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Lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays

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Away Michael Gow Essays and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen Research Papers. Away Set in the Australian summer of 1967, Michael Gow’s Away is an elaborate play which explores the ideas of . self- discovery and change. Through the war affected nation, three families, each from different social classes, depart on an iconic Australian holiday to the beach. In the play, Gow utilises the characters to demonstrate that going away physically is intrinsically linked to their mental developments. With the help of references to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer night’s Dream, Away uses Gwen. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Given names , Midsummer 1390 Words | 4 Pages. merely a journey. On a journey, an individual experiences a range of obstacles, either expected or unexpected, which shapes their life. World Better Essay! Such obstacles . initiate the process of change and transformation. Clearly, through a close study of the play ‘ Away ’ by Michael Gow , the lady queen poem ‘Whither will I Wander’ by title page example William Shakespeare and the picture book ‘I had trouble in getting to Solla Sollew’ by Dr Seuss, the characters experience various degrees of change and transformation.

Factors that impact on the degree. Accept , Dr. A Fiend-like Queen Essays! Seuss , Figure of speech 1049 Words | 3 Pages. daunting to accept new changes in ourselves, our family, or our peers, but it is apparent that change is necessary for world getting better essay, the growth of maturity and macbeth queen essays wisdom of . an individual. This concept of change is evident through the three texts of, the play Away ( Michael Gow ), the film Pleasantville (Gary Ross, 1998), and the novel My Sisters Keeper (Jodi Picoult, 2005). In each of the texts, individuals become apparent to the notion that change is a natural occurrence in reflection on a, their lives, and macbeth a fiend-like essays that the acceptance of. Essay Parenthood! Adam and lady macbeth queen essays Eve , Allusion , Change 1348 Words | 4 Pages. Discovery Essay on Away Michael Gow. “To discover is to gain sight or knowledge of something.” How have ideas about discovery been shown in Away and essay on single The Book Thief . Discovery allows main characters to gain sight or knowledge into themselves and others. This is evident in Michael Gow’s Away , as seen through the characters of Gwen, Coral and macbeth a fiend-like Tom. The three gain sight and knowledge into their.

A Midsummer Night's Dream , Emotion , Gain 939 Words | 2 Pages. Away by Michael Gow Character Analysis. is supported by her husband Roy, but Roy is not the federal best supporter at times. Coral is quiet and queen essays hasn’t built many strong relationships with others as others . Federal Resume! are trying to with her ‘Did you enjoy the play? [Coral stares at her for a moment then looks away ’.] Roy: Roy is the principal at Meg and Tom’s school. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays! He is a very well-spoken man who seems to on gun, be quite successful. “So what do you think of our little Chips Rafferties, eh? Proud mums and dads?” He’s married to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, his wife Coral who is a very mysterious. Anxiety , Family , Given names 2392 Words | 5 Pages. to say a few words of thanks to before we go tonight.

Allan and or worse Betty Shirlaw for providing the timber and so on at cost to build the settings, Joy Samuels . and the Art Department for lady essays, painting it all and making it look so terrific. Seymours for AWAY ACT ONE SCENE TWO 5 providing the cordials at half time. Mrs Walker for the luscious cakes, well done Lois. Control! Mrs Hutton, Mrs Cooper, Mrs Lummis and Mrs Papa . . . Papalapa . . Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays! . Papalax . . Federal Resume! . oh well, I'm sure she knows who I mean, ha ha. 2008 albums , A Midsummer Night's Dream , Fairy 954 Words | 3 Pages. point Support the point Link the point Introduction Thesis – In the novel Away by Michael Gow all the . characters have the desire to win and this can be interpreted as making the right choices for a good life. These attitudes to life can be seen through the characters Gwen, Harry, Vic and Tom. Body Paragraph One – Topic sentence – The character Gwen is the main protagonist who has a desire to a fiend-like essays, win in federal resume writing, the play Away . Gwen is seen as a stereotypical nagging wife and a mother who can be classified. Lady Queen Essays! English-language films , Given names , Prince 568 Words | 2 Pages. Michael Gow’s play Away is the story of three different Australian families who go on holiday for Christmas in the sixties.

By . going away each family is federal resume writing hoping to resolve their issues. Although Away is set some time ago the themes and issues explored in the play are still relevant to a modern day audience, even one of a non-Australian background. Shakespearean plays that were written many hundreds of years ago and are still understandable and relevant to people all over the world today. Away . Emotion , Family , Given names 857 Words | 2 Pages. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like! Human Condition - Away by Michael Gow. species. Research Paper Page Example! Examples of texts which do so include the play Away by Michael Gow , the photo Woman on Bondi by lady a fiend-like queen essays Marco . Bok and the poem Ode To A Nightingale by is the world better or worse essay John Keats, which provide similar and contrasting views on these aspects of humanity. Macbeth A Fiend-like! Away by Michael Gow , first published in 1986, is an Australian play set in the 1960s, following the Vietnam War, which explores the mortality, loss, restoration and transformation experienced in our existence. Gow suggests that Tom is the catalyst through his characterisation. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Emotion , Expression 634 Words | 2 Pages. Change is when something is not what it used to be.

It is a process, transition or alteration that affects all aspects. During the play, Gow . uses many different techniques and the story of getting or worse essay, 3 different Australian families to help the audience understand the concept of change. There are 3 main characters that Gow portrays change through during the lady macbeth queen play; Gwen, Tom and Coral. In the reflection beginning of the play, Gwen, wife of Roy, mother of Meg, is known as a nagging housewife who didn’t have the greatest. Lady Macbeth! Change , Death , Family 523 Words | 2 Pages. • Play is about injustice and misjudgment Othello I.2 – ‘My parts, my title and my perfect soul shall manifest me rightly’ – His confidence . in justice Othello I.3 – ‘If you do not find me foul in essay, her report…not only take away , but let your sentence even fall upon my life’ Othello V.2 – ‘When you shall there unlucky deeds relate, speak of queen, me as l am… then must you speak of one that loved not wisely but too well’ Lodovico V.2 – ‘This is carle thy work’ – and. Bianca , Brabantio , Desdemona 2171 Words | 13 Pages. experience that challenges individual’s assumptions or a process which allows individuals to acquire wisdom? Well, it is a bit of lady, both.

Michael . Gow’s play “ Away ” and research page Guy de Maupassant’s “The Necklace” convey these dual aspects by using dramatic and literary techniques which shape our understanding of the lady a fiend-like queen essays process and impact of on gun, discovery. Michael Gow’s 1986 play “ Away ” presents self discovery as a process initiated by challenging experiences which dismantle individual’s perceptions of themselves and. Guy de Maupassant , Short story , The Necklace 810 Words | 2 Pages. Away and lady a fiend-like essays the Barn Owl: An Interpretation. experience of discovering to topic, be something forgotten, lost, new or concealed. Our attitude towards the macbeth queen process of reflection, discovery is the most important whether you . are discovering something for the first time or rediscovering something. Michael Gow the composer of the short play “ Away ” is about 3 different families who have unique holidays which are very similar at the same time. All the holidays start at lady macbeth a fiend-like, unity then separation occurs which a wild storm in which is defined as a catalyst that conveys discovery. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Discovery , Invention 909 Words | 2 Pages. Away by Michael Gow: Character Analysis. attitude and this causes Coral to world better, lower herself to the behavior of a naive child “I’ll be good! I’ll improve!” When Coral does begin to speak, it is . presented as very expressive and mournful.

Her tone is filled with emotion as she is a fiend-like constantly “wiping away tears”. Coral finally begins to socialize, with a woman named Leonie. She seems instigated by the fact that Leonie (the woman) appeared to be hiding something. Leonie (like Roy) attempts to conceal her distress with a social disguise. Whilst dismissing. Given names , King Lear , Woman 668 Words | 2 Pages. Drama is not a talent for writing, writing, but an ability to articulate human relationships. Lady Macbeth Queen! By this, Vidal meant that to convey a play properly, association . between the characters has to be real, dynamic action that captures the attention of an audience. Away is a charming play that deals with family, relationship, life, growing up and death.

It depicts the final months leading up to the disintegration of the writing condition of a fiend-like essays, Tom, a boy dying from Leukaemia. In the final stages of his life, he is desperate. Audience , Christmas , Christmas tree 1449 Words | 4 Pages. ? CHANGE – Away and eric carle ‘Waiting on the world to change’ Change is a process, transition or alteration that affects all aspects of life and . Lady Macbeth Queen Essays! can affect attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. Michael Gow’s play ‘ Away ’ conflicts emotional, spiritual and mental change expressed through the world better essay characters along their journey of change. Gow has chosen characters such as Coral, Tom and lady macbeth essays Gwen to demonstrate the different types of changes that occur in the play ‘ Away ’. Gow uses techniques such as Intertextuality. Allusion , Change , Conflict 1366 Words | 3 Pages. ?How to Michael Gow explore the concept of on a topic, discovery within his text, including a related text of your own choice? Discoveries . Lady A Fiend-like! all involve first time experiences or reconciling with someone and is the basis for human growth and acceptance. Michael Gow , who is the author, explores the world better essay concept of self-discovery in his play ‘ Away ’ and how it affects people’s lives. Through the various concepts that come about of discoveries readers will take in the fact that discoveries is far more then a movement.

Life , Long shot , Self 1031 Words | 2 Pages. Away and Lord of the Rings (Journey) The prescribed text Away by lady macbeth a fiend-like Michael Gow , as well as the related text, Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings: The . Fellowship of the Ring contain physical journeys which vary greatly. The journey is more important than just movement from one place to another, it is the learning and growth which is promoted by the journey which is more important, however important the end result of the physical journey may be. Whether that physical journey be as simple as holiday, as in ' Away ', or as complex and. Bilbo Baggins , Change , Frodo Baggins 1321 Words | 4 Pages. Data Security Solutions For Michaels I. On Gun Control! Data Security Data security . would be a method that corporations use to lady, keep important and confidential information protected.

Access to this type of is the world better or worse essay, secure information is limited to lady macbeth queen essays, those who have the authorization to view it. Data security is enforced so that private information that a corporation has about its employees, customers and others that they conduct business with is kept safe. Authentication , Authorization , Computer security 837 Words | 4 Pages. away journeys summary related textx. Journeys: Additional texts summary sheet Title: Where The Wild Things Are Away Text Type: Picture Book Play . Composer: Maurice Sendak Michael Gow Published: 1963 1987 Audience: Outline the text in terms of its broad relationship to the concept of Journeys. The Story book away follows the incredibly long and exciting Journey of max, a young boy, to a make believe worlf, filled vastly with monsters of terrible roars and essay on single claws. However Max’s expedition. Need , The Play , The Wild 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Lady Macbeth Queen! Away and Other Related Text Essay. (Yr 11 Standard) Australia is such a diverse multicultural society when compared with that of the research paper title Australia 50 years ago. My article will identify how different composers . Lady A Fiend-like Essays! promote Australian ideas and values. The Australian play titled Away by Michael Gow is set during the time of the Vietnam War (1960.

Gow uses the technique of setting to show how the effect of the Vietnam War impacted many Australian families. This is shown when Roy tells Coral “We are not the first people in history to lose a son in a war, in the last. Australia , Christmas and federal holiday season , Culture of Australia 1083 Words | 3 Pages. Away is a play written by the Australian playwright Michael Gow , published by lady macbeth a fiend-like queen Currency Press in reflection, 1986.[1] First . performed by the Griffin Theatre Company in 1986, it tells the story of three internally conflicted families holidaying on the coast for Christmas, 1968. It has become one of the most widely produced Australian plays of lady macbeth, all time and is part of the Higher School Certificate syllabi or general High School Curriculum in many states, including Western Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and.

A Midsummer Night's Dream , Australia , High school 430 Words | 2 Pages. ? Michael Brause CMIS 102-6387 May 30, 2015 Program description: I calculated the reflection on a topic usable area in lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, square feet of title page, a house. Assume that the essays . house has a maximum of carle essays, four rooms, and lady macbeth that each room is rectangular. Reflection On A! I wrote pseudo code statements to declare 4 Integers and labeled them homesqft, room1, room2, room3, and room4. Each room will have its length and width to calculate its area. Analysis: Test Case # Input Expected Output 1 Room1: length=10, width=14 Room2: length=9, width=10 Room3: length=12. 1 , 22 , Harshad number 606 Words | 8 Pages. struggle with themselves, each other and with nature. The play ‘ Away ’, composed by Michael Gow through the use of lady macbeth essays, . dramatic techniques and the novel ‘Smokey Joe’s Cafe through language techniques have both demonstrated how physical Journeys impacts on the travellers inner growth. ‘ Away ’, set in the late 1960’s reflects the Australian events and situations at is the getting or worse, that time. These shape the attitudes and macbeth a fiend-like queen essays behaviour of the characters Gow uses, it strengthens Australia’s historical context for the audience. Death , Putta , South Vietnam 1009 Words | 3 Pages. of Arnolphe’s dear friend, Oronte, arrives at Arnolphe’s house and confesses he has fallen in love with a beautiful girl.

She has told him of how her master, . Monsieur de la Souche, keeps her hidden away from the world. Getting Or Worse Essay! Not knowing about Arnolphe’s new name, Horace confides to him his plan to macbeth queen, steal away Agnes. Thus begins the game of scheming by each man to hold onto Agnes despite unexpected challenges. Arnolphe anxiously confronts Agnes about her contact with Horace. A misunderstanding arises where. Best Friends , Black people , Domestic worker 1237 Words | 2 Pages.

about ourselves, the essay on gun world around us and life in general. This is particularly evident in the prescribed text “ Away ” by Micheal . Gow in which the characters go through much pain and suffering to ultimately be cleansed by the natural world surrounding them. Characters such as Coral, Gwen and Tom find themselves taking journeys “ away ” from their usual existence and learn much from this. Micheal Gow is well able to express these journeys through his elaborate use of technique in representing the ideas of. Ambrose Bierce , An Occurrence at lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, Owl Creek Bridge , Jacob's Ladder 2247 Words | 5 Pages. ?What makes away worthy of study? Michael Gow effectively encapsulates a range of inter relating themes to allow . the plot to have a strong sense of meaning. Gow’s realistic approach to the universal themes allow the audience to connect with the story as they are all relevant with current societal issues. Is The Getting Better! These issues pertain to dysfunctional family structure and struggles. Most characters face one or many issues throughout the novel ranging from: grief and loss, to a fiend-like queen, the healing power of nature. Audience , Family , Given names 1289 Words | 3 Pages. Federal Resume Writing! Journey - Away, the Red Tree the lady queen essays Violin Man. On Gun Control! categorising different forms of literature into these three options, the meaning of journey can be easily derived and the techniques in which they are . constructed can be more fully understood and appreciated.

The drama “ Away ”, by Michael Gow has been very intricately written, Gow has used physical journey to portray the inner journey taking place in each of his characters lives. The picture book by macbeth queen essays Colin Thompson, “The Violin Man”, uses images and illusion to create the imaginative journey that a. Audience , Fiction , Imagination 3041 Words | 7 Pages. Michael Vick When Michael Vick went to federal prison the general thought was that he would never be an NFL quarterback . Carle! again the macbeth essays redemption of Michael Vick to eric essays, being NFL quarterback again has started. Michael Dwayne Vick was born on June 26,1980 in Newport News, Virginia to Brenda Vick and Michael Boddle . Macbeth! The second of four children Michael and resume his family lived in the Ridley Circle Home, a public housing project in a financially depressed and crime-ridden neighborhood. Michael Vick told. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays! American football , Atlanta Falcons , Dog fighting 683 Words | 3 Pages. Essays! The play Away by macbeth a fiend-like queen essays Michael Gow shoes the character of Coral to be in need of change in essay on gun control, her distinctive world. Discuss . how this applies to the play. Michael Gow’s play “ Away ” presents Coral as a character that is in urgent need to queen, undergo profound change. At the introduction of the play, Coral is introduced to the audience as an emotionally unstable and isolated character.

Through the topic use of stage directions, “Coral doesn’t respond”, it is clear that Coral is in macbeth a fiend-like, her own distinctive world and eric carle alienated. Coral , Coral reef , Question 1733 Words | 4 Pages. Michael Jackson: Man In The Mirror Michael Jackson is arguably the most well know celebrity figure in the world today. . Michael Joseph Jackson was born in August 1958, in Gary, Indiana. Jackson has spent almost his entire life as a public performer. He was a member of the Jackson Five at the age of four, soon becoming the group's lead vocalist and front man. Onstage, he modeled his dance moves and vocal styling on James Brown, and portrayed an absolute self-confidence on stage that belied his. Diana Ross , Disco , Jermaine Jackson 1470 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth Queen! Michael Jordan You guys might know Michael Jordan just as one of the greats in NBA history, but he has a lot more behind his . name then just the hall of carle, fame and basketball. Michael Jordan has done many great things in lady a fiend-like, hid life that has changed sports and society today!

Jordan has become a great entrepreneur because the decisions that he made were good and he’s put many years of hard work into his work and is effort was OUTSTANDING! You probably thought that Michael Jordan’s life when he was. Kobe Bryant , Larry Bird , Magic Johnson 1057 Words | 3 Pages. ? Away Essay Discoveries and world better or worse essay discovering can offer new understandings and renewed perceptions of ourselves and lady queen essays others. This is evident in . Away by Michael Gow which focuses on federal resume writing, aspects of discovery including realisations within oneself which can uncover further perceptions of ourselves or others. Gow also includes concepts based on the idea that the recognition that death is inevitable forces people to discover the meaning of life. Emotional turmoil and heartbreak may be a catalyst for discovery and. Cognition , Discovery , Invention 825 Words | 2 Pages. Michael Collins and the Decline of Imperialism “Imperialism, as defined by the Dictionary of lady macbeth a fiend-like essays, Human Geography, is the creation and/or . maintenance of an essay unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and lady macbeth often in the form of an empire, based on domination and essay control subordination.” (Wikipedia) In the movie Michael Collins, the director Neil Jordan, presents a historical biopic of the macbeth queen essays Irish patriot and revolutionary Michael Collins. Michael Collins was an essay control Irish revolutionary. Anglo-Irish Treaty , British Empire , Irish Civil War 874 Words | 3 Pages.

Assessment 1B MGMT.7930 Tutor: Neihana Jacob Due Date: 4/4/12 Word Count: 1234 In 1979, Michael Hill started Michael . Hill Jewellers (MHJ) after 20 years of working in macbeth queen essays, his uncle’s jewellery store. Doing away with the usual giftware items and the more formal atmosphere, his strategy was to make shopping for jewellery more accessible to the public. One strength of the company is the strict use of the reflection on a topic Friedman Group’s sales techniques. This allows the staff to maximise conversion rates and. Human resource management , Human resources , Jewellery 1386 Words | 5 Pages. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays! which the composers use to invite you into deepening your understanding and emotions of the concept of discovery.

Welcome to carle essays, Holland is an essay, written in . Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen! 1987 by essay Emily Pearl Kingsley, about having a child with a disability. The play Away written by Michael Gow in 1987, is a text which focuses on three families ready to travel for their summer holidays after a long and complicated year. A Fiend-like Essays! The piece Welcome to world or worse, Holland is today used as an inspiration by many organizations to new parents of children. Essays! Audience , Depression , For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her 1166 Words | 2 Pages. On Gun! Tyrell Bethel 11/16/2009 COM 161 Michael Jordan: The Man and The Media Icon Michael Jordan is the greatest professional . athlete to every play professional sports in macbeth a fiend-like essays, my opinion and I bet in many others too. Jordan has been called the greatest basketball player of all time and I really believe that on and off the court.

He was the top sports figure in the 90s and became one of the most recognized faces in the world. He changed the way pro athletes are view in the media and corporate world. Basketball , Chicago Bulls , Houston Rockets 2220 Words | 6 Pages. Obstacles Michael Oher Faced to world essay, Achieve his Dreams In the novel, The Blind Side, a young boy named Michael Oher experiences . many challenges that caused him to change throughout his life. He started off as a shy, uneducated boy and later grew into an inspiring role model who went through many obstacles to achieve his main goal of becoming a football player. The novel starts off by describing Michael as a homeless boy trying to survive his life, but the novel later progresses into macbeth essays, him meeting new. Eric Carle! American football , Boy , Family 904 Words | 3 Pages. love for climbing, (5 Marks) Michael had a longing to macbeth a fiend-like queen, do things that had never been done before. As he gazed at the spire, crowned by a golden . Essay Control! ball and weather-vane, an macbeth a fiend-like idea crept into his A mind – he would be the first person in Flushing to stand on the golden ball beneath the weather-vane!

He glanced around. No one was looking; Michael began to reflection, swarm up the macbeth ladder. At the top of the tower there rose a slated spire crowned by eric essays a golden ball and weather-vane. Macbeth A Fiend-like! At last Michael found himself squatting on. Chicago Spire , Christopher Nolan , Following 1679 Words | 4 Pages. Park) Away is about reconciliation and the power of healing through love and essay compassion This play is lady queen about the experiences of a dying . Reflection On A! school boy, it is a celebration of life and the power to lady, heal through gaining insight.

At the end, the characters accept their motives, ambitions, hopes and fears which determine their actions Characters Imprisoned in a World which their worth as human beings is measured in the costs of their holidays The quest of the characters in Away brings. Fred Frith , Great Depression 3220 Words | 11 Pages. own. They have a background that is rich with meaning and many people cherish the sneaker lifestyle. Introduction I. (Attention Getter) . Could you imagine walking around in a pair of shoes that cost a thousand dollars? Nike makes Michael Jordan brand shoes that sell for extremely high prices and many people wear, buy and sell these shoes all the time. (Audience Adaptation) I am sure many do not know the facts or history behind Jordan brand basketball shoes so now is your. Control! Air Jordan , Athletic shoe , Chris Paul 1009 Words | 4 Pages. over queen, and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed,” said Michael Jordan (BrainyQuote). Eligibly the research page example greatest basketball player . of all time, Michael Jordan, was a major contributor to 20th century American Popular Culture. He not only changed the game of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, basketball, but also pioneered the sport and forever keeps his legacy. He is the true definition of starting from the bottom and eric essays succeeding to the top. Lady A Fiend-like! Michael Jeffrey Jordan was born on February 17, 1963 in Brooklyn, New York.

Him. Basketball , Chicago Bulls , Houston Rockets 1862 Words | 5 Pages. ‘Personal Growth and Reconciliation Through Love Are the Predominant Concerns in Away’ concerns in Away ’ In the play Away personal growth and eric reconciliation through love are the predominant concerns that have been . represented throughout the play. Personal growth through love is queen essays evident in essay on gun control, the characters of Coral and Roy and reconciliation through love is lady a fiend-like essays evident in eric, the characters of Vic and Harry. Gow uses techniques such as symbols, music and lighting to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, show how personal growth and reconciliation is shown through love. Personal growth is a major theme in Away . Research Paper Title Page Example! Coral at lady a fiend-like essays, the. Accept , Audience , Emotion 819 Words | 3 Pages.

Analysis of reflection topic, away The play away by lady queen essays Michael Gow is a story of three Australian families going on . Is The Essay! holidays. It is set in the summer of 1967-68 during Christmas and the New Year. There are many sub-themes in queen, away such as death/loss, change, moving on with life, and forgiveness. The theme of death/ loss is displayed when we find out about Roy and Corals son who was killed in resume, Vietnam. Macbeth Queen! Coral constantly brings up the theme when she says, “I’ll be silent on all controversial topics. Will that do? I. Anxiety , Death , Emotion 530 Words | 2 Pages. Michael Jackson Psychological Development. On Gun Control! personalities, behaviors, and morals of human’s. Many factors influence the development of an individual’s psychological makeup; including heredity and . environment. Michael Jackson is quite possibly the most famous person to lady a fiend-like, live during the 21st Century. Born August 29, 1958 in eric carle, Gary, Indiana to struggling middle-class parents, Michael learned all too quickly the lady a fiend-like reality and on gun price of being famous.

Although the world adored him from the moment he was a small child as a member of the Jackson Five and. Lady A Fiend-like! Jackson family , Jermaine Jackson , Marlon Jackson 1161 Words | 4 Pages. Life Span and Personality of essay, Michael Jackson Christina Simkins PSY/300 Monday, September 20, 2010 Tara Terry Life Span and macbeth queen essays . Personality of Michael Jackson Discuss the influences of essay on gun, heredity and environment (including family and macbeth a fiend-like social support) on is the getting or worse, your individual’ psychological development. Be sure to lady macbeth essays, describe specific areas of psychological development (moral, emotional, ect.). The genes that Michael Jackson was born with had an influence on his behavior. His social environment including. Big Five personality traits , Michael Jackson , Neuroticism 1136 Words | 4 Pages.

Maya Kirk Ms. Bork Sophomore English 17 April 2013 Michael Jackson, a man of many talents, had 13 #1 singles, 17 Grammy Awards, and sold . over 1 billion albums across the globe since his solo debut in 1972. Michael had a big effect on the world. He influenced many people through his music. His dance moves created a new and essay control innovative way for people to express themselves. His videos were a whole new experience for lady macbeth a fiend-like, most people in the music industry. Is The Better! It is really rare in the music industry to lady queen essays, leave.

Beat It , Billie Jean , Dance music 1601 Words | 4 Pages. story of his or her own. Michael “Air” Jordan makes that happen. Michael played an important role in changing how people viewed . great basketball and strong, hard-working athletes. Michael’s life explains to the world, how with just a little drive, great achievements can be made. Michael’s life began in Brooklyn, New York, on February 17th, 1963, where his parents James and Delores always stood by his side. His father, known for his unending support, always gave Michael advice on what to do, never. Basketball , Boston Celtics , Chicago Bulls 2865 Words | 7 Pages. Away by Michael Gow Half-Yearly Revision Act-by-Act Summary / Structure Genre: Form (Drama) As . Away is a drama, it will be important for you to discuss the research paper title page unique features of essays, this form. You may wish to consider the research paper following: Intertextuality: Shakespearean texts ? Away begins with the final scene from A Midsummer Night’s Dream (a comedy) and ends with a production of King Lear (a tragedy).

These two texts frame the lady macbeth a fiend-like queen play and getting or worse essay develop its major theme of reconciliation. Structurally, the orientation. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Loveppears , Midsummer 1360 Words | 18 Pages. March 27, 2012 Social Issues Architect of HOPE: Michael Jackson An Architect of Hope is someone who cares for lady a fiend-like queen essays, others and the world. They . On Single Parenthood! want to make it a better place for future generations. They set examples for what we want to be like in our own life, a steward of the planet. Their goal is to be the best person they can be. Hey give hope to others who need it through what they do. Michael Jackson is an Architect of Hope because he wanted to help the world, and he was able to do so by using. Death of Michael Jackson , Earth Song , Jackson family 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Yakini Crews-Rhymer 401709 Final Marketing Management 12-28-12 Michael Kors: Internal issues: Cheap material, Fad?, Hasn’t been around . long enough in the light.

Strengths: cost advantage, online growth, loyal customers, brand equity Weaknesses: not innovative, not diversified, poor supply chain, brand recognition Enviroment: Bootlegs/Knockoffs Opportunities: emerging markets, innovation, online Threats: competition, cheaper technology, price wars Competitors- Marc Jacobs. Brand , Brand equity , Brand management 1136 Words | 4 Pages. ?Sharene Salameh WGS209 March 12, 2014 -Known as the King of Pop, singer-songwriter Michael Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, on August . 29, 1958. -As a child, he performed as the lead singer of the lady a fiend-like queen essays Jackson family's popular Motown group, the Jackson 5. Jackson went on research paper title example, to become one of the lady macbeth queen essays most internationally famous award-winning solo pop sensations to is the world better, date. Jackson's 2009 death stirred controversy and was ultimately ruled a homicide. Dr. Conrad Murray, who had. Berry Gordy , Billie Jean , Death of Michael Jackson 949 Words | 3 Pages. A Psychological Autopsy on Michael Jackson Axis I 296.32: Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, and Moderate 300.7: Body Dysmorphic . A Fiend-like Queen! Disorder 307.1: Anorexia Nervosa 304.90: Other Substance Dependence Axis II 301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder 301.4: Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Axis III Vitiligo Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Axis IV 995.54: Physical Abuse of child V61.20: Parent-Child Relational Problem Axis V 68 Michael Jackson showed evidence of resume, Body Dysmorphic. Lupus erythematosus , Michael Jackson , Oprah Winfrey 1028 Words | 3 Pages. Michael Collins Death in Beal Na mBlath With the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, a bitter Civil War erupted in Ireland between the . Pro-Treaty and macbeth a fiend-like queen Anti-Treaty forces. As Commander-In-Chief of the Free State Army, on the 18th of August 1922, Michael Collins announced his intention to inspect the State military posts in the South, having previously returned from earlier inspections to attend Arthur Griffith’s funeral. His colleagues advised him not to go, as he would have to travel through deep.

Bandon, County Cork , Clonakilty , County Cork 1595 Words | 5 Pages. King of Pop; The way you make us feel. Michael Joseph Jackson commonly known as MJ as well as ‘The King of Pop’ was an American musician, . entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and personal life has been a part of pop culture for almost 40 years. In the reflection topic early 1980s, he became a dominant figure in popular music and the first African American entertainer to amass a strong crossover following on MTV. He was born on August 29th, 1958. As the seventh child of the Jackson family, he made. Death of queen, Michael Jackson , Janet Jackson , Jermaine Jackson 1730 Words | 5 Pages.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. It has often been associated with other claims about morality: notably, the thesis that different cultures often exhibit radically different moral values; the denial that there are universal moral values shared by every human society; and lady macbeth a fiend-like the insistence that we should refrain from passing moral judgments on beliefs and practices characteristic of cultures other than our own. Relativistic views of morality first found expression in topic 5th century B.C.E. A Fiend-like Queen Essays. Greece, but they remained largely dormant until the 19th and 20th centuries. During this time, a number of factors converged to make moral relativism appear plausible. World. These included a new appreciation of lady queen, cultural diversity prompted by essay on gun anthropological discoveries; the declining importance of religion in modernized societies; an increasingly critical attitude toward colonialism and its assumption of moral superiority over the colonized societies; and growing skepticism toward any form of moral objectivism, given the difficulty of proving value judgments the way one proves factual claims.

For some, moral relativism, which relativizes the truth of moral claims, follows logically from a broader cognitive relativism that relativizes truth in general. Many moral relativists, however, take the lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, fact-value distinction to essays, be fundamental. A common, albeit negative, reason for embracing moral relativism is simply the perceived untenability of moral objectivism: every attempt to lady macbeth essays, establish a single, objectively valid and universally binding set of moral principles runs up against formidable objections. A more positive argument sometimes advanced in carle essays defense of moral relativism is that it promotes tolerance since it encourages us to understand other cultures on macbeth their own terms. Critics claim that relativists typically exaggerate the degree of federal resume writing, diversity among cultures since superficial differences often mask underlying shared agreements. In fact, some say that there is lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, a core set of universal values that any human culture must endorse if it is to flourish. Parenthood. Moral relativists are also accused of macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, inconsistently claiming that there are no universal moral norms while appealing to a principle of on single parenthood, tolerance as a universal norm.

In the eyes of many critics, though, the most serious objection to essays, moral relativism is that it implies the pernicious consequence that “anything goes”: slavery is just according to the norms of a slave society; sexist practices are right according to the values of paper title, a sexist culture. Lady Essays. Without some sort of non-relative standard to appeal to, the critics argue, we have no basis for reflection topic, critical moral appraisals of our own culture’s conventions, or for judging one society to be better than another. Naturally, most moral relativists typically reject the assumption that such judgments require a non-relativistic foundation. In the view of most people throughout history, moral questions have objectively correct answers. There are obvious moral truths just as there are obvious facts about the a fiend-like queen, world. Cowardice is a bad quality. A man should not have sex with his mother. Essay On Gun Control. Heroes deserve respect. Such statements would be viewed as obviously and objectively true, no more open to dispute than the claim that seawater is salty. This assumption was first challenged in lady macbeth queen fifth century B.C.E. Greece.

The idea was that moral beliefs and practices are bound up with customs and conventions, and on single parenthood these vary greatly between societies. Macbeth Queen Essays. The historian Herodotus tells the story of how the Persian king Darius asked some Greeks at his court if there was any price for which they would be willing to eat their dead father’s bodies the way the Callatiae did. The Greeks said nothing could induce them to do this. Darius then asked some Callatiae who were present if they would ever consider burning their fathers’ bodies, as was the custom among Greeks. The Callatiae were horrified at the suggestion.

Herodotus sees this story as vindicating the poet Pindar’s dictum that “custom is lord of all”; people’s beliefs and practices are shaped by custom, and better they typically assume that their own ways are the best. Herodotus’ anecdote is not an isolated moment of macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, reflection on cultural diversity and the conventional basis for writing, morality. The sophists—notably Protagoras, Gorgias, and some of their followers—were also associated with relativistic thinking. As itinerant intellectuals and teachers, the sophists were cosmopolitan, impressed by and prompted to reflect upon the diversity in religions, political systems, laws, manners, and queen tastes they encountered in different societies. Protagoras, who famously asserted that “man is the measure of essay, all things,” seems to have embraced a wholesale relativism that extended to truth of any kind, but this view was uncommon. More popular and influential was the contrast that many drew between nomos (law, custom) and physis (nature, natural order).

In Plato’s Gorgias , for lady a fiend-like, instance, Callicles, a student of Gorgias, argues that human laws and conventional notions about justice are at odds with what is right according to nature (which is that the strong should dominate the weak). Control. This view is not truly relativism, since it asserts a certain conception of justice as objectively correct, but Callicles’ stress on the merely conventional status of lady essays, ordinary morality points the way towards relativism. More radical is the position advanced by the sophist Thrasymachus in on gun control Book One of Plato’s Republic when he claims that “justice is nothing but the a fiend-like queen, advantage of the stronger.” According to one interpretation, Thrasymachus is arguing that nothing is objectively right or wrong; moral language is simply a tool used by the powerful to justify the moral and legal systems that serve their interests. This view echoes the one expressed by the Athenians in Thucydides’ “Melian Dialogue” when they dismiss the Melian’s complaint that Athenian policy toward them is unjust. Control. So, relativistic thinking seems to have been in the air at macbeth a fiend-like essays, the time.

Strictly speaking, it is a form of moral nihilism rather than moral relativism, but in rejecting the reflection topic, whole idea of objective moral truth it clears the ground for relativism. Even though moral relativism makes its first appearance in ancient times, it hardly flourished. Plato vigorously defended the idea of an macbeth queen, objective moral order linked to a transcendent reality while Aristotle sought to ground morality on objective facts about human nature and well-being. Is The World Getting Better Essay. A few centuries later, Sextus Empiricus appears to have embraced a form of moral relativism, partly on the basis of the lady macbeth, diversity of laws and conventions, and partly as a consequence of his Pyrrhonian skepticism that sought to eschew dogmatism. In his Outlines of Pyrrhonism , Sextus catalogues the tremendous diversity to be found between cultures in the laws and customs relating to such things as dress, diet, treatment of the resume, dead, and a fiend-like sexual relations, and concludes: “seeing so great a diversity of practices, the is the world better or worse essay, skeptic suspends judgment as to the natural existence of anything good or bad, or generally to be done” (Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism , 1, 14). Macbeth Essays. But Hellenistic skepticism gave way to resume writing, philosophy informed by queen Christianity, and moral relativism effectively became dormant and remained so throughout the period of Christian hegemony in topic Europe. According to the monotheistic religions, God’s will represents an objective moral touchstone. A Fiend-like Queen Essays. Scriptural precepts such as “Thou shalt not kill” constitute absolute, universally binding, moral truths. Relativism thus ceased to be an option until the advent of modernity.

Many scholars see the first reappearance of a relativistic outlook in the writings of essay, Montaigne, which, not coincidentally, came on the heels of the publication of Sextus’ writings in the 1560s. In “On Custom,” Montaigne compiles his own list of radically diverse mores to be found in different societies, and asserts that “the laws of conscience which we say are born of a fiend-like queen essays, Nature are born of custom.” (Montaigne, p. 83). In his famous essay “On Cannibals,” written around 1578, Montaigne describes the lives of so-called barbarians in the new world, noting their bravery in page battle, the queen, natural simplicity of their morals, and their uncomplicated social structure. Writing. “All this is lady a fiend-like essays, not too bad,” he says, “but what’s the use? They don’t wear breeches.” The thrust of the essay is thus to criticize the carle essays, ethnocentrism of the “civilized” Europeans who naively think themselves morally superior to such people. Furthermore, Montaigne advances as a general thesis that “each man calls barbarism whatever is not his own practice; for indeed it seems we have no other test of truth and reason than the example and pattern of the opinions and customs of the country we live in” (Montaigne, p. 152). In the macbeth queen essays, centuries following, further trends in modern philosophy helped prepare the way for moral relativism by essay chipping away at lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, people’s faith in the objectivity of on a, ethics.

In the lady essays, 17th century, Hobbes argued for a social contract view of morality that sees moral rules, like laws, as something human beings agree upon in order to make social living possible. An implication of this view is essay, that moral tenets are not right or wrong according to whether they correspond to some transcendent blueprint; rather, they should be appraised pragmatically according to how well they serve their purpose. Hume, like Montaigne, was heavily influenced by macbeth a fiend-like queen ancient skepticism, and this colors his view of parenthood, morality. Macbeth Queen. His argument, that prescriptions saying how we should act cannot be logically derived from factual claims about the way things are, raised doubts about the possibility of eric, proving the correctness of any particular moral point of view. So, too, did his insistence that morality is lady macbeth, based ultimately on reflection on a topic feelings rather than on reason. Hume was not a relativist, but his arguments helped support elements of relativism. Essays. With the remarkable progress of science in the 19th and 20th centuries, the fact-value distinction became entrenched in mainstream philosophy and social science.

Science came to be seen as offering value-neutral descriptions of an independently existing reality; moral claims, by contrast, came to be viewed by many as mere expressions of emotional attitudes. This view of morality suggests that all moral outlooks are on the same logical plane, with none capable of example, being proved correct or superior to all the rest. There are relativistic tendencies in Marx’s critique of bourgeois morality as an ideology expressing certain class interests. A Fiend-like Queen. According to one interpretation, Marx holds that there is no objectively true moral system, only interest-serving ideologies that use moral language. But Marx wrote little about ethics, so it is hard to reflection topic, pin down his philosophical views about the nature of lady queen, morality and control the status of moral claims. Nietzsche, on the other hand, wrote extensively and influentially about macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, morality. Scholars disagree about whether he should be classified as a relativist, but his thought certainly has a pronounced relativistic thrust.

His famous pronouncement that “God is dead” implies, among other things, that the idea of a transcendent or objective justification for moral claims—whether it be God, Platonic Forms, or Reason—is no longer credible. And he explicitly embraces a form of perspectivism according to which “there are no moral phenomena, only moral interpretations of phenomena” ( Beyond Good and Evil , 108). It is true that Nietzsche likes to rank moralities according to whether they are expressions of strength or weakness, health or sickness; but he does not insist that the criteria of rank he favors constitute an on single parenthood, objectively privileged vantage point from which different moralities can be appraised. These philosophical ideas prepared the ground for moral relativism mainly by raising doubts about the possibility of demonstrating that any particular moral code is objectively correct. But anthropological research in macbeth a fiend-like essays the 19th and 20th centuries also encouraged relativism. Indeed, many of its leading contemporary champions from Franz Boas to Clifford Gertz have been anthropologists. One of the first to writing, argue at length for a fiend-like, moral relativism was William Sumner. In his major work, Folkways , published in 1906, Sumner argues that notions about what is right and wrong are bound up with a society’s mores and are shaped by page its customs, practices, and institutions. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen. To those living within that society, the concept of eric carle, moral rightness can only mean conformity to the local mores. Sumner acknowledges that if members of a culture generalize its mores into abstract principles, they will probably regard these as correct in an absolute sense.

This may even be psychologically unavoidable. But it is not philosophically legitimate; the mores themselves cannot be an object of moral appraisal since there is macbeth a fiend-like, no higher tribunal to which appeals can be made. The work of Franz Boas was also tremendously influential. Boas viewed cultural relativism—a commitment to understanding a society in its own terms—as methodologically essential to scientific anthropology. From an objective, scientific standpoint one may not pass moral judgment on resume writing the beliefs and practices that inhere within a culture, although one may objectively assess the extent to which they help that society achieve its overarching goals.

Many of Boas’ students helped disseminate this approach, and some, such as Melville Herskovits and essays Ruth Benedict, made more explicit its implications with respect to essays, ethics, arguing that a relativistic outlook can help combat prejudice and promote tolerance. The debate over moral relativism in modern times has thus not been an abstract discussion of interest only to professional philosophers. It is thought to have implications for the social sciences, for international relations, and for relations between communities within a society. In 1947, the American Anthropological Association submitted a statement to the UN Commission on Human Rights criticizing what some viewed as an attempt by the West to impose its particular values on other societies in the name of universal rights. The statement declared that: Standards and values are relative to the culture from which they derive so that any attempt to formulate postulates that grow out of the beliefs or moral codes of one culture must to that extent detract from the applicability of any Declaration of Human Rights to mankind as a whole ( American Anthropologist , Vol. Lady Queen Essays. 49, No. 4, p. 542). It went on reflection to assert that “man is free only when he lives as his society defines freedom” ( ibid . p. 543).

Needless to say, the statement caused some controversy since many members of the AAA did not agree with the position it laid out. More recently, discussions of relativism have been at the center of lady a fiend-like queen, debates about how societies with large immigrant populations should deal with the problem of multiculturalism. To what extent should the practices of minorities be accepted, even if they seem to conflict with the values of the majority culture? In France, a law was passed in 2011 banning face veils that some Muslim women view as required by Islam. Those supporting the federal resume writing, ban appeal to values they consider universal such as sexual equality and freedom of expression (which the face veil is lady macbeth, said to violate since it inhibits expressive interaction). But critics of the policy see it as expressing a kind of cultural intolerance, just the sort of thing that relativism claims to counter.

2. Reflection On A. Clarifying What Moral Relativism Is (and Is Not) Defining moral relativism is difficult because different writers use the term in slightly different ways; in particular, friends and foes of relativism often diverge considerably in lady macbeth their characterization of essay on single, it. Therefore, it is important to first distinguish between some of the positions that have been identified or closely associated with moral relativism before setting out queen, a definition that captures the main idea its adherents seek to put forward. Descriptive relativism is a thesis about cultural diversity. It holds that, as a matter of fact, moral beliefs and reflection on a practices vary between cultures (and sometimes between groups within a single society). For instance, some societies condemn homosexuality, others accept it; in some cultures a student who corrects a teacher would be thought disrespectful; elsewhere such behavior might be encouraged. Descriptive relativism is put forward as an empirical claim based on evidence provided by anthropological research; hence it is most strongly associated with the work of anthropologists such as William Sumner, Ruth Benedict and Meville Herskovits. A Fiend-like. There is a spectrum of possible versions of this thesis. In its strongest, most controversial form, it denies that there are any moral universals—norms or values that every human culture endorses. This extreme view is rarely, if ever, defended, since it seems reasonable to suppose that the affirmation of certain values—for instance, a concern for is the world, the wellbeing of the young-- is necessary for any society to survive. But Benedict seems to approach it when she writes of the lady macbeth a fiend-like, three societies she describes in Patterns of eric carle essays, Culture that [t]hey are oriented as wholes in different directions….traveling along different roads in pursuit of lady a fiend-like, different ends and these ends and these means in one society cannot be judged in terms of those of essays, another society, because essentially they are incommensurable ( Patterns of lady macbeth queen essays, Culture, p. 206).

In its weakest, least controversial form, descriptive relativism merely denies that all cultures share the same moral outlook. A well-known version of this has been defended by David Wong, who describes his position as “pluralistic relativism.” The somewhat simple form of descriptive relativism, which takes any differences between the moral beliefs or practices of essay, two cultures as evidence of a difference in moral outlooks, has been heavily criticized both by social scientists such as Solomon Asch and by philosophers such as Michele Moody-Adams. One objection is that it is difficult to lady macbeth queen, establish the relativist’s claims about moral diversity in an evaluatively neutral way; for the empirical researcher who asserts that a particular moral belief is representative of on gun control, a culture will have to grant the opinions of lady a fiend-like queen, some members of federal resume writing, that culture authoritative status while ignoring or glossing over internal conflicts and a fiend-like queen essays ongoing cultural changes. Another objection is that many apparent moral differences between cultures are not really fundamental disagreements about questions of value—that is, disagreements that would persist even if both parties were in essay on single full agreement about all the pertinent facts. For instance, the taboo against homosexuality in some cultures may rest on the belief that homosexuality is a sin against God that will result in lady a fiend-like the sinner suffering eternal damnation. The point of conflict between these cultures and essay on gun control those that tolerate homosexuality may thus be viewed as being, fundamentally, not about the intrinsic rightness or wrongness of a fiend-like queen, homosexuality but the different factual beliefs they hold concerning the consequences of homosexuality. In light of such difficulties, contemporary defenders of reflection on a topic, descriptive relativism usually prefer a fairly modest, tempered version of the doctrine.

Wong, for instance, holds that human nature and the human condition set limits to how much moral systems could diverge while still counting as true moralities; but he argues that the lady a fiend-like queen essays, experience of “moral ambivalence”—which occurs when one disagrees with another person’s moral views yet recognizes that their position is reasonable—is nevertheless common and world getting better essay usually arises when the parties put shared values in a different order of priority. Cultural relativism asserts that the beliefs and practices of human beings are best understood by grasping them in relation to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, the cultural context in which they occur. It was originally put forward as, and remains today, a basic methodological principle of modern anthropology. It was championed by anthropologists like Sumner and Boas who saw it as an antidote of the unconscious ethnocentrism that may lead social scientists to misunderstand the phenomena they are observing. For instance, ritualistic infliction of pain may look, on resume the surface, like a punishment aimed at deterring others from wrongdoing; but it may in fact be viewed by those involved in the practice as serving a quite different function, such as purging the community of an impurity. Ironically, an extension of this argument in favor of the view that what appears on the surface to be similar acts can have different “situational meanings” has been used as an objection to essays, descriptive relativism. Thus, Gestalt psychologist Karl Duncker, argued that the research paper page, action by lady a fiend-like an Eskimo of killing his aged parent, where this is socially sanctioned as a way to spare their suffering, is not the same act as the killing of a parent in a society where such an action would generally be condemned as murder.

Since the topic, meaning of each act differs, we should not infer that the values of the two societies are necessarily in conflict. The term cultural relativism is sometimes also used to denote the corollary methodological principle that social scientists, if they wish their work to have scientific status, should describe and analyze what goes on in the cultures they are studying, carefully eschewing any normative appraisal of what they observe. Ethical non-realism is the lady, view that there is no objective moral order that makes our moral beliefs true or false and our actions right or wrong. Federal Writing. The term “objective” employed here is notoriously difficult to explicate; it means something like “independent of human desires, perceptions, beliefs and practices” (although the meaning of the term “independent” is macbeth essays, equally hard to topic, pin down). According to an ethical realist, a sentence like “slavery is wrong” is true or false regardless of the speaker’s state of lady queen essays, mind or the norms prevailing in eric his or her community. This is the view held by most philosophers in the Western canon from Plato and Aristotle to Kant, Mill, and G. Lady A Fiend-like. E. Moore.

It continues to be widely held, and leading contemporary defenders of ethical realism include Thomas Nagel, John McDowell, and Richard Boyd. Ethical non-realists obviously reject ethical realism, but not all for the same reasons; consequently there are several types of ethical non-realism. The most head-on rejection of ethical realism is perhaps the essay on single, sort of moral error theory defended by J. L. Mackie. He argues that all moral claims are, strictly speaking, false since they posit properties (for example, goodness, wrongness, fairness) that are “ontologically queer” in being quite unlike any of the properties of things that we can perceive by normal empirical means. In the absence of any special faculty for detecting such properties, and queen therefore of any real evidence for their existence, we should conclude that they don’t exist; hence all statements that assert or presuppose that they exist are false. A skeptical attitude toward moral realism can be more tentative than this. Hume is often interpreted as a moral skeptic who denies the possibility of proving by reason or by empirical evidence the truth of moral statements since our moral views rest entirely on our feelings. Resume. More recently, Michael Ruse, has defended an updated version of Hume, arguing that we are conditioned by evolution to hold fast to certain moral beliefs, regardless of the evidence for or against them; consequently, we should not view such beliefs as rationally justified. And Walter Sinnott-Armstrong has shown how difficult it is to refute moral skepticism, especially the sort of non-dogmatic Pyrrhonian skepticism which holds that one may be justified within a restricted context in affirming a certain moral belief—for instance, in court it is wrong to lie as opposed to lady a fiend-like queen, telling the federal resume, truth—yet not be able to justify the claim that lying, or even perjury, is wrong in some absolute, objective sense.

Ethical non-realism is typically presupposed by moral relativists, but it is not the whole of moral relativism. A Fiend-like Queen Essays. Clearly, no one who believes in on gun the absolute authority of divine law or the lady essays, intrinsic value of a rational will would be likely to embrace relativism. But merely denying that morality has an objective foundation of this sort does not make one a relativist; for moral relativism also asserts that moral claims may be true or false relative to some particular standpoint such as that of a specific culture or historical period. Ethical non-cognitivism is the view that moral judgments are neither true nor false since they are not “truth-apt,” meaning they are not the kind of utterances that can have a truth-value. In this respect they are like questions or commands rather than like indicative sentences such as “Grass is green.” The most common kinds of ethical non-cognitivism in the twentieth century are forms of expressivism which view moral statements as expressions of evaluative attitudes. An especially influential version of this view, first put forward by Ogden and Richards, and later elaborated upon by A.J. Ayer and on single parenthood C.L.

Stevenson, is emotivism. According to a fiend-like essays, emotivism, moral judgments express the speaker’s feelings towards the thing being judged. So, saying “Nelson Mandela is a good man” expresses approval of Mandela; it is like saying “Hurrah for Mandela!” Other forms of ethical non-cognitivism have built on this idea. Prescriptivism, for instance, the view developed by R. M. Hare, acknowledges that moral statements can express emotional attitudes but sees their primary function as that of prescribing how people should behave. Thus, “stealing is wrong” is a way of saying “Don’t steal!” More recent versions of expressivism however, such as Simon Blackburn’s “quasi-realism,” hold that while moral claims are not, strictly speaking, true or false, we are justified in treating them as if they are, both in research paper example our ethical reasoning and in our practice. Most forms of ethical non-cognitivism, like moral relativism, have been fueled by acceptance of lady essays, a fact-value gap. But unlike ethical non-cognitivism, moral relativism does not deny that moral claims can be true; it only denies that they can be made true by some objective, trans-cultural moral order. It allows them to be true in the humbler, relativistic sense of being rationally acceptable from a particular cultural vantage point. Meta-ethical relativism holds that moral judgments are not true or false in any absolute sense, but only relative to particular standpoints. This idea is essential to just about any version of on single, moral relativism.

Relativizing truth to standpoints is essays, a way of answering in advance the objection that relativism implies that the same sentence can be both true and false. The relativity clause means that the same sentence—say, “slavery is unjust”—can be both true and false, but not in exactly the same sense, since the term “unjust” contains an implicit reference to some particular normative framework. The situation is resume writing, analogous to that in which one person says “It is a fiend-like, raining” and another person says “It is not raining.” If they are standing together at the same place and at the same time, they cannot both be right. But if they are speaking at different times or from different locations (standpoints) this is possible. Saying that the federal resume writing, truth of lady macbeth, a moral claim is relative to some standpoint should not be confused with the idea that it is relative to the situation in which it is made.

Only the carle essays, most extreme rigorists would deny that in assessing a moral judgment we should take the particular circumstances into account. Lady Queen Essays. Most people would agree that lying in court to paper page, avoid a fine is macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, wrong, while lying to a madman to protect his intended victim is justified. The particular circumstances surrounding the action alter its character and hence our appraisal of it. Some meta-ethical relativists focus more on the justification of is the world getting essay, moral judgments rather than on their truth. A Fiend-like. Gilbert Harman, for control, instance, argues that when we say someone ought to do something, we imply that she has a “motivating reason”—that is, certain desires and intentions--to perform the lady macbeth a fiend-like, act in question. But whether or not the person has these desires and intentions, and hence feels obliged to perform the action, is largely determined by the prevailing norms of the community to which she belongs. Feelings of moral obligation provide a justification for particular beliefs and research page practices; but these only arise through agents being embedded in particular social groups whose moral outlook they share. Most moral relativists endorse some version of meta-ethical relativism.

But meta-ethical relativism is not quite fully-fledged moral relativism; for one could consistently affirm it and still insist that one particular standpoint was demonstrably superior to all others. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays. It is the denial of this possibility that gives moral relativism a more radical edge and is responsible for much of the criticism it attracts. Normative relativism is the view that it is wrong to eric carle essays, judge or interfere with the moral beliefs and practices of cultures that operate with a different moral framework to one’s own, that what goes on in a society should only be judged by the norms of that society. It is a prescriptive position adopted initially by many anthropologists reacting against the ethnocentrism characteristic of the colonial era. Melvelle Herskovits, for instance, affirms that “… in lady a fiend-like practice, the philosophy of relativism is a philosophy of tolerance” ( Cultural Relativism , p. 31). Similar claims can be found in federal writing the writings of Ruth Benedict and macbeth a fiend-like queen essays Edvard Westermarck. Because it is prescriptive, many would say that what is being described here is not really a form of relativism but is, rather, a position entailed by is the or worse moral relativism. The motive behind it is to avoid arrogance and promote tolerance. But normative relativists can also argue that judging other cultures is misguided since there are no trans-cultural criteria to which one can refer in order to justify one’s judgment.

Whether or not meta-ethical relativism entails normative relativism is a major bone of lady macbeth a fiend-like, contention. Bernard Williams disparages with the label “vulgar relativism” the sort of thinking that simplistically infers tolerance from essay on gun, relativity. Geoffrey Harrison argues that while moral relativism, properly understood, is essentially a meta-ethical position about morality, the claim that we should be tolerant is one made from within a particular moral point of view; the latter does not follow the former, therefore, since they belong to different levels of discourse. And David Wong, while defending both meta-ethical and normative relativism, agrees that the former does not, by lady itself, entail the latter, some sort of independent principle of eric essays, liberal political theory being also needed to support a non-interventionist position. Moral relativism has been identified with all the macbeth a fiend-like, above positions; and no formula can capture all the ways the term is used by both its advocates and its critics.

But it is research title page, possible to articulate a position that most who call themselves moral relativists would endorse. 1. Moral judgments are true or false and actions are right or wrong only relative to some particular standpoint (usually the moral framework of a specific community). 2. No standpoint can be proved objectively superior to lady queen, any other. According to this view, “slavery is unjust” is true relative to the moral framework of most 21st century Norwegians, but it is essay, false relative to the moral perspective of most white Americans in South Carolina in lady macbeth essays the 18th century. Regarding the essay, second clause in the definition, moral philosophers from the time of Plato have sought to demonstrate the objective correctness (and hence the a fiend-like queen essays, superiority) of a given moral outlook by showing how it conforms to God’s will, or corresponds to eric carle, a metaphysical moral order, or is entailed by macbeth queen dictates of paper title page, Reason, or accords with basic intuitions, or best meets the needs of human nature. According to the moral relativist, all such attempts fail, for they all rest on premises that belong to the standpoint being defended and need not be accepted by people who do not share that point of view. Thus, a critic of slavery could no doubt prove the truth of what she says to anyone who accepts her basic premises—for example, that all races are equally human, and that all human beings should enjoy the same basic rights. But the argument will not convince someone who denies these premises. To them, such a “proof” of macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, slavery’s wrongness will appear question begging, and they can reject it without being inconsistent or irrational.

The fact that one moral outlook cannot be conclusively proved superior to reflection on a topic, another does not mean, however, that it cannot be judged superior; nor does it imply that one cannot give reasons for preferring it. Gilbert Harman, for instance, holds that he can consistently affirm basic tenets of liberal morality while recognizing that his reasons for doing so may not be “motivating reasons” to someone belonging to macbeth a fiend-like, a different moral culture, and so will have no persuasive power. A moderate moral relativist like David Wong argues that some moralities are better than others on the grounds that they better serve the needs and purposes that people in or worse all cultures share. But within the parameters imposed by the common human condition, significant variation in moral outlook is possible. For instance, between the individualistic ways of thinking that are characteristic of the macbeth queen essays, modern West and the community-centered outlooks more typical of Asia—to take an is the world better essay, example Wong considers in depth—one can express a preference, but one cannot justify it by appealing to neutral criteria of superiority. Macbeth Queen. Thomas Scanlon, an even milder kind of relativist, also defends the idea that one can view another society’s moral norms as worthy of respect while still having cogent reasons for preferring one’s own. Moral relativists typically relativize the federal resume, truth of moral judgments to cultures, which may encompass an lady macbeth a fiend-like, entire society or historical period (China, Victorian England) but can also designate a subculture within a society (the Pennsylvania Amish, urban street gangs). In principle, the resume, standpoint in question could be narrowed to that of a single individual, in which case, the relativism becomes a form of a fiend-like, moral subjectivism. But this is not a widely held position since it seems to reduce to the idea that whatever an individual believes to be right is right, and that would seem to undermine the whole idea of morality.

The main arguments for moral relativism are not necessarily all compatible. For instance, some relativists presuppose that value judgments are fundamentally different from factual judgments (which can be objectively true), while others see the truth of both kinds of is the essay, judgment as irreducibly relative to some conceptual or cultural framework. The arguments given here thus represent different routes by which one may arrive at a relativistic view of morality. a. The Argument from Cultural Diversity. Textbooks often suggest that relativists argue from the plain fact that different cultures have different moral belief systems to a relativistic view of morality; but this is an oversimplification.

The path seems to be more along the following lines. Awareness of the existence of diverse moralities (a) casts doubt on the idea that there is a single true morality, and (b) encourages the idea that the morality of one’s own culture has no special status but is just one moral system among many. The fact of diversity—if it is a fact, which some question (see section 4a below)—does not logically entail moral relativism. It does not even entail that objectivism is false. Lady A Fiend-like Queen. After all, there are diverse views on carle how human beings came to exist, but that does not imply that there is no single, objectively correct account.

Nor can moral relativism really claim to explain the diversity of moral systems, although this claim is macbeth essays, sometimes made on its behalf. For how can the mere absence of something—in this case, an objective and universally binding moral code— explain the phenomenon in eric essays question? The suggestion seems to lady a fiend-like essays, rest on the premise that if there were an objective moral truth, there would not be such moral diversity. Presumably, the idea underlying this premise is that cultures would have by now converged on the objective moral truth. But the absence of an objective truth does not explain this lack of writing, convergence. At most, it is merely a condition that makes diversity more likely. Cultures have different sporting preferences: Brazilians love soccer; Pakistanis prefer cricket; Mongolians are passionate about horse racing.

But no one would suggest that these differences are explained by the absence of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, a single, objectively superior game that everyone should play. To be sure, an objectivist has to explain why so many people seem to have failed to discover the one true moral code, while relativists are excused from is the better or worse essay, this task. Lady Macbeth Queen Essays. But explanations referencing the usual suspects—ignorance, habit, tradition, unreason, fear, self-interest, and so on—are possible. Thus, diversity by itself proves very little. Relativists nevertheless see it as suggestive, often pointing to federal resume writing, an analogy between moralities and religions. The existence of macbeth, many different religions does not prove that none of them can claim to be the one true religion. But it obviously does raise the essay control, question of lady a fiend-like queen, how the essay control, objective truth of any religion could possibly be demonstrated. And in the case of moralities, too, the lady macbeth essays, question arises: how is it possible to prove that one is federal resume writing, superior to all the others?

b. The Untenability of Moral Objectivism. The untenability of moral objectivism is probably the most popular and persuasive justification for moral relativism--that it follows from the collapse of moral objectivism, or is at least the best alternative to queen, objectivism. The argument obviously rests on the idea that moral objectivism has been discredited. In its oldest and most widespread form, the reflection on a topic, idea that a moral code has objective validity rests on the belief that it has some sort of divine sanction. With the decline in religious faith that is a hallmark of modernity, this foundation for morality was shaken.

Consequently, much moral philosophy from the 17th century onwards has been devoted to establishing an alternative, secular foundation, one that can claim universal validity without appealing to dubious metaphysical doctrines. This is what Alasdair MacIntyre has dubbed the “enlightenment project.” But despite the efforts of Kant, Mill, and their successors, many remain skeptical about the macbeth a fiend-like queen, possibility of essay on single parenthood, proving the objective truth or the universal validity of moral claims. The fact that the moral objectivists themselves cannot agree about which moral system is correct, or what its philosophical foundation should be, encourages this skepticism. But it also rests on forceful philosophical considerations. Moral judgments, say the critics of objectivism, have an irreducible evaluative component. They assert, assume, or imply that a state of affairs is good or bad, that an action is right or wrong, or that something is macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, better than something else. But if one accepts—as many do—that value judgments are logically distinct from factual statements and getting better essay cannot be derived from them, then any attempt to justify a moral claim must rest on at least some value-laden premises. And these basic moral presuppositions will not be susceptible to proof at all. For example, an lady macbeth essays, argument to prove that a husband should not beat his wife will probably rest on the assumption that men and women should enjoy equal rights.

But how does one prove this to someone who categorically denies it? How does one prove that the intrinsic value of happiness should be the foundation of our moral judgments to someone who thinks that family honor is the most important value of all? Or how does one prove that individual rights are a primary good to someone whose theoretical bottom line is that individuals should be subservient to the state? The increase in skepticism towards moral objectivism is one of the most significant shifts that has taken place in moral philosophy over the past two centuries. This trend has been reinforced by carle the apparent contrast between natural science and moral discourse. Science is lady macbeth queen, generally thought to describe an topic, independently existing, objective reality; and scientists from all over the world largely accept the same methodology, data, theories and conclusions, except in the case of disputes at essays, the cutting edge of research. Ethics exhibits nothing like this degree of convergence. Gilbert Harman is one of the best-known defenders of moral relativism along these lines. But other critics of objectivism, such as Alasdair MacIntrye and Richard Rorty, have carved out relativistic positions that don’t rest on acceptance of a sharp distinction between facts and eric values. Moral relativism is not the only response to lady macbeth queen essays, the perceived problems with moral objectivism.

As noted earlier, ethical non-realism, ethical non-cognitivism, emotivism, moral subjectivism, and on single moral skepticism are other possible responses, for a fiend-like, the mere denial of objectivism, like the mere fact of cultural diversity, does not logically entail moral relativism. It does, however, undoubtedly make people more receptive to a relativistic outlook. c. The Argument from Cognitive Relativism. The majority of moral relativists do not embrace cognitive relativism, which offers a relativistic account of truth in general, not just the truth of moral judgments. However, some do, and this is another path to page example, moral relativism. One of the macbeth, merits of this approach to moral relativism is that it can help to clarify fundamental questions about what is meant by talk about the relativity of essay on gun, moral claims. What does it mean, after all, to say that moral norms are “relative to” some culture? If we are merely saying that what people think about right and wrong is influenced by the cultural environment, then the claim seems banal. If we are saying that moral beliefs and practices are causally determined by macbeth the surrounding culture, then unless one is parenthood, a strict determinist, the thesis seems to be obviously false; for members raised in the same cultural community can adopt very different moral outlooks. The philosophically interesting claim at the heart of most forms of moral relativism is that moral statements are true (or false) relative to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, some normative standpoint, usually one characteristic of world getting or worse essay, some particular culture.

But what does “true relative to” mean, precisely? From an objectivist or realist point of view, the phrase makes little sense since what determines the lady macbeth essays, truth or falsity of a statement is whether or not it accords with objective reality. The cognitive relativist, however, argues that this notion of truth is philosophically vacuous since it employs the notion of an eric, independent, objective reality that lies beyond any possible experience. Cognitive relativism holds that (a) the truth value of any judgment is relative to some particular standpoint (for example, a conceptual scheme or theoretical framework); and (b) no standpoint is lady a fiend-like queen, metaphysically privileged over all others—there is no “God’s eye point of view” that yields the objective truth about reality. Relativists of this sort are not so impressed by essay parenthood the fact-value distinction. They do not view truth as a property that sentences possess in virtue of their correspondence to an independent reality. Rather, they argue that we call a sentence “true” when it coheres with the rest of our beliefs, perceptions, values, and lady essays assumptions—in other words, when it is rationally acceptable or appears justified according to our general conceptual scheme. Essay On Gun Control. On this view, “the earth moves around the sun” is false relative to a medieval conceptual scheme and is true relative to macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, ours. Similarly, “homosexuality is morally wrong” is true relative to eric carle essays, the perspective of conservative Christians and macbeth a fiend-like queen essays false relative to that of twenty-first century liberals.

There is no essential difference between the two cases. And in both cases, it is not possible to demonstrate logically the superiority of writing, one standpoint over the other. This is macbeth a fiend-like, more or less the eric carle, position defended by Richard Rorty, even though he rejects the relativist label. Rorty likes to macbeth a fiend-like queen, describe himself as following in topic the footsteps of William James and John Dewey, although his interpretation of his pragmatist predecessors is controversial. According to macbeth a fiend-like queen, him, the term “true” is an “empty compliment” we pay to on single, statements that we consider sufficiently well supported by the network of other assumptions, beliefs, and experiences that surround them. d. Moral Relativism Promotes Tolerance. The idea that moral relativism promotes tolerance is lady macbeth queen essays, a normative argument. Essay. The key idea is that moral relativism encourages a certain humility. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen. Becoming aware of the merely relative validity of one’s own moral norms makes one less likely to fall into arrogant ethnocentrism and less inclined to pass moral judgment on research title the beliefs and practices found in other cultures.

In effect, the argument is that moral relativism entails normative relativism (see above). Ruth Benedict states the idea forcefully at a fiend-like queen, the end of her influential work Patterns of Culture , when she expresses her hope that, on the basis of the sort of anthropological research she has described, “we shall arrive at a more realistic social faith, accepting as grounds of hope and as new bases for essay on gun, tolerance the coexisting and macbeth a fiend-like equally valid patterns of life which mankind has created for itself from the raw materials of research paper page, existence ( Patterns of Culture , p. Macbeth A Fiend-like. 257). Benedict, in fact, takes the world essay, argument a step further, arguing that the relativistic outlook she champions can be positively beneficial in helping to lady a fiend-like, combat bigotry, racism, chauvinism and other forms of prejudice. One reason for thinking that a relativistic view of morality might foster tolerance is eric carle essays, that it will also incline us to be more self-critical. Edvard Westermarck makes this connection in his 1932 work Ethical Relativity when he says, “Could it be brought home to people that there is no absolute standard in morality, they would perhaps be on the one hand more tolerant and on the other more critical in their judgments” ( Ethical Relativity , p. 59). As mentioned earlier, however, even some thinkers sympathetic to relativism, such as Harrison and Wong, are suspicious of the lady, claim that moral relativism by itself necessarily entails a tolerant attitude toward alternative moralities. And critics of relativism, such as W.T. Stace and Karl Popper, argue that if relativism does indeed imply universal tolerance, that this constitutes an eric, objection to it, since some things—like oppressively intolerant moral systems—should not be tolerated (see section 4g below). a. Relativists Exaggerate Cultural Diversity. The objection that relativists exaggerate cultural diversity is directed against descriptive relativism more than against moral relativism as defined above; but it has figured importantly in many debates about relativism.

In its simplest form, the argument runs as follows. Every human culture has some sort of moral code, and these overlap to a considerable extent. There is a common core of macbeth a fiend-like, shared values such as trustworthiness, friendship, and courage, along with certain prohibitions, such as those against murder or incest. Federal Resume Writing. Some version of the golden rule—treat others as you would have them treat you—is also encountered in almost every society. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like. The existence of these universal values is is the getting better essay, easy to macbeth, explain: they enable societies to flourish, and their absence would jeopardize a society’s chances of paper title page example, survival. The claim that every society must share these basic commitments thus links up with findings in evolutionary ethics. It is also supported, according to some, by the results of the macbeth, “moral sense test,” a research project conducted by Harvard’s Primate and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory.

The project is an internet-based study of the is the world getting better essay, moral intuitions of people from all over the world. The responses are sufficiently uniform, according to the laboratory’s director, Mark Hauser, to support the idea that there is a “universally shared moral faculty” common to all human beings and rooted in our evolutionary heritage. Such universalist claims are sometimes cited by those seeking to establish a generally agreed upon set of human rights or human capacities, a foundation for the work of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, organizations and bodies like the United Nations. The argument that relativists exaggerate the diversity among moral systems is also advanced in a subtler form, an early version of which can be found in reflection on a the Dialogue that Hume appended to his Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals . What appear to be striking differences in lady macbeth queen moral outlook turn out, on closer examination, to be superficial disagreements masking underlying common values. Example. For example, some nomadic cultures have considered infanticide to lady macbeth essays, be morally acceptable, while in other societies it is viewed as murder. But those carrying out world getting or worse essay, infanticide may be motivated by lady a fiend-like the knowledge that they lack the resources to reflection on a, support the child. Lady A Fiend-like Queen. Their action is thus prompted by a concern for the well being of the eric carle essays, community, and macbeth a fiend-like essays perhaps, also, a desire that the child be spared avoidable suffering—values that would be recognized and approved by people in other societies where, since additional children would be less of a burden, infanticide is prohibited. In this case, the apparent difference in values is explained by the different circumstances of the societies in is the world getting better or worse essay question.

Other seeming differences may be explained by reference to macbeth queen essays, the different factual beliefs that people hold. Take the issue of slavery. Reflection On A Topic. Some societies have seen nothing wrong with slavery; others view it is macbeth essays, a moral abomination. This would seem to essays, mark a basic and serious disparity in moral perspectives. Lady. Yet both parties may subscribe to the principle that “all men are created equal.” Their disagreement may be over whether or not the people being enslaved are fully human. And defenders of slavery in the United States did indeed used to argue that blacks were sub-human and could therefore legitimately be treated like animals rather than as human beings. The critics of relativism thus argue that before declaring a moral difference between cultures to be fundamental we should look carefully to world getting better essay, see whether the difference does not, at bottom, arise out of disparate living conditions or rest on conflicting factual beliefs.

The question of whether or not there are universal values has been at the center of many of the lady queen, debates about moral relativism. But the control, expression “universal values” is ambiguous, and how it is understood affects the kind of relativism that it calls into question. (i) “Universal values” can mean moral values or norms to which every culture, as a matter of fact, is committed. If there are universal values in this sense, then it is an objection to a strong version of descriptive relativism which sees cultural diversity as sufficiently radical to preclude any common ground that all cultures share. It is worth noting that descriptive relativism would also become false in the event of humanity eventually converging on a single moral outlook or of lady a fiend-like essays, a catastrophe that wiped out all cultures except one. But neither scenario would falsify moral relativism as defined above, since it is not an empirical theory about anyone’s actual beliefs or practices; it is, rather, a view about the status of moral judgments and the limitations on how they can be supported. (ii) “Universal values” can mean moral values or norms that everyone ought to affirm. This is a normative universalism. Research Paper Title. It is likely that most who hold this view see these universal values as constitutive of an macbeth a fiend-like queen, objectively correct moral point of view. Understood in essay control this way, the macbeth queen, position is is the world getting better, incompatible with relativism. Lady Queen. But the view that there are, as a matter of fact, universally shared values does not entail this normative universalism.

After all, every society might agree that homosexuality is wicked or that men should have dominion over women. Page Example. It would not follow that everyone should embrace these values. b. Relativism Ignores Diversity Within a Culture. When relativists say that the truth of moral claims and the rightness of actions is relative to the norms and values of the culture in a fiend-like queen which they occur, they seem to assume that members of essay on single, that culture will generally agree about the moral framework which they supposedly share. This may sometimes be the case; but such homogeneous and relatively static cultures are increasingly uncommon. A Fiend-like Queen. Today, many cultures contain sub-communities that disagree sharply on matters such as abortion, capital punishment, euthanasia, polygamy, women’s rights, gay rights, drug use, or the treatment of on a, animals. Given that this is so, which set of norms and values are we supposed to refer to when judging a belief or practice? If the macbeth a fiend-like queen, relevant norms are those of the sub-culture to which the better, person making the claim belongs, then the a fiend-like queen essays, relativist position seems in danger of spiraling down toward subjectivism, since there can be many sub-cultures, and some of them can be quite small. From the other direction comes the objection that relativists tend to ignore the extent to essay, which cultures overlap and influence one another. These criticisms are related, as both accuse relativists of presupposing an oversimplified and outdated view of what a culture is.

This charge seems to have some purchase on the sort of relativism that treats the validity of macbeth a fiend-like queen, moral claims as relative to specific identifiable cultures. It seems less damaging, though, to the kind of relativism that relates moral claims to general normative standpoints without requiring that these be identified with actual communities. c. Relativism Implies that Obvious Moral Wrongs are Acceptable. The most serious objection to moral relativism is that relativism implies that obvious moral wrongs are acceptable. Federal Resume Writing. The objection is that if we say beliefs and queen actions are right or wrong only relative to a specific moral standpoint, it then becomes possible to carle, justify almost anything. We are forced to abandon the idea that some actions are just plain wrong. Nor can we justify the idea that some forms of life are obviously and uncontroversially better than others, even though almost everyone believes this.

According to the relativists, say the critics, the beliefs of slave-owners and Nazis should be deemed true and their practices right relative to a fiend-like queen, their conceptual-moral frameworks; and it is reflection on a topic, not possible for anyone to prove that their views are false or morally misguided, or that there are better points of macbeth a fiend-like essays, view. Essay On Single. To many, this is a reductio ad absurdum of lady macbeth a fiend-like, moral relativism. This line of attack appears compelling against normative relativism, the view that what goes on within a society should only be judged by the prevailing norms of that society. If that is one’s position, then one must hold that in a culture where, say, adulterers are stoned to death, this practice is morally right, since it is justified according to research paper title, the only norms that matter— those of the lady queen, society in question. The argument is is the world getting better or worse, less persuasive, however, against the position identified as “moral relativism” in section 2 above, since this version of relativism allows the beliefs and macbeth essays practices within a culture to be judged according to norms external to that culture. With this view, stoning adulterers is right relative to some moral standpoints (for instance, that of resume, ancient Israel) and wrong according to others (for instance, that of modern liberalism). So relativists who happen to lady macbeth queen essays, be liberal-minded denizens of the modern world are still free to judge what goes on elsewhere by their own moral norms. On Gun. What makes their position relativistic is their denial that there is any neutral, transcultural court of appeal to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, provide an objective justification for preferring one standpoint over another. To many critics, however, this denial is precisely what renders relativism unacceptable. In their view, both versions of relativism put all moralities on topic the same plane and make one’s choice between them arbitrary. Lady Queen. In responding to topic, this criticism, moral relativists would seem to have three options.

(i) Assert that all moralities are indeed on the same plane and we have no reasons for favoring some over lady macbeth essays others. However, virtually no one takes this position since it amounts to a form of moral nihilism. (ii) Argue that the beliefs and practices of a culture should be appraised according to title example, how well they enable that culture to realize the lady a fiend-like essays, goals it sets for itself. This allows for an assessment that avoids judging according to an external standard. True, the general criterion of paper title page example, efficiency or success being used here could be called transcultural; but the relativist can plausibly argue that the criterion is one that every culture would accept; for to reject it would amount to saying that one did not care whether one’s society flourished or failed. However, for the relativists, this line of macbeth a fiend-like, defense only sets the problem back a step. Title Page Example. The critic will next pose the question: Regarding the lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, goals societies set for themselves, do we have any reason for preferring some goals over essay control others? Suppose a society’s overarching goals include realizing racial purity or achieving world domination.

If relativists allow for no way of appraising such goals, insisting that any preferences we express are arbitrary, then, the critics will say, their position is lady macbeth queen, once more shown to research paper title page example, be beyond the pale of macbeth a fiend-like queen, common sense. (iii) A third option for relativists is to embrace what might be called (following Richard Rorty) an eric essays, “ethnocentric” position. Relativists of this stripe continue to insist that all moralities are in macbeth a fiend-like queen essays the same boat insofar as none can be conclusively proved in some absolute sense to be true or false, right or wrong, or better than any other available moral outlook. Topic. But, they argue, it does not follow from lady a fiend-like queen essays, this that relativists cannot consistently prefer some moralities over others, nor that they cannot offer reasons for their preference. They simply admit that when they appraise moralities, they do so according to norms and values constitutive of their particular moral standpoint, one that they probably share with most other members of their cultural community. Thus, a relativist might condemn laws prohibiting homosexuality in the name of world getting essay, such values as happiness, freedom, and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays equality. But she does not claim that she can prove that this normative standpoint is objectively superior to that of the culture outlawing homosexuality. Reflection On A Topic. Possibly those she is criticizing might share her values, in macbeth which case they may be open to federal writing, persuasion.

But they might have different basic values; for instance, they may favor executing homosexuals in order to realize a certain vision of moral purity. In that case, the macbeth queen essays, standoff seems to be at the level of fundamental values. And when that is the case, the relativist may accept that she cannot demonstrate the federal, objective superiority of her views in a non question-begging way—that is, without making assumptions that those she is trying to persuade will reject. To the critic, moral relativism implies that one moral view is just as good or as bad as any other, and to take this line is to countenance immorality. But the difference between Western academics who are moral relativists and their fellow academics who criticize them is lady macbeth essays, clearly not a deep difference in moral values. They all are likely to praise democracy and condemn discrimination. The difference is, rather, at the meta-ethical level in their view of the status of moral judgments and parenthood the kind of justification they allow. The critics believe some sort of objective bulwark is needed to prevent the slide toward an “anything goes” form of moral nihilism.

The relativists see this anxiety as mistaken since what it asks for is both impossible and unnecessary. In their view, an “ethnocentric” justification of one’s views is the only kind available, and it is lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, enough. d. Parenthood. Relativism Undermines the Possibility of a Society Being Self-Critical. If the rightness or wrongness of actions, practices, or institutions can only be judged by reference to lady a fiend-like queen essays, the norms of the world getting or worse essay, culture in which they are found, then how can members of that society criticize those norms on lady macbeth moral grounds? And how can they argue that the prevailing norms should be changed? If, for instance, a society has a caste system under which one caste enjoys great privileges while another caste is allowed to do only menial work, then this system will necessarily appear just according to its own norms. So there will be nothing to criticize.

One apparent way for the relativist to avoid this objection is to point out that most societies are imperfect even by their own lights; what actually happens usually falls short of the ideals espoused. For instance, an world essay, official commitment to lady, equality is belied by discriminatory laws. Thus, a society can be self-critical by noticing gaps between its practices and its ideals. This is a weak response, however, since the sort of self-criticism it allows is quite limited. Is The Better Essay. Often, the most important kind of self-criticism involves a demand that the ideals themselves be changed, as, for instance, when the American and French revolutions articulated new egalitarian values. Can moral relativism make sense of a society’s own members rejecting the prevailing norms?

The answer is lady essays, that it all depends on the precise sort of moral relativism being espoused. If the particular standpoint, by reference to which moral claims are appraised, has to be that constituted by the prevailing norms in a society, then it is hard to see how those norms themselves can be criticized. But if the relativist only research title example, insists that moral claims are true or false relative to some particular standpoint, then this does not follow. In that case, the prevailing moral norms can be judged wrong from an alternative point of view, which may be the one the relativist favors. For instance, the current treatment of a fiend-like essays, animals on American factory farms could be criticized by an American relativist who adopts the standpoint of a utilitarian committed to parenthood, the minimization of unnecessary suffering. Closely related to the argument concerning a society’s capacity for lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, self-criticism is the objection that moral relativism implies there is no such thing as moral progress. A society may change its norms by, say, ending systematic discrimination against certain groups, or becoming less indifferent to the suffering of animals. But if there is no neutral point of carle essays, view from macbeth a fiend-like queen, which such changes can be appraised, how can one argue that they constitute progress? Indeed, from the point of view of the old norms, any changes must appear suspect, since the old norms dictate what is right. Like the resume writing, previous objection, this argument has the form of a reductio ad absurdum. A Fiend-like. Almost everyone believes that moral progress can and does occur within a society.

The abolition of essay on single parenthood, slavery is a paradigm of such progress. So, any theory implying that such changes do not constitute progress must be false. Lady A Fiend-like Essays. By the same token, moral relativism can also be criticized for not allowing the possibility of moral decline, which also presumably occurs at times. One response a relativist could offer to this objection is simply to embrace the conclusion and insist that moral progress is a chimera; but this undeniably goes against what most people view as ethical common sense. Essay On Single. The more common and more plausible response, therefore, is, once again, for the relativist to take the “ethnocentric” line. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen. On this view, moral progress is possible, but not relative to objective, trans-cultural criteria. It can only be gauged by reference to some particular moral standpoint that cannot be conclusively proved superior to on gun control, other points of view. Thus, relativists, like everyone else, will view the lady essays, abolition of slavery as progress because they affirm values such as freedom, equality, and individual happiness.

They simply deny that it represents progress in some more objective sense—from “the God’s eye point of reflection topic, view,” so to speak. e. Relativism is Pragmatically Self-Refuting. A standard objection to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, cognitive relativism, which is essay on gun, sometimes advanced against moral relativism, is lady macbeth a fiend-like, that it is pragmatically self-refuting. The basic idea behind it is that moral relativists, whatever their official meta-ethical position, cannot avoid being implicitly committed to certain fundamental norms and values, and reflection topic they presuppose this commitment in the very act of a fiend-like queen, arguing for moral relativism. So, the content of the theory is at odds with the practice of affirming or defending it. Jurgen Habermas develops this line of argument by claiming that anyone participating in rational discourse reveals, through that very act, a commitment to certain values that belong to a normative notion of rationality: for instance, values such as sincerity or open-mindedness. Relativists, however, are likely to be skeptical about the topic, universality of these alleged implicit commitments. To them, the concept of rationality in lady a fiend-like essays question is federal resume writing, characteristic of macbeth queen essays, a particular time and place. To be sure, they may, as modern Western liberals, embrace values such as sincerity or open-mindedness.

But they can still plausibly deny that they have an objective duty to do so, or that such values are necessarily embedded in all acts of communication and must therefore be viewed as universal. f. Relativism Rests on an Incoherent Notion of Truth. What does it mean for a moral belief to be true relative to a particular culture? If it merely means that most members of that culture hold that belief, then it is a somewhat grandiose and misleading way of stating a simple fact. Resume. Presumably, therefore, relativists mean something more by lady queen it. In addition, they cannot be simply making the banal point that someone belonging to that culture who rejects the belief in question is in on single parenthood the minority, or is perceived to be mistaken by the majority. The relativist thesis seems to be that in lady queen essays some sense the truth (or falsity) of a person’s moral beliefs is carle essays, either determined by lady a fiend-like queen essays or constituted by their coherence (or lack of essay on gun control, coherence) with the prevailing moral outlook in macbeth queen essays that person’s community.

This raises a number of awkward issues. It seems to imply, for instance, that the majority can never be wrong on moral matters. And a corollary of that is that within a given community, dissidents must always be wrong. These ideas go against our normal ways of thinking. A further problem for the relativist thesis is that it seems not to take into account exactly how the prevailing moral norms in a society were established. Is The Or Worse. If they gained ascendancy over time, shaped by collective experience, then one could perhaps view them as the outcome of an lady queen essays, implicit social contract, and in reflection on a that sense to have some claim to lady a fiend-like queen essays, rationality. But what if they were initially imposed on carle essays a society forcibly by lady macbeth queen conquerors or dictatorial rulers? Does that make a difference? It certainly sounds odd to say that a moral statement that once was false can be made true by reflection topic the establishment of a new religious or political order and the consolidation of its ideas.

Moral relativists are thus under some pressure to explain why they go beyond simple factual statements about what the majority in a society believes, insisting on advancing a philosophical claim about the truth of moral statements. This is one reason some would give for viewing moral relativism as an instance of a more general relativism that sees the truth of any statement as a function of lady macbeth a fiend-like, its coherence with a broader theoretical framework. Relativists who base their position on a sharp distinction between facts and values must work with two distinct notions of research title example, truth: factual claims are made true by correspondence to lady a fiend-like queen, reality; moral claims are made true by cohering with or being entailed by the surrounding conceptual scheme. Those who see truth of any kind as ultimately a matter of reflection on a topic, inter-subjective agreement may be better positioned to avoid this problem. g. Lady A Fiend-like. The Relativist Position on Tolerance is Problematic. A good deal of the debate surrounding moral relativism has focused on its claim to exemplify and foster tolerance. There are at least three lines of criticism against this claim. (i) Tolerance is not the same as respect. Showing genuine respect for a culture means taking its beliefs seriously, and that means viewing them as candidates for critical appraisal. The relativist eschews any evaluation of other cultures’ norms in the name of essays, tolerance; however, this attitude is actually patronizing. It suggests that the macbeth, beliefs could not withstand critical scrutiny, or perhaps that they are just not worth appraising.

(ii) Moral relativists inconsistently posit a principle of on single parenthood, tolerance as a universal obligation. Relativists say we should be tolerant of beliefs and practices found in other cultures. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays. This is a normative claim. If it applies to parenthood, everyone, then it is a trans-cultural moral principle, in which case relativism is false. If, on macbeth a fiend-like queen essays the other hand, relativism is true, then this principle of better or worse, tolerance does not express a trans-cultural obligation binding on everyone; it merely expresses the values associated with a particular moral standpoint. Tolerance is, of course, a central value espoused by modern liberal societies. But according to the relativist’s own position, members of other societies where tolerance is not viewed so positively have no reason to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, accept the on single parenthood, idea that one ought to be tolerant. So for other societies, the fact that relativism promotes tolerance is not a point in its favor, and relativists have no business preaching tolerance to them. It would not be self-contradictory for moral relativists to hold that all moral principles have only a relative validity except for the principle of tolerance, which enjoys a unique status.

But the resulting position would be peculiar. The relativistic viewpoint would be significantly modified and some account would be owed of why the principle of tolerance alone has universal validity. For this reason, a more common relativistic response to the criticism is along the lines suggested by David Wong. Relativists can simply accept that the lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, obligation to be tolerant has only relative validity or scope. It applies to those whose general moral standpoint affirms or entails tolerance as a value; and only these people are likely to be swayed by the argument that relativism promotes tolerance. (iii) The relativist’s advocacy of tolerance is morally misguided since not everything should be tolerated. This is, in research title page example effect, another version of the charge that moral relativism entails an “anything goes” attitude that countenances obvious wrongs in other societies such as religious persecution or sexual discrimination. It even requires us to lady macbeth a fiend-like, be tolerant of intolerance, at least if it occurs in another culture. Clearly, this is a problem for on a, anyone, relativist or not, who elevates the principle that we should be tolerant to an absolute, exceptionless rule. But for relativists who do not do this, the problem will seem less pressing.

Tolerance, they will argue, is one of the values constitutive of their standpoint—a standpoint they share with most other people in modern liberal societies. From this standpoint, intolerance can and will be criticized, as will other policies and practices, wherever they occur, that seem to cause unhappiness or unnecessarily limit people’s prospects. Lady A Fiend-like Queen. The relativistic stance is useful, however, in helping to make us less arrogant about the research page, correctness of our own norms, more sensitive to cultural contexts when looking at how others live, and macbeth queen a little less eager in our willingness to criticize what goes on in other cultures. The more difficult, practical question concerns not whether we should ever criticize the beliefs and practices found in paper page example other cultures, but whether we are ever justified in trying to impose our values on them through diplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, boycotts, or military force. Macbeth Essays. This question has arisen in relation to such practices as satee in India, persecution of religious or ethnic minorities, female circumcision, and legalized violence against women. But it is not a problem that only essays, moral relativists have to confront. Over the years moral relativism has attracted a great deal of macbeth a fiend-like, criticism, and paper example not just from professional philosophers. One reason for this, of course, is that it is widely perceived to be a way of thinking that is on the rise. Indeed, by the end of the twentieth century it had become a commonplace among teachers of moral philosophy in the US that the lady macbeth queen, default view of morality held by parenthood the majority of college students was some form of moral relativism. Another reason for so much trenchant criticism is that a relativistic view of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, morality is thought by many to have pernicious consequences.

For example, in essay on gun control September 2011, Pope Benedict XVI blamed it for the riots that had taken place in Britain a few weeks earlier, arguing that “[w]hen policies do not presume or promote objective values, the resulting moral relativism . tends instead to produce frustration, despair, selfishness and a disregard for the life and liberty of a fiend-like queen, others” ( National Catholic Reporter , Sept. 12, 2011). However, the attitude labeled “moral relativism” by the pope and others who worry about the moral health of contemporary society is not a well defined or rigorously defended philosophical position. It typically amounts to little more than a skepticism about objective moral truth, often expressed as the idea that beliefs and actions are not right or wrong per se, only right or wrong for someone. Philosophers like Gilbert Harman, David Wong, and Richard Rorty who defend forms of moral relativism seek to articulate and defend philosophically sophisticated alternatives to objectivism. As they see it, they are not countenancing immorality, injustice, or moral nihilism; rather, they are trying to say something about the on gun control, nature of moral claims and the justifications given for them. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays. The main problem they face is to show how the denial of objective moral truth need not entail a subjectivism that drains the rationality out of moral discourse.

Their critics, on reflection on a the other hand, face the possibly even more challenging task of justifying the claim that there is such a thing as objective moral truth.

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Real Homework Excuses I Have Heard. Ms. Inglish offers 25+ years successful experience in medicine, psychology, STEM courses, and aerospace education (CAP). Got Difficult Homework? Perhaps You Need An Excuse. Excuses For Not Doing Or Submitting Homework. Some of these I have heard from GED and college prep students. Lady Essays. Others came to me through emails.

Some I just made up and cannot use, so perhaps I can rent them out. I just saw it on the New York Times Bestsellers List, so that means that someone stole it. I had better things to do. I didn't do it because I didn't want to page example add to my teacher's heavy workload. My mom's whooping cough vaccination wore off and lady a fiend-like essays we had to world better or worse essay go to the hospital.

I accidentally divided by lady a fiend-like queen essays, zero and page example my paper burst into flames. I hired a paper writing company and they did it in Chinese. To the teacher who asks why homework was not turned in on the day due: You did not ask me for it. I could only lady macbeth queen essays get arbitrarily close to my textbook. Parenthood. I couldn't actually reach it.

I needed a mental health day. I made a paper plane out of it and it got hijacked. My Dad accidentally put it in lady a fiend-like queen his briefcase and took it to work. Getting Essay. I put it in the safe, but lost the lady macbeth a fiend-like essays, combination. Reflection On A Topic. I have the mathematical proof, but there isn't room to write it in the margin. I have a solar powered calculator and it was cloudy that day. I left it at Mom's house when she took me back to Dad's house. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen. I loaned it to a friend, but he moved away. My printer broke and research paper title page my disk is corrupted. Lady Macbeth Queen Essays. Unfortunately my computer crashed this morning as well.

I left it in essay control my shirt and lady a fiend-like queen essays my mother put the shirt in the wash. My internet access was down (for emailed assignments). A sudden wind blew it out of reflection on a, my hand and I never saw it again. Macbeth A Fiend-like Essays. I was kidnapped by terrorists and they only just let me go, so I didn't have time to do it. Another student fell in a lake, and I jumped in to rescue him but unfortunately my homework drowned. It was in essay my back pocket and a pickpocket stole it. I left it in a hymn book in macbeth a fiend-like queen essays the choir loft, having used it to mark my solo. I left it in the back of the truck when we went deer hunting. Control. My flash drive exploded..

I dropped it in macbeth essays the toilet accidentally and it got flushed. Essay Control. I gave it to a homeless man to lady macbeth a fiend-like essays line his hat with. I fell asleep trying to eric carle do it and macbeth a fiend-like queen essays I just woke up 10 minutes ago and was nearly late for school My notebook got stolen in the school cafeteria and it had all my work in it. I can't always spell correctly, because I have a neurological deficit. On Gun. hahaha. Get Organized for School with a Homework Station for Kids. by Sarah Johnson 15. How to Finish all Your Homework and Still Get Enough Sleep. by Brainy Bunny 7. 25 tips on lady queen, what real love in research example relationship is.

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The boy had been a newcomer for a month. The teacher noticed he hated doing homework that gave to the class, but his English was rather good because he had learnt English not through textbooks, but from detective stories. The pupil thought that to lady a fiend-like queen essays do homework was dull. Give your good advice to the teacher. What kind of work would you give to this kind of essay, pupil?

i gave it to macbeth a fiend-like queen essays my dad so he could help me but he flew to research page England that night. i fell and it was the clostest thing to a bandage. hi I THINK THAT THAY WEAR WONDFUL. Patty Inglish 4 years ago from North America. my science project burned it. awesome its for my speech. It as in queen my locker but i lost the key! sme1 stole me coment. teacher: wheres ure homework. student: well u see miss wud u go mad at me if i didn't do anything. teacher: curse not.

student : gud cus i dnt do me homework. the teacher slept on it. i left it in the car and essay control my dad took it to the airport. my home is soooooo bad. i put it on a fiend-like queen essays, my tv but it exploded. i ran out of pitta breads. the great one needed a napkin -_- Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's one I have not heard!

I lost my homework and parenthood there was no more spare copies. my dog ate my homework. Yooyoyoyoyooyoyiyo 5 years ago. Amazing were do u come up with this. bethy843636lol 5 years ago. lol theese r hill but my kids always do their homework. I hate my homework im back from holiday and lady macbeth queen essays i had to essay on single do all the macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, math that i mist. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Probably the ones in which a paper bursts into is the world getting better or worse essay flames.

The funniest are my favorites, but I really don't believe any of lady macbeth, them. If a student gives excuses, say, two or three times in a row, then I take the is the world getting better, person aside and a fiend-like essays find out what's going on. YouMakeMeLol 5 years ago. What's your favourite excuse you've been given? and which one (as a teacher) are you most likely to believe? Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America.

Funny! There are so many excuses. I hope teachers record them and reflection topic remember. MickeySr 5 years ago from lady macbeth a fiend-like queen Hershey, Pa. My oldest daughter (a teacher) told me not too long ago she heard My brother ate it - she asked Don't you mean your dog ate it? and writing was answered I don't have a dog, so . . . Macbeth. . Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I actually fell asleep doing mine.

i got homeworkitos and got tooken to AE and they had to opperate on me and essay i have just recoved from a dangeros acc. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. UK teachers are too smart and on top of lady essays, things! HAHAHAHA! Some real funny stuff!

But some of these don't work on the british teachers as much :c. djbdsdhshabfhgffds 5 years ago. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. We can sign up for title example notices by following the Hub, but while I;'m online, I stop writing to rest my eyes, then check for comments. My first few months on HubPages, I had my email notifications set up in some manner that I never knew I had a comment. It's all better now. Hi, Patty Inglish! I noticed that you respond to all the comments rather quickly. Do you get a notice every time someone posts a comment? Just wondering.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Haha, I don't think that will happen! adam jenkins 5 years ago. awsome no homework for life. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Second chances are good - did you do it then? that actually worked I didn't even get told off :) really good+ i did some to lady macbeth essays my teacher every day:) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I'll surely read it!

Cameron Corniuk 5 years ago from Painesville, OH. These are great! Some I've actually experienced myself--Internet being down, stuff being left between divorced parents' houses, not that it has EVER mattered. I think you've inspired me to do a hub on the best excuses I've had people call into work late or off with. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. one day I hadn't done my homework so I asked my very bst friend if she could put my name on essay, it and say we did it together because I lost my sheet. A Fiend-like. FUNNY AND TRUE!! Invisable Ghost 5 years ago. How about reflection on a, this one ? miss: where is lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, ur h.w ? student: i didnt do it. Student: because i did't understand what to do in it. Miss: why did't u come to me and on gun control asked then ? Student: because i had to hurry to the buss cuz it was leaving.

Miss: ok *walks away* Student: phew i am safe xD. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I hope the macbeth, teachers laugh when they hear some of them. I did. Usually the students laughed too and finished homework in class. ha ha really funny stuff.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. It is his difficult some days to be wither a student or a teacher, PersyuonimumBush 5 years ago. Lol in english homewrk was due so everyone had done their projects except for on person. Carle Essays. His excuse was ''Whats a project?'' Everyone laughed except for the teacher.

The teachers face was red like a tomatoe lmao. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. katelynn johnson 5 years ago. if u just do ur hw u wont have to lady a fiend-like queen make up excuses. i highly doubt your teachers give you THAT hard of hw to do anyways. Essays. plus your only hurting yourself by a fiend-like queen essays, bringing your grdes down and u have a better chnce of is the getting better, goin to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays college if u just get good grades which involves turnin in ur hw. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. why not say that your religion worship night is better, that night and if she says what religion say dominikan its made up. i love these excuses I used the one about lady macbeth queen, dividing by essay on gun, zero [my pesonal favourite] and lady queen my teacher just laughed and said next time divide by on a topic, 2! lol xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from a fiend-like queen essays North America. Very entertaining. My students were never so clever! I think I got 1: Kid:Miss, I did my homework so I can't get in trouble. Teacher: You can if you don't give me it. Kid: No miss I can't get in parenthood trouble, but my sister can. Kid: coz I did it and my sister tore it and threw it on our fire in the living room. Teacher: What r u on about?

Kid: Fine. i will tell u were my homework is but the director wont be happy. Teacher: R u feeling okay? Do u need 2 go home? Kid: No miss. I'm fine. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays. I work for MI5 and is the world getting or worse they took my homework for analysis. I am wanted in 15 countries coz I made 15 mistakes out in the field.

Teacher: u r telling me u r a spy and macbeth a fiend-like queen ur fellow agents took it for analysis to make sure u r safe? Teacher: Just go sit down, I don't want to have agents bursting in here asking if I'm harrassing u. I used this once and resume the teacher let me off coz she said she hadn't laughed that hard in ages. A Fiend-like Essays. u could use the sister tore it up one by resume, itself or the secret agent one. lollums :)) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's believable - my mother used to tear things up, not realizing it was homework. another excuse could be we were to macbeth essays poor tp buy bedding fer my guine pig so my ma used papers that i don't need an she accidently ripped up the papers with all my homework in it. I left my bag at control my cousin's house and only got it back this morning.

im a 11 year old girl and i don't know how to do my homework well i do but my friend i lint some thing to her and it was a piece of my homework. Rachel Davis 5 years ago. I searched it on macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, google because i did not do my home work and i don't want to get m.a.s.h mentle after school help. I enjoy the earth so why waste paper? My mom was drunk again so she burned it for breakfast. I thought i broke my arm so I went to title page example the hospital but there was a wait so I was stuck all night finally to learn I didn't break it so. I didn't have any time.

fresh-kidd neeyae 5 years ago. LOL,very funny excuses,unfortunately i cant use dem,ma teachers never fall for dem:( . A Fiend-like Essays. add me up on fb if u want. ma fb name is fresh-kidd neeyae. i was sleeping and the aliens abducted ]my home work!! (i know its not good its the best i could come up with!) Jeff_McRitchie 5 years ago. Ha ha! SOme of these are funny. Voted up. lol soooo funnnyy!! i tried the one tat said that my homework ate my dog. millie.mcotttee 5 years ago.

hi everyone my exuse is that i tell my teacher that i got desracted easaly. omg i love this. I got kidnapped by terrest and they ate my homework because I told them I will hit you if you go in my junk cupboard. a girl hit me and i used it as a bandage. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Exactly the point, gianna.

u guys are stupid why don't ya jus do the on single, darn work. I thought it was a tissue and lady macbeth queen i blew my nose with it. I think i left it at my mums would be quite effective.Also you could say your water bottle leaked your homewrk got wet and did not bring it because it was drying. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from essay control North America. Tell the truth - that there is macbeth a fiend-like, a big problem with having to share the netbooks. Ask for resume writing a time extension and help downloading the macbeth essays, files. we have netbooks at school and you have to share them with the person next to you and we had to download certain files from the carle essays, computer to macbeth a fiend-like queen our flash drives and my partner took to long so i only got half the files and not the most imporatant wital ones that made me cry for 4 hours it is due on tuesday and essay on single not monday and macbeth a fiend-like today is sunday should i use one of you incrediblly awesome exscuse or not if i don't finish in essay on single parenthood time because we had a three day weekend to work on this because of lady queen essays, veterens day. slimmer than shady 5 years ago. Good 1//ahead Why didn't u do your homework. i like to keep some info to is the getting or worse essay myself. [:D [not very good]

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's pretty inventive. I got one, its untested so could someone test it for me? thx.. Kid: Miss i haven't done my homework. Kid: I joined an anti homework protest over the weekend and lady macbeth essays they burnt my homework to parenthood show i was part of it. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Thanks for the funny comments - you all make others laugh when trying to complete difficult assignments. ok lol there alll funny.

one day i was telling my friend how to do our homework and he went 'oh stuff it' and a fiend-like ate my homework and research title example swollowed it lool. but he go detention so !DON'T TRY EATING UR HOMEWORK! i found a cat on lady, a tree and reflection on a fead it my homework' Yes,it is queen, very funny excuses ! well firssst i waz at control home an queen, looking for a pencil when my mom said w3re moving to china an IT WAS 12 HOURS LONG an we rented a house in chyna an my dog sat on muh hw an i tryed to get it when it ripped an eric carle, so we had to go to macbeth the store but couldn't gfind any so we asked the owner he didn't speak english so we went back home an he said forget it an put it in eric carle essays the get rid of box an set it outside just when a hobo got it an sold it to a guy for a dollar and the guy told the taxi driver to go to canada -__- lol. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I hope you didn't hurt yourself :) Thanks for reading! Nice excuses 5 years ago. My son said one of these to me and I literally blew up(farted after laughing). He later showed me this and here I am. i lost my homework when i was fighting this kid that would not agree that u were the best teacher in lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays the world.

id say something like a drink spilled on it. it probbaly wud work i might try it. I knew a kid and his dog literally ate his hmwk. There was a bite mark and world getting better or worse paw prints too. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Some of these excuses are pretty good!

Homework excuser 5 years ago. I was busy washing my hands for tea after doing my homework. A cat suddenly ran into the house and our dog chased it and the cat jumped up on the table and queen essays knocked a cup of coffee straight onto reflection topic my homework! me:it started to rain yesterday where i live and lady macbeth i was runing through the rain without an umbrella or rain coat and i had my homework with me and it got soaked. so when i tried to essay dry it this morning the answers were all gone. teacher: okay go sit down. ps this really happened to me and it worked. girl who comments 6 years ago.

tried to macbeth a fiend-like essays do dah ¨left it in dah briefcase one¨, and the next day was a teacher/parent meeting and on gun mah teacher found out my dad dosent work LOL!! hahahaha. Patty Inglish 6 years ago from North America. Teaching is so much fun that way! im sooo using sme ofthem but my teachers are just gonna laugh. Lol the lady macbeth a fiend-like, recycling one was real for me. just tell the truth it will save you trouble trust me. Getting Essay. you may get in trouble but it wont be as bad as telling a lie.and don't make it a constant thing. I lost my science WorkBook, i was trying to find one online and i a came across this. LOL!

But how am i gonna get an excuse. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and lady macbeth essays respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of research page example, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and lady macbeth queen essays Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and is the or worse essay others.

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To what extent is Lady Macbeth a fiend-like queen? - GCSE English

100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas.

You'll write faster and lady a fiend-like easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to on gun control, know more about macbeth queen can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and world getting better or worse essay if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for macbeth queen essays how to (and how not to) pick a topic.

2. Carle Essays. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and a fiend-like essays many links to research title page, research and student essay examples. Lady Macbeth Essays. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to research paper title, write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an lady a fiend-like essays, argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Essay On Single Parenthood. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and queen that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the on single parenthood, topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Queen Essays. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in essay on gun, their ways about these issues and a fiend-like essays it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it?

Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of title example, love leads to a fiend-like queen, a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for essay a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family?

Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and lady do more about the is the world, hunger faced by people around the lady, world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor?

How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of paper page example, calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult?

Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students?

Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the essay on single parenthood, show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia?

How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting?

Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. World Getting Better. Here are some professional articles and a fiend-like queen websites that can help you start. Resume Writing. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Lady Macbeth Queen. Overweight and essays Obesity.

U.S. government reports from the lady, Centers for control Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the a fiend-like queen essays, world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and resume animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and lady macbeth queen essays cans in order to promote recycling?

Should schools require students to getting better or worse essay, bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for lady a fiend-like queen plastic bags in order to encourage the research paper title page, use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment?

Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water?

What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the research page example, dangers for lady macbeth a fiend-like queen people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste?

What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives?

Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on essays Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the lady a fiend-like queen essays, environmental topics page for on gun control your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work?

How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the lady a fiend-like essays, friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship?

Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and essay how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for a fiend-like queen families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing?

How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged?

What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for essay control Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected?

Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out writing, violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?

Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the macbeth queen essays, PC or the reflection on a, Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above.

Decide your answer to queen, the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the is the world essay, topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about queen essays that topic. Reflection On A Topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the lady macbeth queen, ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the eric, backup evidence for each topic sentence).

Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by reflection topic, Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics.

by Virginia Kearney 37. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to lady essays, do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Resume Writing. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too.

Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in lady, your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at federal writing, my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and macbeth queen was browsing for answers but none of reflection, them made sense except for this.

Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and lady a fiend-like queen are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and essay I have to write an macbeth a fiend-like essays, argumentative paper. Your insight on research paper page example how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on lady macbeth how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks!

This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on federal writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you!

letter pile 8 months ago. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to is the world getting essay, shift the lady a fiend-like essays, focus of the on single, questions to whether governments should take action. A Fiend-like. My questions and on gun topic ideas are just a starting point.

I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and lady macbeth queen essays their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in eric essays, their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Macbeth Essays. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well.

I find your lists great and on a topic really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the essay on gun control, state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in a fiend-like queen essays, developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the is the world better, globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of lady macbeth queen, any cases when professors forbid to on a topic, use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus.

Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from a fiend-like United States. This is an reflection topic, interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Lady A Fiend-like Essays. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from essay on single parenthood United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to macbeth a fiend-like, see what the resume, outcome will be in lady queen essays, how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much!

Thank you it is world or worse really helpful. Thank you so much for macbeth essays the topics. Essay On Gun Control. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from lady a fiend-like essays Rensselaer, New York. Title Example. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article!

Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the essay, greater the headache. When we prepare for lady queen essays debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Reflection On A. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from lady macbeth queen Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips!

Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for is the world sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Essays. Wow! This is a very impressive list and eric essays great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger.

Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and on gun great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen respective owners. Other product and paper title company names shown may be trademarks of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, their respective owners.

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays! Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for research paper Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for on a Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Lady Macbeth! Essay on the Introduction to resume, Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and lady a fiend-like queen whatever is not urban known as rural.

In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to on a, sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an lady a fiend-like, activity of a series of eric carle essays activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to queen essays, take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.”

Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth. It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and resume the rate of macbeth queen essays overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the reflection topic, benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and queen involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the on gun, pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of lady a fiend-like essays rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for eric carle essays the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and lady exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and page example growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of lady a fiend-like essays rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the world getting or worse essay, present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to lady macbeth queen, 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of topic growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time.

Those who used this surplus as capital in lady queen essays, the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and is the getting better distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays! The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. Essay On Gun! These impressive increases were also accompanied by lady essays, growth of population and writing large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent.

Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by essay parenthood, the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to macbeth, urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the is the or worse, State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the lady macbeth queen essays, advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the on a topic, importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to is the world, the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in macbeth a fiend-like essays, some regions of on gun control a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule.

In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and lady a fiend-like essays even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. Federal Resume Writing! The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development:

Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for lady rural development in research page example, Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. Queen Essays! The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project:

One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and eric essays Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the lady queen essays, centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by world getting better or worse, I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in macbeth essays, 1920. This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. Research Paper Title Page! The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to macbeth queen, deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda:

The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme:

The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the research paper page example, Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by essays, brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and reflection other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of lady queen Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of federal resume writing productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others.

(2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to lady macbeth a fiend-like, activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to essays, live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is lady, earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town.

The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and essays other forms of macbeth a fiend-like queen animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Planning for resume writing Rural Development have been received utmost attention by lady essays, the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. Federal Resume! India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of macbeth a fiend-like essays capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Topic! Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived.

The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and a fiend-like essays left the weaker section untouched. Is The Better Or Worse Essay! The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on a fiend-like essays, Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in essay, heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for lady a fiend-like rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme. On Gun! In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country.

As a part of the Union, the on gun, specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period. The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the lady a fiend-like queen, benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the paper page example, said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life.

To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays! In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the essay on single parenthood, important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for macbeth a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at essay control, block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the resume writing, said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived. IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of macbeth a fiend-like rural development.

As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at carle essays, various levels such as viable cluster of a fiend-like queen village communities, districts and is the getting or worse essay blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of a fiend-like Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Reflection Topic! Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the macbeth a fiend-like queen, said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of essay advanced technologies. The plan intended; to macbeth queen, continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. Eric! were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and macbeth a fiend-like poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the federal resume writing, new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the reflection on a topic, rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for lady self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and resume writing other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. Lady Essays! These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and paper title page EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99.

It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of lady schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for essay on single parenthood rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on lady macbeth a fiend-like essays, Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and research paper title page Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development.

The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies.

These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. A Fiend-like Essays! However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on eric essays, some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the lady macbeth queen essays, Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the reflection, common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Queen Essays! It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over reflection topic, the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the macbeth a fiend-like, economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Resume Writing! Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country.

Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for essays analysis. Research Paper Example! These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51. The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan.

In this context, the lady essays, mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in title example, the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of macbeth a fiend-like self-help.

This objective is to getting, be attained by macbeth queen essays, revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at reflection topic, utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. Lady Macbeth Queen! It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of better essay Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and macbeth a fiend-like Zilla Parishads. The Finance for eric essays the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of queen labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. Eric Carle Essays! 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the a fiend-like queen, end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and eric carle essays communication were also implemented in lady macbeth queen, seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of world better essay powers and lady functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at is the better, a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in page example, absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by a fiend-like queen, the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration. It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few.

The official agencies responsibility for implementation of page development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to lady queen essays, be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the title page, Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation. (ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like! This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner.

This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on resume, the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and lady a fiend-like Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Essay! Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in lady macbeth queen, Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in essay control, all the lady macbeth a fiend-like, 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the research paper, programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices.

Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in lady macbeth essays, food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of resume writing industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the a fiend-like, Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to eric carle essays, the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, cent to 25 per cent of the reflection topic, cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65.

The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in queen essays, selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the federal, use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. Lady Macbeth Queen Essays! In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of is the world better or worse Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. Lady! The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the paper page example, importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in lady a fiend-like queen, the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and on single high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the macbeth a fiend-like queen, right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is federal, not destroyed by insects. To enable the lady, farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to essay, relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators.

During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. Lady A Fiend-like Essays! This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to eric carle, good land and to those farmers who have the resources and a fiend-like queen essays the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. On Gun Control! This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of research title page example support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to lady macbeth a fiend-like, be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of on gun investment (e.g. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays! sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and research paper example endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from on single, co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and macbeth queen essays other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and reflection topic land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to lady macbeth a fiend-like essays, be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to carle essays, the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to title page, small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and lady Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and on a the land development banks on the other. Macbeth Queen Essays! The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. Essay! However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the lady macbeth queen, Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of eric carle essays subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts.

They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and on a Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like! Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala. The State utilised about 83.6 per page example, cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs.

14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for queen the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA): The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in control, maximum productive use of macbeth their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems.

(ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Parenthood! Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to lady a fiend-like queen essays, receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for on gun control tribal beneficiaries, subject to lady a fiend-like queen essays, maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the on gun control, year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and queen medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. Eric Carle! A total sum of macbeth queen Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to on a topic, Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the macbeth queen essays, programme.

Among them about 70 per carle essays, cent of the macbeth, beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the reflection on a topic, main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an lady macbeth, area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the paper page example, economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of queen essays optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and essay on single parenthood other rural poor, who have no assured source of income.

Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in macbeth, its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the on gun control, concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of lady macbeth a fiend-like queen Kalahandi and research title page example 14 blocks of lady a fiend-like queen Phulbani district in Orissa.

During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of essay on gun control India. The Government of India revised the a fiend-like essays, programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on world better essay, different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and macbeth a fiend-like essays 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to world better or worse, 39 in 4 districts of the State.

The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against lady macbeth a fiend-like essays, the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. Federal Resume! The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in lady queen, the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in on gun control, 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and essays 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme.

The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per paper title page, cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in essays, the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for essay on gun tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the lady queen essays, Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in research paper title page, the Third Five Year Plan.

Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. Lady A Fiend-like Queen! It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and is the getting or worse education etc. Most of a fiend-like these were conceived at resume, the National or at the State level. Macbeth Essays! The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa.

The outlay on each of reflection on a topic these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the lady a fiend-like queen essays, tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of world better essay a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the lady, tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in essay on gun, the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of lady macbeth that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to reflection on a, 1977-78. Macbeth A Fiend-like Essays! A total financial outlay of example Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the macbeth essays, total outlay of the essay, State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against lady macbeth, 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the eric, Seventh Plan period, about lady macbeth queen 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the resume, year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for lady a fiend-like queen essays the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores.

The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families. The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the essay, programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in lady a fiend-like essays, the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at paper title, 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the lady queen, constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to reflection on a, protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies. The objectives of the macbeth a fiend-like queen, Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against reflection topic, exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is lady macbeth a fiend-like, a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. On A! A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Lady Macbeth A Fiend-like! Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the on single parenthood, Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. Lady Macbeth Queen! A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in essay on single, the MADA Pockets. During the macbeth a fiend-like, plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in carle, the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to lady, about 5.3 lakh hectares of essay land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud.

The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by macbeth a fiend-like, optimum utilisation of water by eric, controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of a fiend-like essays Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and reflection on a 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to lady macbeth queen essays, make the farmers aware of the is the world getting essay, needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and macbeth queen essays Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies.

A modest beginning was also made in is the getting better, demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of lady a fiend-like queen essays Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at federal resume writing, the end of queen Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the title page example, Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and lady macbeth a fiend-like land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation.

(vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to on gun control, 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of lady Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. Federal! About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to a fiend-like essays, other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Federal! Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is lady queen essays, a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in eric essays, pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein.

However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. Macbeth A Fiend-like Essays! The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is reflection on a topic, perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by essay, the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and macbeth queen right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and on a topic functions of the lady, institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions.

The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the on gun control, rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature. Macbeth Queen! The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and essay on gun evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and lady queen implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to essay control, area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in lady macbeth, the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and example Village.

At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of macbeth a fiend-like all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development. The Ministry of on gun control Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the essays, Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development.

The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. Eric! The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen Essays! NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and on gun implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes.

However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of a fiend-like queen essays rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of getting or worse Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the macbeth essays, Committee. There are a number of federal resume Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of lady macbeth a fiend-like India.

(vii) The Jute and eric carle the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and essays Village Industries Commission.

(xv) State Khadi and research title page example Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the lady a fiend-like, Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes.

They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in example, the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is lady macbeth queen essays, also participating in reflection topic, the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the lady macbeth a fiend-like essays, committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for eric carle law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, District Development Coordination Committee.

This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the research paper page, rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. Essay! In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to macbeth, be implemented by essay on gun, a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the queen essays, DRDA. Besides the reflection on a, agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and lady a fiend-like queen Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to reflection topic, approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in macbeth a fiend-like queen, the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. On Single! The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary.

The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff. The position of the lady queen, Chairman of is the world better or worse DPB varies from macbeth queen essays, state to essay on single, state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for lady queen essays filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. Resume Writing! M.L. Essays! Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the paper title page, block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in queen essays, the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in research title example, relation to lady macbeth a fiend-like queen, production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and research title page services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of queen essays Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and eric carle essays other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration.

The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and macbeth essays works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and essay control child welfare etc. Macbeth A Fiend-like Queen! Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. Research Title! The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and macbeth a fiend-like decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the on gun control, people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to macbeth a fiend-like, direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in or worse essay, decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in lady a fiend-like, village committee.

Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch.

(vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and parenthood Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and lady a fiend-like essays flows upward to on gun control, the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in macbeth, our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is essay on gun, worse.

The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government. In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. Macbeth A Fiend-like Essays! In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data.

The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and resume macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the queen essays, problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the research page example, Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into lady macbeth essays, three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and essay control the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in queen essays, all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the research paper title, rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas.

It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. Lady Macbeth Queen! It is is the better essay, often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to lady queen, stick to research page, their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and macbeth a fiend-like essays coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to is the better or worse essay, maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the macbeth a fiend-like queen, ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies.

The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to essay on gun control, their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. A Fiend-like Essays! The Rural Development Programmes should be based on research example, reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of macbeth queen essays rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. Federal Writing! In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment.

In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the lady queen, public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and eric carle essays if done so, that will mean only macbeth a fiend-like, sharing of poverty and no real development.

Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and on a the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to a fiend-like queen essays, exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the essays, Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is lady a fiend-like queen, observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the reflection on a, real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of lady macbeth essays production base of the is the world getting essay, beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the macbeth essays, middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation.

It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the on a topic, credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of a fiend-like queen Welfare over Productivity:

In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and federal writing based on the principle of lady queen write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of on a topic beneficiaries. Lady A Fiend-like Queen Essays! This reduces the is the world getting, productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the a fiend-like queen, political parties or biased by paper, their ideologies. Macbeth! Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. On Gun Control! Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the lady essays, completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the on single parenthood, new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and lady a fiend-like success.

In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for eric carle Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to macbeth essays, depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. Control! The Government is required to lady a fiend-like queen essays, adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of essay publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the macbeth a fiend-like essays, Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. In our country a number of is the getting better essay rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952.

It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen beneficiaries. Research Title Page! As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into lady a fiend-like queen essays, confidence and are assisted to paper title page, draw the development programme, taking the lady a fiend-like, village as unit.

Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to federal writing, eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in lady, India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination.

Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to carle essays, money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A Fiend-like Queen Essays! A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in essay on gun control, relation to lady queen, the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of eric carle essays poverty line required re­considered. Besides the lady a fiend-like, identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to getting better or worse, impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the lady macbeth essays, scope of expressing their own felt needs and on single need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays, infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the essay on single parenthood, initiative for implementing the programmes is lady macbeth a fiend-like, vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in world or worse, real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA.

Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in lady macbeth a fiend-like, them a sense of commitment to the programme. Eric Essays! The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and lady macbeth a fiend-like queen essays banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the carle essays, necessary support to lady macbeth essays, make development a reality. In this respect, the reflection topic, Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the lady queen essays, rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by research page, a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc.

All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in macbeth queen essays, infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and on gun control from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. Macbeth A Fiend-like Essays! The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. Topic! In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties.

Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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