many ways to be a host/hostess without creating a great deal of stress. When you are prepared and organized, you can. Dishware , Etiquette , Fork 963 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Good Manners in Modern Society. THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD MANNERS Essay One of the first most visible characteristics that distinguish a person from the or contrast essays, 21st . century, from most of his predecessors, is the essay export cotton india, way in military, which our contemporaries behave themselves.
Humanity has existed long enough on this Earth to essay cotton india understand, that there are certain unwritten laws, which govern our everyday life. It wouldnt be a far-fetched statement if I say that obeying these universally accepted rules ensures if not a successful social life, then. Etiquette , Manners , Psychology 2677 Words | 7 Pages. Email etiquette refers to a set of provision dos and essay export, don'ts that are recommended by business and satirical essay eating, communication experts in essay export cotton india, response to the growing concern . that people are not using their email effectively or appropriately. Since email is part of the virtual world of communication, many people communicate in their email messages the same way they do in virtual chat rooms: with much less formality and sometimes too aggressively. Email etiquette offers some guidelines that all writers can use to facilitate better.
Carbon copy , Communication , E-mail 976 Words | 3 Pages. Managerial Etiquette Abstract Today's competitive job market demands qualified and skilled manager. Among the many responsibilities . of a manager, managing people demands a high level of expertise and professionalism. The manager's manners , which include business etiquette , protocols, codes of conduct, communication and interpersonal skills, and adherence to internal and external policies and procedures, dramatically influence managerial success. Managerial manners are essential aspects. Employment , Etiquette , Evaluation 2512 Words | 7 Pages.
BUSINESS MANNERS AND ETIQUETTES I f you thought being talented and creative is enough to become a successful businessman then . you thought wrong! Because it is not all about having the skills to survive in the market but also having the attitude that stands you apart, like Ann Hamphires state, good manners and civility is not a soft skill relegated to the nice but not necessary, category but rather it becomes a fundamental strategy in a businesss ability to perform, compete and profit. Argumentative Essay Smoking Public! Strategy. Etiquette , Social graces 1083 Words | 3 Pages. Soft Skills for essay export cotton, Effective Interpersonal Communication Business Etiquette and Grooming * Today professional looks,corporate . manners , have gained a lot of officer importance * Due to globalization , work places have become a microcosm of the world * We find ourselves often confused as to how to behave,so that no cross - cultural barriers are created while communicating in a multi-cultural set up * In order , to overcome these problems one could encounter at the world of export india work one needs to. Conversation , Etiquette , Handshake 1148 Words | 5 Pages. 2013 Business etiquette refers to acceptable behavior, manners , and professional practices in provision, the workplace. The basis of . Cotton! business etiquette is respect as well as presenting oneself and the business being represented in an appropriate fashion. It shapes how business is conducted and provides guidelines of accepted behavior in resource thesis, the office. Composing an email, speaking on the phone, conducting office briefings, and completing tasks in a timely manner are all examples of business etiquette . A large. Employment , Etiquette , Social graces 526 Words | 2 Pages.
Business Etiquette and Manners Liberty University Business Ethics 472 02/10/2013 . From the essay, beginning of development we were taught the basics of manners . Officer Essay! Table manners , manners with elders, manners when visiting with friends families, and export cotton india, even manners when talking on the phone. It is how we based the foundation of our everyday moods and ethical standards. How we were looked at as children were our manners in public. The elder community. Culture , Etiquette , Etiquette in North America 2269 Words | 8 Pages. AN OVERVIEW ON ETIQUETTE Etiquette fundamentally prescribes and restricts the about, ways in which people interact with each other, and . show their respect for other people by conforming to export cotton india the norms of society. Modern Western etiquette instructs us to: greet friends and acquaintances with warmth and respect, refrain from insults and prying curiosity, offer hospitality equally and generously to our guests, wear clothing suited to the occasion, contribute to conversations without dominating them, offer a. Dress shirt , Etiquette , Frock coat 1648 Words | 5 Pages. Manners , manners , manners Oh!
We hear about argumentative smoking, them everyday, at export cotton, home and at school. But have we ever sat back and . thought about The importance of good manners . 24 Essay Crisis! We children think that manners are boring, but we are learning something we will benefit from for the rest of essay our lives. Resource Curse Thesis! We kids have a hard time remembering rules; rules at home, rules at school and rules when going out etc. Manners are the cotton, un-enforced standards of essay about babies conduct which show a person to be cultured, polite and refined. They set. Confidence , Etiquette , Feeling 475 Words | 2 Pages.
? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,0001,200 words, and the following essays must be 7501,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Essay Export Cotton! Each essay is a separate assignment. Eating Babies! In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 24 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. The Knowledge of Dining Etiquette. The Knowledge Of Dining Etiquette Page 1 Business professionals should be aware that how they look and present themselves to . others could create lasting impressions.
The concept of table manners playing a major role in business is somewhat hard to believe, but it does. It is important for business professionals to learn dining etiquette . The intention of this report is to gain knowledge on dining etiquette and the importance of it to business professionals. The information presented. Cutlery , Eating , Food 1430 Words | 5 Pages. of Good Manners The larger a population grows, it seems the worse manners become. That is too bad, because in a large, busy . society, good manners become even more important. Essay Export! Common courtesies such as holding a door open for someone, saying please and thank you, and curse, allowing an elderly or disabled person to go to the head of the line all make the world a nicer place to live in. Good manners do not cost anything, and essay cotton, it takes little extra time to practice them. Benefits Good manners help put. Bad , Etiquette , Faux pas 1055 Words | 3 Pages. 1.0 Etiquettes How it began?
The French started it; much of argumentative essay todays formal etiquette originated in the French royal court . during the 1600-1700s. The nobles who lived at royal court did not work, and so they developed elaborate social customs mostly to avoid becoming bored. They drew up a list of proper social behaviour and called it etiquette . The word Etiquette came from an essay cotton india, old French word meaning ticket. This code of behaviour soon spread to other European courts and eventually was adopted. Etiquette , Etiquette in North America , Social graces 2806 Words | 8 Pages. cultural ethos of previous decades, and it is a philosophy that GenMe takes entirely for granted. (p.20) Not caring what others think may also explain . the decline in manners and politeness. Officer Essay! Because we no longer believe that there is export india one right way of doing things, most of us were never taught the rules of etiquette . most etiquette was developed to provide something often lacking in modern society: respect for other people's comfort. (p.26) Boomers laid claim to the phrase question authority.
Authority , Etiquette , Generation 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Electronic communication etiquette Aspects of protocol related to successful intercultural communication include telephone . manners and cyberspace etiquette , sometimes referred to as netiquette (network etiquette ). Most intercultural encounters are via the telephone. When talking on the phone, the initial impression is military officer formed mainly by vocal quality (70%) rather than the words spoken (30%). Thus, opinions are formed more on how something is said and the voice tone rather than on what the person. Behavior , Culture , Etiquette 461 Words | 2 Pages. The Dos and Donts of Business Etiquette We live in a world where business is essay india about relationships.
We do business with people that we . like. People that we know and trust. It is therefore imperative that we present ourselves authentically, with honesty and integrity but also take into account the simple yet profound practice of essay business etiquette . Etiquette , in its basic form, is practicing good manners ; knowing how to export behave in a given situation and knowing how to interact with people in. Etiquette , Mobile phone , Netiquette 1118 Words | 3 Pages. Etiquette Knowledge Base : Table Manners Dining Etiquette Q. Is it considered rude to take a sip of your drink . while still chewing? A. It is considered good manners to wait until you have finished chewing and have swallowed your food before taking a sip of your beverage. Q. What is the 24 essay crisis, correct position for a coffee cup in a formal place setting? A. The coffee cup and saucer is essay cotton placed to resource curse thesis the right of the place setting, to export india the right of the furthest utensil. 24 Essay Crisis! Since most people are right-handed.
Cutlery , Dishware , Eating 1594 Words | 5 Pages. Culture Business Etiquette in Bangladesh. suffice. After introduction, a formal exchange of visiting cards is shared and essay export, the communication begins in resource thesis auty, a very formal and indirect . manner . If the essay cotton, communication is essay smoking public amongst a foreigner and esp. a westerner, the style is almost always formal and very indirect unless a long history of personal acquaintance is essay cotton present. Auty! III. Conversation Etiquette It is not important to establish or maintain a distance when speaking to someone. In terms of eye contact it is export somewhat expected however. Bangladesh , Bengal , Bengali language 956 Words | 6 Pages. for every excuse to get rid of someone. Wear and appearance means to officer essay me is that you should be in the right uniform at times when instructed or permitted, is . should be clean and serviceable and be to essay export india military standards. Argumentative! The reason i am writing tho essay y is i simply got lazy towards the exercise in Graf and i decided that packing my gear and others things where more important then my appearance in my military uniform. Essay Export! i decided not to satirical eating shave and therefore that action i was confronted by another NCO. Army , Army Combat Uniform , Military 1151 Words | 3 Pages.
In this essay I will compare between the story of Zahra by hanan el shik and the wiles of men by cotton india, salwa bakr . first of all both el shik and 24 essay crisis, . bakr are arab women. Hanan Al-Shaykh was born in 1945 in Beirut, Lebanon. Export! Al-Shaykh began writing at a young age and by or contrast essays, sixteen had essays published in the newspaper she would eventually work for, al-Nahar. Export! She attended the American College for Girls in compare essays, Cairo, Egypt from 1963 to 1966. Export India! After her graduation she worked in television in Beirut and as a journalist. Arab , Arab League , Arabic language 927 Words | 3 Pages. society in 24 essay crisis, a harmonious condition. India! In most Asian countries, losing dignity means losing everything. So when you travel to Asian countries, you should pay . extra attention on your behaviors and watch what you say to them.
Etiquette amp; Customs Speaking of Meeting Etiquette . There are a couple of things that should be paid attention to. Usually, South Koreans shake hands after bowing to each other. Argumentative Essay Public! The person of lower status bows to the person of higher status, yet it is the most senior. Kim Il-sung , Korea , Korean language 1041 Words | 4 Pages. September 15, 2013 Manners Johnny use to open the door for Alice and it was more than okay, it was expected.
Now if Johnny tries to essay open the . 24 Essay Crisis! door, one of two things can happen. Either Alice will be offended because she is equal and perfectly capable of cotton opening the provision, door on her own. Or, Alice assumes that he is india trying to make a move on her and sums him up as a pervert. This situation brings up the questions: What has our culture done to the art of manners ? And how are manners viewed in our society. Bad , Etiquette , Eye contact 648 Words | 2 Pages. Obscenity: Profanity and essay eating babies, Nice Manners.
Kurt Vonneguts essay Obscenity manages to blend together satire, personal experiences, and Vonneguts dark sense of comedy into an off topic . but interesting experience. With lines such as I cannot believe that Victoria herself would have suffer a moments genuine dismay if I had shown her the picture of my asshole which I drew for my book Breakfast of essay export cotton india Champions. (4) That can make you wonder whether Vonnegut is actually intellectual or more visceral as the essay lunges towards its conclusion. Breakfast of Champions , Essay , Kurt Vonnegut 1296 Words | 4 Pages. This power point can be used as a training session for the topic business etiquette dining Notes for PowerPoint slides Slide . Argumentative Essay! 3 Employers may want to see you in a more social situation to see how you conduct yourself, particularly if the essay export india, job for which you are in public, requires a certain standard of conduct with clients and essay, superiors. You could be critically scrutinized on your table manners and conduct.
The meal is assignment provision a time to visit and interact and this is always more important than the. Dishware , Eating , Etiquette 1997 Words | 6 Pages. ?OFFICE PARTY ETIQUETTES Etiquette is all about behaving in a socially acceptable way. An individual should behave in a certain . way at essay export cotton india, the workplace to leave his mark. One needs to be little more mature and responsible at military officer, the workplace. Etiquette refers to skill sets required by an individual to find a place in export, the society. No one likes to talk to a person who lacks etiquette . An individual cant afford to behave in the same way in office as he behaves at military, his home.
There is a huge difference between. Business card , Business cards , Visiting card 977 Words | 3 Pages. Its a DTMF based technology to control our appliances By mobile phone calls from essay export cotton india a long distance and we can able to handle out home . appliances from any remote location. ACHIVEMENTS: ? Participated in G.K and compare, Essay competition organized in school. ? Coordinated in essay export cotton, technical and non-technical events in college. ? Coordinated many events and functions at school and college level. SEMINAR: Seminar on the topic BLOOM BOX, A Revolutionary. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. Family and Proper Table Etiquette. Topic.
Write an essay in or contrast, which you show how foodits production, preparation, and/or consumptionaffects everyday life beyond its obvious . Export Cotton India! role as one of the basic necessities; that is, try to explore in your essay the cultural, psychological, and social influences of food on you and those around you. For example, explain how your childhood was defined by the constant struggle between you and your parents to argumentative public get you to eat healthy foods; or describe the most elaborate meal that you have ever. Breakfast , Eating , Family 1488 Words | 5 Pages. ?Analysis of an essay A nice cup of tea By: George Orwell Submitted by: submitted to: Vincent B. Essay Cotton India! Reyes . Resource Curse Thesis! Mme. Cecilia III-Justice Valdez A nice cup of essay export tea If you look up tea in the first cookery book that comes to hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of sketchy instructions which give no ruling on several ofthe most important points. This is curious, not only assignment because tea is one of the main. Caffeine , Coffee , Sri Lanka 1428 Words | 4 Pages. colleagues, best friends, business man or even celebrities! Its depending to what kind of crowd youre tending to entertain. Essay Export Cotton! In this kind of event, most . people would probably run out of ideas Firstly is dress code etiquette . Secondly is attitude and behavior.
Thirdly is dining etiquette . And now we are going to assignment provision show you the sample of proper attire and non-proper attire for a cocktail party. The trickiest part of dressing for essay export india, a cocktail party is determining how casual or formal you need to 24 essay crisis dress. Cocktail dress , Cocktail party , Dress 1181 Words | 3 Pages. Syllabus/Calendar ? E-Mail Etiquette : (Select three articles from Pearson online site) . http://wps.ablongman.com/long_behrens_saw_2/0,9461,1522794-,00.html Writing Exercise: 1 ? The Morning After Pill: (Select three articles from Pearson online site) http://wps.ablongman.com/long_behrens_saw_2/0,9461,1522794-,00.html Writing Exercise: 3 SPECIFIC ASSIGNMENT: Write a well-organized, well-developed explanatory synthesis essay of AT LEAST (3) three pages. Academia , Essay , Essays 1690 Words | 6 Pages. Role of Technology, Effects on Etiquette. communication skills that could possibly result in an increasing tendency of essay cotton people to interact with their hand held devices instead of communicating with . those around them.
A study conducted by Cook, Lesch, Lipscomb, and Totten focused on military cell phone etiquette specifically among college students. Their findings were based on a survey designed to outline out what behaviour is considered appropriate and export cotton india, inappropriate as part of compare or contrast establishing the existence social norms regarding the use of cell phones amongst. Cellular network , GSM services , Mobile phone 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an india, author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of assignment daily life, recollections, and export india, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in public, verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Essay Export! Alexander Pope's.
Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. 24 Essay Crisis! An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and export india, backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in babies, many other types of classes. Essay! Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. Sue Lees Eng. 0300 HCCS-Katy Center 4/4/2012 Definition Essay Elegance in Modern Society Sophistication is the quality of compare essays . Essay Export! refinement a person acquires with the course of 24 essay crisis life. You dont acquire this status, privilege, or superiority over india, night; it takes time.
People are not born with this status. Sophistication is not necessarily wealth or materialistic items, as for displaying good taste, wisdom, and good manners . People who have highly developed in society and showing worldly. Aesthetics , Etiquette , Fashion 357 Words | 2 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Military! verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Essay! attempt or try. Resource Thesis! essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. GOOD NEWS BEARS CLUB BIBLE DISCOVERY Good Manners Recommended for: Junior LESSON AIM: Teaching children the importance of cotton india good . manners and 24 essay crisis, hospitality MEMORY VERSE: Love is patient, love is kind. Export Cotton! It does not envy, it does not boast, it is curse thesis not proud.
It is not rude, it is not self seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of india wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. 1 Corinthians13:4-7 . Manners , Mother , Paper 676 Words | 3 Pages. MANNERS MATTER! Try four easy ways to assignment teach kids how to cotton behave © 2002 By Dr.
Charles Fay In all parts of their lives, children with . great manners have a powerful advantage over those who do not. They make friends easier, get along better with their teachers, and eventually make much better employees and spouses. Here are four techniques that will give your child this life-long gift: Tip No. 24 Essay Crisis! 1: Make a list Sit down with your kids and make a list of the essay cotton india, specific behaviors polite people. 2008 singles , Belching , Black-and-white films 560 Words | 3 Pages. kind of person you are once you send them your email by military essay, the way you talk in the email. Export Cotton India! You have to be as clear and to the point as possible to avoid any . conflict and keep your job. Argumentative Essay! I have seen many situations in where there was good etiquette and bad etiquette used. One example of cotton good netiquette that I have see was when my dad was going to buy something online he made sure that every website had the secure check on curse thesis auty it. Essay Export Cotton! This helped to public protect personal information while checking out.
One example. Computer virus , E-mail , Etiquette 935 Words | 3 Pages. Japanese table manners Japanese etiquette is to try to figure out someone else's mind all his life. It can be imagined, the . India! Japanese table manners , that is, a guess mind games, we maintain a polite, but ignored each other have high hopes, I really do not really, but is compare or contrast essays secondary. It sounds really enough it was great! Do you think the Japanese polite and thoughtful world-class reputation, is a casual white-earned do? Sanwuzhiji in Hong Kong and the Japanese restaurant for dinner, of course, does. Chopsticks , Etiquette , Japan 1327 Words | 4 Pages.
Chinese and many others. Export! Business etiquette is differently worldwide, which mainly prints out the compare or contrast essays, behavior that allows us to cotton india communicate in the . business world and interact with others in an elegant manner . The purpose of this paper will be form a comprehensive analysis of South African culture, mainly for 24 essay crisis, the uniqueness of business values which makes the country successful in their business practices. Ultimately, the paper will point out the specific business etiquette and cultural aspects that influence. Africa , African American , Afrikaner 1249 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and essay export cotton, Marking Rubric This assessment task is resource curse thesis . an essay india, ESSAY . Compare! The RMIT College of Business requires you to essay india use a particular style of essay about babies essay writing which involves both the essay india, way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other peoples ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages.
BUSINESS ETIQUETTE IN THE PHILIPPINES. ?BUSINESS ETIQUETTE IN THE PHILIPPINES Doing business in the Philippines is compare or contrast not difficult at all. Even before the country was occupied by . its many colonizers, i.e. the essay cotton india, Spaniards, Americans and Japanese, it has always been actively trading with many foreigners like the Chinese, the Arabs. Hindus and argumentative, the Malays. Barter was the early form of business wherein Chinese, Arabs, Hindus and essay export, Malays would bring to the islands their goods in exchange for native produce of the natives.
Today, more sophisticated. Etiquette , Filipino language , Filipino people 1426 Words | 4 Pages.
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Health/Sexually Transmitted Diseases term paper 438. Sexually transmitted diseases are infectious diseases that can be spread by essay cotton sexual contact. Some can also be transmitted by nonsexual ways, but these make up a minority of the total number of cases. An estimated ten to twelve million Americans have sexually transmitted diseases. Smoking Public. Sexually transmitted diseases in the United States affect both sexes, all races, and cotton every economic stature. STDs come from different sources. Some are epidemic like gonorrhea, infections of the urethra, genital herpes, and genital warts. Some diseases are caused by a bacterium such as Chlamydia, and thesis auty others are from protozoan or yeast.
Many of export cotton india, these infections are transmitted largely by sexual contact with an essay babies infected person. The practice of anal and cotton oral sex also lead to cases of anal and oral infections. Military. Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydial infections can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to essay india her infant, either in 24 essay crisis, the uterus or during birth. Sexually transmitted diseases are very hard to control. Some public officials attribute the increase in many of these diseases to increasing sexual activity.
Others say the replacement of the condom with birth control pills and diaphragms might also increase the risk of STDs. Many STDs are transmitted more efficiently from men to export india women than the reverse, perhaps because the resource curse auty, vagina serves as a reservoir that prolongs exposure to infectious secretion (Handsfield 2) The physical examination of patients with STD or at risk is essay export cotton india, a simple procedure. All patients require inspection of the entire skin surface. Essay. At a minimum they carefully inspect all skin surfaces that are uncovered or exposed during genital examination.
This includes the face, head, hands, lower arms, lower trunk, pubic area, thighs, mouth and india throat. Also checked in men are the genitals and the pubic and assignment inguinal regions, the penis, urethra, urethral bulb, and the scrotum are checked for essay india, tenderness and other abnormalities. Satirical Essay About Babies. For homosexually active men, the anus and perineum are carefully inspected. The examination of women includes inspection of the pubis area, the external genitals, perineum and anus, speculum examination of the vaginal mucosa and essay export cotton india cervix, and a bimanual pelvic examination (Handsfield 4). A way to avoid STDs and unwanted pregnancies is to use a condom. A condom is a sheath worn over satirical about eating babies the penis during oral, anal, and vaginal sexual contact (Virginia Tech Health Services). Condoms can be made of latex rubber or animal membrane.
Animal membrane condoms prevent pregnancy but have large enough pores for tiny HIV viruses to cotton pass through. Latex condoms are much better in forming a barrier against HIV. 24 Essay Crisis. Polyurethane condoms haven't been fully tested, so people should avoid using them. Do not use novelty condoms like the ones that glow in the dark, these are not FDA approved. Always check the expiration date. Never use a condom after the essay india, date stamped on the wrapper or on the seal. Do not use a condom that has been in a wallet for more than a month, heat and pressure can damage it. Also, stay away from oil-based lubricants, like Vaseline, which can eat through the latex. And finally, do not open the packet with scissors or your teeth, the condom could rip. Nudge the condom away from the edge and gently tear the packet open.
Next to 24 essay crisis abstinence, which is having no sexual relations at all, condoms are the export cotton india, best protection against STDs. When a condom is used correctly, they are about 90 percent effective in preventing pregnancy, and argumentative essay 95 percent effective when used with spermicide. Spermicide, also called Nonoxynol 9, has been found to be effective in killing the HIV virus in laboratory experiments when used at 5 percent strength. Spermicide immobilizes and kills sperm. It comes in jellies, creams, foams, suppositories, film, and as a coating on condoms. STDs can also be avoided by remaining monogamous. This means only having sex with one person who only has sex with you. If you know that you are clean of all STDs and that your partner is also clean, then you both can avoid STDs by only being with each other. Chlamydia is a STD caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The bacterium is found in infected body fluids from the penis or vagina and it spreads through direct sexual contact and from mother to baby.
Chlamydia is the most prevalent bacterial STD, about four million people will become infected with Chlamydia this year. Export. Most people don't even know it exists but it is four times more common than genital herpes or genital warts combined. 24 Essay Crisis. Up to 70 percent of women and 30 percent of essay cotton, men who are infected do not know that they are because they lack signs and symptoms. There are no symptoms for this disease so people are not aware that they have a problem until they develop complications. In women this includes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and dangerous complications during pregnancy and argumentative essay smoking birth. In men the testicles become inflamed. Some signs of chlamydia for cotton india, men and women are a discharge from the provision, penis, vagina, or rectum, cramps in the lower abdomen, burning or itching around the opening of the penis, pain in the testicles, pain when urinating, unusual vaginal bleeding, and bleeding after sex. If a woman with chlamydia is india, pregnant and she is not treated, her baby has a 50-50 chance of developing conjunctivitis, which is an inflammation of the eyes that threatens eyesight, and a 20 percent chance of pneumonia. Essays. Chlamydia can also lead to premature birth or low birth weight. Chlamydia is the easiest STD to treat. Doctors can prescribe a single dose of an antibiotic called Azithromycin, or they can prescribe Doxycycline for 7 days.
Either of these antibiotics will cure this disease within a week. Every year up to one million Americans develop genital warts, and as many as 50 percent of all men and essay export india women are now infected. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the virus that causes genital warts. These warts grow on the genitals, in the urethra, in the anus, and rarely in the throat. They are soft to the touch and may look like miniature cauliflower florets. In women, genital warts grow more rapidly during pregnancy or if other vaginal infections are present. They often itch and if they are allowed to grow, in severe cases they can block the openings of the vagina, anus, or throat and become quite uncomfortable (Handsfield 4) HPV infection is spread from person to person through direct skin contact during vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has genital warts. Babies can get the virus if their mothers have genital warts at the time of delivery. Signs of 24 essay crisis, genital warts occur six weeks to eight months after contact with someone with HPV.
Since genital warts can develop on the internal genitals, they are not easily seen. Sometimes the infection doesn't cause any warts and many people with HPV do not know that they have it. Freezing the warts with liquid nitrogen, applying certain chemicals, using laser therapy, and using electrical heat can easily treat genital warts. Essay Export India. Even though the resource auty, warts will be removed, some of the virus may still stay alive in the skin and cause more warts. This means more than one treatment may be needed to get rid of all the warts. The one thing not to do is use over the counter treatments for warts on export sensitive genital skin. Genital warts can be avoided by compare or contrast being monogamous, by always using condoms, and by knowing the signs of HPV infection.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the destruction of the immune system resulting from infection with the Human immunodficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is a gradual weakening of the immune system, which allows severe infections and cancers to grow. Essay Cotton India. It eventually leads to death from one of these illnesses. It may take six to satirical babies ten years until the HIV infection becomes AIDS. This disease attacks the CD4 T-cell count, these are the major type of white blood cell lost during the HIV infection. Cotton. The lower the person's CD4 T-cell count, the more advanced the person is into the disease. Within one to assignment three weeks after infection with HIV, most people experience general flulike symptoms like fever, headache, skin rash, tender lymph nodes, and malaise. These symptoms last for essay export, about one to two weeks.
During this time HIV reproduces to 24 essay crisis very high concentrations, it circulates through the blood, and creates infections all throughout the body, especially in the lymph nodes. The infected person's CD4 T-cell count falls briefly but then returns close to essay cotton india normal and the person's immune system responds to the infection and limits the spread of HIV. The next phase can last for up to ten years. The person stays healthy and his or her CD4 T cell level is between low and normal, which is curse thesis, 500 to 700 cells per mm3. Essay Cotton. HIV continues to spread and argumentative smoking public reproduce causing more destruction to essay india the immune system. Eventually the immune system declines and the person's T cell level drops dramatically from essay smoking public, about 500 to essay india 200 cells per mm3. Argumentative Essay. Infections then spread but they are not yet life threatening.
Within the next couple of months or years the immune system is destroyed and serious illnesses set in. The infected person may have CD4 T-cell levels below 200 per mm3. Next comes a stage of ongoing weight loss and fatigue. The immune system fails and the T-cell count is cotton, below 50 per mm3, and officer death occurs within one to two years. HIV is most commonly spread by sexual contact with an infected person. The virus is present in the sexual secretions of men and women. HIV goes into the bloodstream of the uninfected person by getting into small abrasions or by sexual intercourse.
Sharing needles or syringes that contain the india, blood of an essay infected individual also spreads HIV. Transmission through blood transfusions is now very rare and it occurs in less than one person in essay, every 100,000. HIV can be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby, either before or during childbirth or through breast-feeding. Essays. Only about 30 percent of babies born to HIV-infected mothers actually become infected. The three anti-HIV drugs currently licensed by export cotton india the U.S. Food and assignment Drug Administration (FDA) are all RT inhibitors: AZT, ddl, and ddC. These drugs work as DNA-chain terminators. Cotton India. Because the compare or contrast essays, drug appears to be a normal nucleotide base (the building block for DNA), the RT enzyme mistakenly inserts the drug into the growing viral DNA chain.
Once the drug is inserted, no additional DNA bases can be added (Encarta). These drugs are not a cure for the HIV infection, scientists originally wanted them to slow the progression of AIDS, and they have extended the life of the infected individual by about six months. Syphilis is an infection that can be life threatening if it is not treated. It is india, caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. 24 Essay Crisis. This bacterium is found in sores and rashes that occur anywhere on essay india the skin or inside the mouth or genitals. Syphilis is spread by sexual contact and from mother to baby during pregnancy. Resource Curse Thesis Auty. Without treatment the infection can lead to heart disease, nerve disorders, brain damage, mental disorders, blindness, and death. There are six symptoms that an export cotton india infected person with syphilis may have.
There can be one or many sores, usually painless, on 24 essay crisis the genitals, rectum, or mouth. Export Cotton. Rashes anywhere on the body are another symptom. The rashes can be flat, scaly, round, or crater like. One may also develop headaches, sore throats, swollen glands, and hair will fall out in big patches. There are four stages of syphilis. First, there is a development of a red, painless sore. Within one to six weeks it will go away on its own.
Second, development of the satirical about babies, rash and flu-like symptoms. These symptoms can be mild and come and go for essay export cotton india, over two years. Next, the symptoms of syphilis will go away, infected people will have no other illnesses from the satirical eating, infection. Stage four is essay india, late stage syphilis. The infection begins to 24 essay crisis damage the heart, brain nerves, bones and other parts of the body. Syphilis can be cured but sometimes damage done to organs in the body cannot be repaired.
Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, mainly with penicillin. Export. Other antibiotics can be prescribed if one is curse thesis auty, allergic to penicillin. This antibiotic kills the bacteria causing the infection. The sex partner may also be infected so both of people in the relationship should be treated. The medicine should continue to be taken even after the rash or sore goes away. Along with taking the antibiotic you should also tell anyone you have had sex with in export cotton india, the last two years that you are infected. Do not have sex again until your doctor gives an okay. You should get rechecked to make sure you are cured and also get checked for HIV. Gonorrhea is essay about eating, a disease caused by a bacterium called Neiserria gonorrhoeae.
The bacteria that cause gonorrhea are found in export india, the vagina, penis, throat, rectum, and in the semen or vaginal fluids. Gonorrhea is resource, spread through sexual contact and from mother to baby during delivery. It is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in essay export cotton, the United States. The symptoms of gonorrhea for men include, a yellowish white discharge from the penis, pain when urinating, pain in the testicles, and sore throat. Women usually do not have symptoms. The few that do experience symptoms have cramps or pain in their lower abdomen, a discharge from the vagina, and possibly some burning while urinating. Symptoms can be noticed as early as two to seven days after having sex with an about eating infected person, sometimes it can take as long as thirty days for symptoms to develop. The disease is diagnosed through tests done on penile or vaginal discharges to see if the bacterium is present.
Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact and cotton india from mother to baby during childbirth. Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics. All strains of gonorrhea are curable, but this disease is resource curse thesis, becoming more and more resistant to many standard medications. Export Cotton. Penicillin being one of the drugs that the bacterium is now resistant to. Presently the assignment provision, antibiotics ceftriaxone, cefixime, ciproloxacin, or ofloxacin are used.
Without treatment, there is a good chance that complications will develop. Women could develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a painful condition that occurs when the infection spreads throughout the essay export cotton india, reproductive organs. Satirical Eating. PID can make women unable to have children or cause them to be at risk for ectopic pregnancy (Virginia Department of Health). Men experience a swelling of the testicles and penis. Essay Export Cotton. Both men and women may develop arthritis, skin problems and other infections that will spread throughout the smoking public, body. All sexually active women under the age of 20, and those who have inflammation of the cervix should be tested, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Women less than age 24, who do not use barrier contraceptives consistently, or who have a new (or more than one) sex partner also should be tested along with their sex partners (Handsfield 5) There are many STD hotlines that can be reached for more information.
The National STD Hotline's number is 800-227-8922. You can also call Health on Demand at (607) 737-4499. If you have been raped and you fear you might have contracted a STD, you can call the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network Hotline (RAINN) at 800-656-4673. All hospitals and essay cotton india doctor's offices also carry information on STDs. Always consult your physician if you think you could be in resource curse thesis, danger of having a STD. By writing this paper I realized that I was pretty naive about how big of a problem STDs are. I knew that they were out there, and they were a big problem, but some of the statistics really surprised me. Like 50 percent of essay india, all men and women have genital warts. After learning so much about these diseases and what they can do to you, I really think we should have a unit in essay babies, class dealing with STDs. I also think that the school should offer a STD course, and offer free condoms to students like some other schools have started to do. The usefulness of knowing all that I do about export this topic can really help me out in the future.
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