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richard ii essay This study guide is the best pizza, intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in the UK, but is suitable for university students and the general reader who is thesis luther, interested in Shakespeare's plays. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please contact me by clicking on this link. This guide is written to in the essay support your study of Richard II . The guide indicates the terms in which examiners will expect you to understand the play. It should be used in conjunction with study of Richard II in performance, as far as possible, and of the text in one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on your own aptitude and thesis luther readiness for study.

But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at least some of the following: Editions of the play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Most students will find this challenging, although the introduction is well worth reading. The New Cambridge edition is good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by Penguin and Macmillan. For critical writing about the play, you should use the Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the introduction, and study essays selectively, but those by E. H. Kantorowicz and A. P. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to the Cambridge and Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. The Best In The World? 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is shak'd - the political background ) and pp. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.

For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and florida state university requirements The Oxford Guide to the best in the English Literature , J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to through coursework remember, or questions to raise in class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for copies of files, and adapt them for your learning. Make audio tapes of parts of the play and world essay your comments on them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the of the by upton first play in a series of four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the in the world essay second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the three parts of Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). Famine? In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and order) which we meet in others of his plays.

Here, however, these issues are considered in relation to the best in the world essay real events as known to the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to thesis luther consider whether Shakespeare is a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. World Essay? If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of thesis luther, play, tragedy (which means goat song in the best pizza classical Greek!) originates in Athens in ancient times. Aristotle (a philosopher and scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for the drama which tragedians should follow. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to thesis of the by upton sinclair the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and later Roman (e.g. Terence) dramatists.

For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in pizza in the world the modern sense of being humorous. In trying to arrange Shakespeare's work into categories (as for publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in Measure for through coursework, Measure and All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Many of our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at the time of their performance. This has led to pizza world essay pointless arguments, as to whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of coursework, consideration: how historical subjects may allow the playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in print the title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the Second.

The modern student has better access to detailed and accurate accounts of the events depicted in the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the history, and that at points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to us). Most school editions of the plays will list these. It is clear that in places, Shakespeare will change details to suit his needs as a dramatist. There is a good example of this in Richard II and the best pizza essay the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to be Hal's father.

In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into one) to suit the purposes of the paper irish famine drama. There is a genuine question for scholars in how far the change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the in the world facts get in the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the presentation on descriptive playwright's own view. Such inference is at best tentative: it may lead to a muddled attempt to understand the plays in terms of a modern political outlook. Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is seen as devious and dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at pizza in the essay, a time when a period of term, peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the professional theatre to emerge and flourish, but where this peace is threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. There is no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and restraint of harmful lawlessness. In order to explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in other (real or imagined) times and places.

In referring to his own times (as at the end of in the world essay, Richard III and requirements the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to praise the Tudors generally and the best pizza in the essay Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by implication in A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Though given by thesis luther, God, this right may be forfeited by the king's failure to exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for new rebellions of the discontented.

Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the murder of in the world, a man only start a quote (he is no longer king) yet the murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the kingdom, on pain of death: Henry's genuine grief at Richard's killing is something most modern audiences find difficult. In the two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by the best in the world, uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the can you paper son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of in the essay, conquest.

Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in on descriptive the great reversal of the odds at Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in dramatic rhetoric and in symmetry or balance . For the audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of comic interludes, and the best world the lack of action. Through Coursework? Of the second of these, since there is action of a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the play in the best pizza in the world outline is that of the contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and Duke of Hereford, and heir to the estate of John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster. Henry is banished as a result of thesis luther, Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, almost certainly on Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of treason, a charge he denies, but which is to be proved or refuted in a tournament. Richard sets the time (St. Lambert's Day) and place (Coventry) for the tournament. Pizza In The? He presides over it but halts it at thesis of the jungle sinclair, the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the king at a disadvantage. So Richard banishes both, but remits the sentence to a shorter time in Henry's case. On the death of the best pizza in the essay, Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to fund a military expedition to Ireland.

Powerful lords, notably the Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the powerpoint essay country and his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to return in Richard's absence (in Ireland). The forces Richard has left to guard against such an event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by his favourites, three of whom Henry executes. On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. While Henry is reluctant to assume the the best world essay office of king, Northumberland pushes him to exploit his power and popularity, and Richard is all too ready to abdicate.

Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only florida state university solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. Pizza In The World? The play ends with an anticipation of Henry's worries about his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for foolish and degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to through coursework express a single judgement on the best pizza in the the (real) events he depicts. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to thesis be seen in a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and candles) in private houses of wealthy patrons. The plays were not written to be read or studied and world copies of the text were originally made (hand-written) for the use of the performers. It is paper irish famine, important to bear this in mind when you are required to study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the most successful of its day, and his plays filled the theatres.

Many (most?) of the audience in a public performance would lack education and be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the pizza in the essay spoken word was of through coursework, greater value than is the case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of purposes, but stage properties and costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and movements with conventional connotations of essay, meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to understand a play, we have to work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.

To see a play entire (in the theatre or on film), without interruption save for the interval, may be needed for us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of essay, narrative drive, and to see how the text is not the the best pizza world essay work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the other hand, study of text and editors' notes may be necessary for thesis luther, us to appreciate some of the attitudes the the best in the world contemporary audience brought into term irish famine, the theatre. Such notes may explain images and highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to pizza convey important ideas to his audience. The instant pleasure of experiencing a work of art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by can you start paper, us in watching Shakespeare in performance. What is amazing is that so much is still accessible, and that by adapting the delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the in the essay plays work today. The division of plays into five acts is more apparent to can you a term paper a quote the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to the audience (though modern audiences often know act and scene numbers). For the student, the numbering of pizza in the, acts and scenes is essay, of enormous importance in the best pizza in the world identifying a given point in the narrative.

When quoting a passage, always give act and scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the play, so you know what occurs in each scene. List the scenes down the paper irish page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about what happens. Follow this with a phrase from a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the disputants banished: . such is the breath of kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of kings. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.

Choose a speech which is the best pizza in the, a clue to you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the play in acts. This is not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the thesis luther play ends with hints of the best pizza world, trouble to start a term paper come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the relationship between public/ceremonial and private/intimate scenes or episodes.

Finally it is worth making a plan of each act, identifying episodes/speeches in which the principal themes are presented. None of this is a guarantee of success in the best pizza in the an exam. It is through, essential preparation, to give you the material you need to succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for the whole play, of alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. World Essay? This is important in establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and of the private person behind the public face.

This will be an important idea in this play, as in thesis luther the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the opening at Richard's court and the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in the best in the the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to move the patient Gaunt to vengeance, while the last scene of the act shows the term famine cynicism of Richard in private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to be showy and insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to disregard the law to offset his financial imprudence and wishing the valiant Gaunt into an early grave. For the the best contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of famine, his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is a national hero, of legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.

Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is directed exclusively at Mowbray, but not at the king. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of pizza in the world, himself (a man) and of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from God). Can you explain the nature of Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the key scene in the act. Note the extreme formality of the state essay language, determined by rules of chivalry, and the number of people on stage, as well as the in the ceremonial garments and weapons which would appear in such a tournament. Term Paper Irish? All of this is required by the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.

What is the effect on all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the king's halting of the tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in the short term, is an error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and the best pizza in the Green, appear for the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about Bolingbroke tell us? In the first scene of this act, Richard spurns the advice of the dying Gaunt, and coursework seizes Gaunt's estates to fund his wars in the best pizza in the essay Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of a plan for the exile to return in Richard's absence, and the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to comfort the queen, of Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by thesis luther, the Duke of York, who has been appointed lord governor in Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of essay, his limited ambition.

In contrast, the final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by Richard to a term with defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the manor, sheriffs and essay so on) to raise armies from their estates, and possess the means to pay them for their service. Richard has no extensive estates of his own, but Bolingbroke owns the largest of all (Lancaster) and is backed by the major landowners of the north of England, led by the Northumberland Percy family. These have mustered a large army, against which the returning Richard will be powerless to act. This scene is can you start a term paper, notable for pizza world, Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in the play, and without the last two lines of the thesis of the jungle sinclair long sentence which are required for it to make grammatical sense, as they contain the main verb, and pizza in the which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the state of England, the character or Richard, and how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the private conversation of York and Gaunt, moves to the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in the intimacy of the plotting by Richard's enemies.

How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on on descriptive essay events occurring elsewhere? Do the the best in the world words of the queen in any way modify our view of can you with a quote, Richard, and if so, how? At this time, the pizza in the queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an thesis luther adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in pizza world the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?

The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to a term paper a quote Harlech, in Wales. Here Richard, returning from the best pizza in the essay, Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and passes on to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Although Richard speaks of being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to presentation on descriptive the title and estates of the best pizza in the world, Lancaster. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Alban's) the queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and Greene in terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against the two caterpillars differ from that against Mowbray? At the heart of this scene is powerpoint on descriptive, Richard's receipt of the best, bad news and his response to it. Through? The bad news comes in pizza essay stages (what are the important details?) from term famine, Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to world the king, and meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to thesis luther Scroope's ambiguous statement that the the best in the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?

Comment also on Richard's two long speeches beginning at lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the thesis luther balcony of the theatre) allows the dramatist to symbolize the the best in the world essay king's loss of powerpoint on descriptive essay, status as he literally comes down to meet his rival. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the scene? Comment on the best pizza in the world the attitudes shown to jungle by upton Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by Northumberland (who omits his title and the best chooses not to kneel before the king). Comment on Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of power. There is no reason to term irish famine suppose that the gardener, as a master of the best in the world, his craft, would be unlikely to term irish compare the government of the country to the tending of a garden. He elaborates the metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to pluck up the weeds. root and all. The reference to caterpillars reminds us of Bolingbroke's earlier description of Bushy, Bagot and Greene. Comment on the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of detached or chorus * figure. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?

*In the classical drama of the best in the world essay, ancient Athens, the chorus is can you start a term with, a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the action on stage, and comments about it to the audience. The function of the chorus is to suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to a character in the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of miles in four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the most important in the whole play, set in Westminster. It divides into three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Henry in the best in the world essay return for his information) accuses Aumerle of a part in Gloucester's murder. This leads to a series of accusations and rebuttals, compounded by a series of challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to Aumerle). To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to learn that Mowbray has died. In the second part, York, supported by Northumberland but opposed by Carlisle, presides over Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.

In a brief sequel, the Abbot of Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the bishop and Aumerle to supper, to learn of a plot against Bolingbroke. In what way is Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the scene compare with I, i in terms of the way in which the challenges are issued and taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the florida state essay effect on the audience of Henry's words about Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in the best pizza in the world essay the conduct of Northumberland and Carlisle in this episode? Comment on the importance of York, as an honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.

How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is thesis luther, our view of Northumberland's insistence on the best in the Richard's answering accusations of term paper irish, crime, and Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the effect of Richard's use of the mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the end of II, i? In what ways is it significantly different from the earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?

It is appropriate that the final act of the play should both conclude the depiction of Richard's struggles, and tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. Richard, en route, for the Tower of London, takes his farewell of Isabel (who is to return to her native France), only to learn that Bolingbroke has decided to send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to be privy to the best pizza in the a plot to kill Henry, and rushes to inform the king, who is also troubled by through, stories of the riotous behaviour of his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the chief character of the three plays which follow in this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and Carlisle banished. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is the best essay, banished for his pains. With? Troubled by feelings of guilt, but, for the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the next play) he speaks more of a crusade. How, in describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and Richard provide a résumé of the changing fortunes of the former and current rulers? Comment on Richard's prophecy of Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.

Both Shakespeare and the audience know that the earl did rebel, but, within the pizza in the world essay world of the play, as in irish famine historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of this (though eventually he is the best pizza in the, able to see it coming). The two parts of start a term paper, this scene express in quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of pizza, God that the failed king, Richard, give way to the new ruler, Henry. Noting that York has paused, in powerpoint his distress for Richard, the duchess summarizes the gist of his speech so far, allowing him to describe the popular acclaim of Henry, and the contemptuous rejection of Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the proposed tournament at Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. The Best Essay? How does the audience view the conduct of the two parents and their son in this episode? What is the through effect of the king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the audience's view of Henry's situation on the best world essay the arrival of his cousin, uncle and aunt, and of how he deals with this? How important is York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of thesis, correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by pizza world essay, way of an explanation of what is to follow.

Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the university essay trouble, in so few lines, to state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the king's exact words, and then to give Exton's gloss as to pizza in the world essay what the words mean? Of what incident in Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on his situation, both because it is made in of the jungle by upton sinclair private, and because it is more measured and less excessively self-pitying. How far do you support this view, and why?

What is the point of the groom's words to Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the rebels, which he explains to York, are at once resolved by news brought by Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in prison) and pizza in the world Carlisle, who is banished. This is the cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the audience's view of Henry's treatment of Exton? How far are we persuaded by jungle, the king's justification of his words and his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.

What obstacle lies in the way of the fulfilment of this desire? How effective, and in what ways, do you find the the best pizza in the play's ending? General comment on all acts and scenes of the play appears above. Thesis By Upton? This section deals more extensively with the most critical parts of the play. The Best Pizza In The? The importance of each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to examiners) is indicated by the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the play and its general themes. At the start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in irish introducing the historical situation and characters, and the best in the essay indicating the term paper famine relationship between the public duty and the private concerns of the king and others. The play's first scene outlines the the best nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the thesis of the sinclair king and the house of Lancaster. In The Essay? We see how the king, seemingly fully in control, attempts to thesis of the jungle reconcile the the best in the essay adversaries, then determines to settle their dispute by chivalrous means.

This very public scene is followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to coursework act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Gloucester's death: since the king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and it is the best essay, honourable, in spite of the through coursework duchess's pleas, to show patience. We see at once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and loyalty in public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of this act. The stage directions at the start of these scenes make the most important point. Scene i is full of ceremonial, as the stage is filled with nobles and pizza in the world essay attendants. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in I, iii. Can You Start A Term Paper With A Quote? The scene is full of opportunities for display of duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and Bolingbroke state their allegiance to Richard, at which point they may be expected to kneel.

It is not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at him (l. 60) should be a literal insult. The Best In The? Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Having heard the irish charge and Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to give up the gage, but is unable to compel him to do so. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only the best pizza world essay two characters on stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of God. In the first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the court to can you with convey information. As in scene iii, we hear the names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. The Best Pizza In The World Essay? As later they may be known by name or one of their titles, it is useful to hear all of these. Can You A Term A Quote? Although Richard's words are at this point sustained by the best pizza in the essay, the authority of on descriptive, his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to sue, but to command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is also worth noting at every point what form of address is pizza essay, used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the Duke of Norfolk).

Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of a series of powerpoint on descriptive, puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is happy to be known by it, rather than the formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the in the world essay play and its general themes. This is the key scene in the first act. Richard's decision in I, i, to resolve the dispute between Bolingbroke and Mowbray by means of a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and prestige. Can You A Term With A Quote? However, it appears only now that Richard realizes the practical implications of his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for the king's peace of mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of in the world, things, but also appears to be a violation of the laws of chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of thesis, laws and privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of expediency, he undermines his own position. As in the best pizza in the essay I, i, Richard, while acting in state essay a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to result from world essay, what happens here.

His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the coursework exile's return and effective assumption of power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in which Henry presides over events, but in very different manner: where Richard is pizza, showy, concerned with the impression he makes, Henry is silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the tournament is shown in the theatre by use of costume and properties, and by the arrangement of the actors on through coursework stage. The particular garments worn by pizza world, the king, by on descriptive, his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at pizza in the world, least the importance of the occasion, though the coursework costume may show more exactly the the best pizza essay status of the wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the marshal approaches the defendant (Mowbray) and powerpoint presentation on descriptive the appellant (Bolingbroke) to address them. Weapons are presented to pizza world them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite sides of the of the jungle sinclair stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.

All is prepared for the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at the centre of the action, but is somewhat of an anti-climax. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the the best pizza world gages thrown down in I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). The structure of the can you start scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the tournament, Richard's intervention and sentence, the reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in the best world essay the language of this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the coursework defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to express bitter enmity, they are required to speak with dignity, and both show the the best pizza essay utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in start a term Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the king's hand, is relayed by the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is constant repetition of the full names and titles of both disputants. (Between lines 100 and 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of verse!) Also worthy of note are images of discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of time and necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is the best pizza world, always profitable to note the of the by upton sinclair forms of address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to the best pizza in the the nuances of state, these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the pizza in the play and its general themes. In the previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Bolingbroke, and his readiness to pay for his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is concerned for Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is through coursework, shocking. In this scene we see the contrast between the noble Gaunt who laments the results of Richard's poor administration, and world essay the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.

Gaunt is motivated essentially by a love for thesis luther, his country and dismay at what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in the best in the world I, ii and I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of insolence. Once Gaunt is can you start paper a quote, dead, York counsels Richard against the seizure of the Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on deaf ears: both in his rebuke of Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for pizza world, his words. He resorts to crude assertion of thesis luther, his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to this, where Northumberland draws Ross and Willoughby into his plotting follows naturally: the men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and look for comfort, of which Northumberland duly speaks. Rebellion is shocking to Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.

The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to correct his nephew's faults, foresees the ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from his folly; this is followed by Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of York. Pizza In The? Then comes the conspiracy. The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an intimate huddle and through coursework hushed voices, speaking treason. There is no obvious use of pizza essay, properties, and Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to a term Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in full. The interest of this scene lies largely in the best in the its language. Thesis Of The Jungle Sinclair? Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and of Richard are significant: where the queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the king is disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and pizza world essay uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).

The final part of the presentation essay scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and the sense of haste and in the essay bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of images, whereby we move from a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to the ships which bring intelligence and will later bring soldiers, and the port in Brittany from which these come. Gaunt's long speech is formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of England. Gaunt sustains the coursework series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to say about this England. When it comes, the effect is pizza, of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Mars or other Eden now suffers the shame of thesis luther, being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. The implied contrast is between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and his sons, the Black Prince, and Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the best in the world, the juxtaposition of can you start paper a quote, images of chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in law.

Relationship with the play and its general themes. When Richard leaves the stage in world II, i, he informs us that he will leave for Ireland the next day. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. While Bagot has saved his skin by flight, Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and thesis luther more bad news, introspective and fatalistic. The audience notes a striking distance between the wisdom of Richard's general comments and his inability to rule wisely. The Best Pizza In The World? While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is powerpoint on descriptive essay, lessened by his attack on his friends.

We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and loyalty to the best in the world Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Just as he has been politically unwise in following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of thesis luther, their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to depict events happening throughout the realm. The Best In The World Essay? The simplicity of the stage enables places to be indicated in conversation (we know that the tournament in I, iii is at Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for example). Bolingbroke, landing at Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and thesis of the jungle by upton sinclair we meet him near Berkeley. The Best Pizza? In this scene, Richard, returning from Ireland, arrives at Harlech in north Wales. Requirements? The structure of the scene derives from Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and Aumerle's elaboration of it) and his responses to the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the entrances of Salisbury and Scroope, there are interesting actions at the start of the world scene and near its end. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. with my hand. greet. do. Can You A Term With A Quote? favours with my royal hands).

Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to sit with him upon the ground, a course of the best pizza, (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in florida state essay requirements the play in in the essay terms of language, and perhaps the first of those in which Richard, deprived of political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to dramatize his own loss. It contains many of the play's best-known and often-quoted speeches. University Essay Requirements? In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to the best pizza world essay sustain the rightful order of things by deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. toads. Thesis Of The By Upton Sinclair? nettles. adder) against Bolingbroke. The request is fantastic (it would be at home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in the Palace wood) and comes ill from one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. In The World Essay? That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is a poetic conceit: it is coursework, Richard in fact who is harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the best in the world essay the rising of the sun (an image to which Shakespeare returns in the next scene, and in state essay Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). The Best Pizza World? This leads to a definitive statement of the inalienable right of the king to rule: Not all the water in thesis luther the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The Best Pizza Essay? The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of balm [balsam resin] and thesis luther oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is permanent. Where dangerous creatures are at first invoked by Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). He further offends by the best world, comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is presentation on descriptive essay, like Christ (he is God's deputy but not His son).

There is no apology when he learns of his error, but Richard reflects on the brevity of life and the certainty of death in the best essay a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the play and jungle by upton sinclair its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in the preceding scenes of their imminent meeting, which occurs here. While Bolingbroke is eager to the best in the world submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and state university requirements his estates restored. Richard is advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. The Best Pizza In The World Essay? Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of submission to on descriptive essay him, Richard seems to accept as certain the loss of his throne to the best essay his rival. This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in can you a term a quote terms of its staging (see the sketch in the New Cambridge edition, p. 39). The balcony represents the ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the base court, to which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by Bolingbroke to the rising of the the best pizza in the world essay sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is paper irish famine, pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is now to be eclipsed. He is invited to in the come down, and his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of authority.

Gestures of university essay, submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is the best, insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the inevitability of Henry's seizing the presentation essay throne. As with the pizza in the essay tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. Presentation? 170): the parley is less obviously ritualized than the tournament, but there is an etiquette. Northumberland is rebuked by Richard, who has waited in the best world essay vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for traditional courtesy in coursework IV, i). Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and accepts the invitation to parley. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the the best pizza etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.

Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Finally, we should note (by inference from Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. It is notable that the title is used most often by Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to his majesty and addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Powerpoint Presentation? Richard inverts the usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and calling his rival King Bolingbroke and his majesty in the next line, and speaking of himself in the best in the the third person as merely the king. Richard's fantasy of exchanging his royal privileges for the simple life of irish famine, a poor pilgrim is pathetic: he is sorry for the best world, himself and articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and by upton inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. The symbolism of the best pizza essay, Richard's coming down, in case the audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in his exploration of the florida university essay meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and up). In his ironic rebuke of Bolingbroke for debasing himself by kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in the previous scene. It would appear that his real objection is the best pizza in the, not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.

Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at least, although your knee be low. Of The Jungle Sinclair? As in the last scene the king is likened to the sun, but here it is his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the likeness. Relationship with the the best play and its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and explanation on events, at the mid-point in the drama. It is a very judicious scene in thesis luther that understanding of the reasons for the best pizza world essay, Richard's failure as a king is mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is one of the series of intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in the most private of all, Richard's meditation in Pomfret, in term famine V, v. The scene is set in a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the pizza world public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of thesis luther, majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. this blessd plot, this earth) in which the in the whole country is likened to a garden, an idea developed in the dialogue in this scene. Paper Famine? The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is the best pizza essay, made aware of the realities of the political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for term, herself and, by association, for Richard. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by pizza in the essay, a messenger or well-informed noble to others on stage) as the Gardener is able to powerpoint on descriptive divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the good Duke of York's yet which is already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of what we would now call the word on the street.

Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. It is worth noting a number of statements which establish the outdoor setting (about bowls and the best pizza world essay dancing - which give rise to a series of weak puns on rubs, bias and can you paper a quote keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). But mostly, Shakespeare gives the Gardener an opportunity to expand the idea of England as a blessed plot or garden. A close study of all the imagery in the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. When the pizza world essay Gardener instructs the Servant in his task, we may already note the term irish famine ambiguity of his orders: he likens the the best pizza in the essay ripe fruit to unruly children, while the servant is to be the executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and can you paper with a quote the weeds are without profit in sucking fertility from the flowers. In case we miss the point, the Servant now spells out the analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to explain that the garden is now being tended by Bolingbroke: Richard is pizza in the essay, likened to a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in eating him to hold him up; the image is developed as the Gardener likens Richard's nobles to the boughs of term irish, a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.

Hearing this provokes the queen to join the conversation rebuking the Gardener who in Adam's likeness describes the expulsion from Eden of cursd man in in the the person of Richard. The extended metaphor of the scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in thesis of the jungle sinclair this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the world play and thesis luther its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in III, iii and discussed by in the, the Gardener in III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. There is a ceremony for thesis luther, the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).

Thus, the principals have to make up the pizza ritual as they go along. In an florida essay obvious reversal of the positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the ritual of abdication. The Best Pizza In The? Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the florida requirements opportunity to dramatize his loss. This is the last scene in which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Shakespeare is concerned with the legality of the proceedings: Henry and York wish the abdication to be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and Northumberland is more or less indifferent, but aware of where the pizza in the essay power lies.

The scene divides into three unequal parts (the series of accusations and counter-accusations relating to Gloucester's death; the abdication, and the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and through coursework Westminster). Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the charges against him (222 - 272); the breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an ambitious example of another variety of big scene, the ensemble-scene, in which a massive effect is obtained by the presence on stage of the best pizza in the world, a large number of actors, several of state university essay, whom have prominent speaking parts. The Best Pizza In The World Essay? Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the quarrel between Aumerle and Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of state essay, gauntlets. This leads into the best pizza, the next episode, more serious and deeper in tone, in which the Bishop of Carlisle is the chief actor. His impassioned protest against Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the scene to a new level of feeling. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is half-way through. The effect in the scene is that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the excitement worked up in the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the university requirements climax.

Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in the best pizza in the Shakespeare (p. 15) The staging of the scene once again requires almost the full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the central area will in turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by Carlisle and by Richard. At some point (where is not clear in the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the throne which was Richard's. The three conspirators at the end of the scene remind us of the through plotters in II, i. This is a scene in which objects are important: as well as the throne, we must note the use of the gages at the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to Bolingbroke, the paper (line 269) on which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. The throwing of the gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from line 183 (On this side my hand and on that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for the best pizza in the world essay, some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of ascending the throne, he is through coursework, defied by Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at in the world essay, once or is thesis of the jungle sinclair, delayed by the best, Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of through, that name.

Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to pizza in the world essay say Amen to thesis his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the pizza world essay sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the on descriptive essay symbolism of the king's face (the word is the best pizza in the world, re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. Thesis Luther? ). The term indicates his sense of the difference between the literal face of the ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in the face of the ruler (this has passed to Henry). This is Shakespeare's comment on the doctrine of the the best pizza world essay King's Two Bodies. For another reading of this scene click here. Relationship with the play and its general themes.

This scene is start a term with, a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and the philosophical acceptance of his situation which redeems and dignifies Richard in V, v. The Best Pizza In The World Essay? It is a sequel to III, iv, as the presentation on descriptive essay appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to need this, and tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and the best pizza in the essay fomenting of rebellion. Outside the thesis luther political process, Richard has the shrewdness he lacked in office. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is in the world, Henry's and Richard's coming into London. As with the queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the location (a street which Richard must take on his way to the Tower of London). Thesis Luther? Although this is a public place, the guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of Richard before the Northumberland's arrival changes the mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The Best Pizza In The Essay? The queen is emotional but Richard is composed and serene; as Hamlet does to Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to powerpoint on descriptive come, to tell. the lamentable tale of him, which will send the hearers weeping to pizza world their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the brusqueness of what follows: throughout the drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. Start A Term Paper With? The force of pizza in the essay, Richard's stinging rebuke here is felt by the audience, most of whom will know its historical accuracy.

Whether Richard actually made this prediction is not important: in the series of history plays, Northumberland's ambition is powerpoint on descriptive essay, apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the king sees Richard's words here as an pizza essay accurate prophecy. Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. My guilt be on my head tells the audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. with true love tears, and the stoicism of Richard, who is preparing for his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the religious life.

At the end of paper famine, this scene (81-86) we find the sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Otherwise the scene is the best pizza in the, notable for Richard's comment on florida state university essay requirements the deposing of a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the play and the best in the its general themes. Since Richard is alone in his cell in Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on term irish famine his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in world essay IV, i. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the nature of imprisonment, of imagination and of time. Richard is ready for his death and confront his murderers with dignity and heroic defiance - he is at last the man of action. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.

Although Richard has many long speeches, and thesis of the by upton from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and eloquent, this scene contains his only soliloquy in the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and his melodramatic and self-pitying response to its loss. The long speech is painful to the best world essay us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to through the gallery. Now he has the pizza essay whole stage to himself at first, followed by a touching and intimate encounter with an ordinary man whose affection for thesis of the by upton, him is the best essay, plain. Though the audience may accept that Richard is now only an term paper famine ordinary man, yet his murder is an ugly act of violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is almost like a poem and important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is the best essay, advisable to study the whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and the principal images and conceits. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).

You should also note the discussion of presentation, roan Barbary, leading to Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and the best Bolingbroke: the nature of kingship. In an exam you may encounter a question about thesis one or both of the principal characters, a question about the nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the pizza world water in the rough rude sea. University Essay? ) with which you are invited to agree. Make sure you answer the question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only write (briefly) of the other to pizza world clarify your subject. The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in this area: be ready to arrange your material to support your argument. Structurally, the play charts Richard's loss of power and a term paper Henry's ascent: this is made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). In the case of Richard the loss of kingly authority leads to personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and humility, and the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the universal nature of suffering.

As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is ostentatious and fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Richard is politically inept; Henry is a shrewd political operator. Richard has an early mediaeval belief in the best in the world essay absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Coursework? Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to guard his interests); Henry's return is managed efficiently. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in time of need; Henry's friends are able to deliver. Their attitudes to pizza in the world essay kingship differ radically. Richard sees the crown as his by right; because he is king, his decisions are almost by thesis by upton sinclair, definition correct, approved by the best pizza in the, God and not to be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to present a range of views about kingship. Two extreme views (those of Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of Bolingbroke, York and Henry's allies (other than the Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the course of events, and the way in presentation on descriptive which they are presented.

Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in pizza in the world the rough rude sea/Can wash the coursework balm off from an anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from in the essay, Carlisle: when Henry is to ascend the royal throne in God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in his eyes murder is less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by florida essay requirements, Henry to be. The Best In The World Essay? Since the church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to rule, the church's authority is weakened by what has happened, so we may see self-interest at thesis luther, work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to in the world the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to jungle by upton sinclair go so far, nor so quickly.

While Richard is in the best in the Ireland, York tries to defend the king's interests but recognizes his inability to counter Henry's military power. On Descriptive Essay? He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to his enemies in III,iii, York weeps (we know this from the best in the world, Richard's remark). But in IV,i, York is central to the deposition ceremony and in V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. He shows his loyalty in reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is can you start a term with, moved by her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of duty. What York and Henry show the audience is a moderate view: the king is divinely appointed to rule, but his kingship is an obligation to the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.

The crown can be forfeited if the king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in the best world essay a chain of historical events which leads to Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is thesis of the jungle, safe to pizza in the world depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is of the sinclair, justified by the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. Exton's murder is the killing of a good man, but not regicide (murder of the best pizza in the world essay, a king). Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the sequel to Richard II ) are quite explicit in thesis luther condemning treason. Any discussion of these two characters may lead to consideration of recurrent images. The sun and day represent kingly rule; in the first half of the play the sun image is claimed by Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. In the central part of the play (especially III,iii and IV,i) images of the best pizza world essay, ascent and descent recur. We use these metaphorically in university requirements a loose everyday sense to express ideas of status (high and low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to the best in the essay the base-court, kneeling and so on). Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is up, I know. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to two buckets: as one goes down (full of tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.

In any scene, it is instructive to note the forms of address characters use to one another. Belief in Richard's continuing title to the throne can be discerned in these. Northumberland is the first to refer to Richard merely by his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is a slip of the tongue: this may be charitable to a term with a quote Northumberland. After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to him as the King; be alert to this. This play is principally about Richard and in the best pizza in the the middle and latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.

In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to nature in III,ii is bizarre, his self-pity in this scene and III,iii may appear unattractive. In IV,i, as he loses the reality of power, Richard seeks to dominate the proceedings. Thesis Of The Jungle? Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of actions which dramatize his situation. These culminate in the smashing of the the best pizza essay mirror, an action which suggests a lack of self-control. But in Act V, having taken leave of his wife, Richard gains in dignity. He is reconciled to his fate, sees the universal character of suffering and meets his death with courage and fortitude. Richard is never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. The king is thesis of the sinclair, believed to be two people in one: the ordinary man, and the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). As these two are embodied in one person, the king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to essay the king and jungle by upton his majesty.

When he is addressed (as king) it is the majesty to the best pizza in the world essay whom people speak. This is one of Shakespeare's plays in term paper irish which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is also a subject of the drama: the play is about language. You should be aware that any essay in which you contrast the characters and fortunes of Richard and the best world essay Bolingbroke will involve comparison of their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of irish, eloquence, as in his accusation of Mowbray in I, i, in his speeches before the tournament in I, iii, and especially in his praise of world, Richard's sun-like majesty in III, iii. But he can be silent, as in state his response to Northumberland's flattery in II, iii. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.

Richard, by contrast, loves the pizza in the essay sound of his own voice. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is more ready to issue absolute commands than to give reasons (as in II, i). Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in term irish famine his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and peace with himself in the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to grasp that the display of authority needs to be backed up with the reality of power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is the best world essay, said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the university essay nobility and commons, rather than indulging a clique of sycophants while excluding many of the most powerful in the land. From the start of the play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by real power. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to a point. The Best World? But the moment powerful people cease to believe in this (as Northumberland has) the game is florida university essay requirements, up.

There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at the dying Gaunt, speaking of punishment only forestalled by his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in in the world train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. Essay? But in in the essay III, i, Henry actually executes three of Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the variety of poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the drama. Space does not permit full discussion of these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in the introduction to the New Cambridge edition of the through play. You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on the best world essay the play's language, and be aware that examiners might invite this comment in general or specific terms. It is powerpoint essay, quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the theatrical effectiveness of the play's language - that is, how it works in pizza in the essay conveying narrative, giving insight into character or attitudes, and engaging the sympathy or revulsion of the audience. The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at a study day for A level students.

notes from a lecture by Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is not just a medium of the florida play, but one of its subjects. Language is the best in the world, used as an instrument of term paper irish, political control and manipulation. The Best Pizza Essay? We are shown how power operates through language. Through Coursework? Political uses of language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of the best in the world essay, command: Richard uses this early in presentation on descriptive the play, but not much hereafter. We were not born to the best world essay sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is already losing power.

The rhetoric of powerpoint essay, persuasion: Richard tries to the best world patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and Mowbray. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Florida State University Requirements? Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the regal throne and Carlisle retorts in like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the monarchy is the best pizza in the world, displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of term paper irish famine, pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and the best in the world so on: Richard is aware of both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to can you paper work for Richard. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to be manipulated. The play is very concerned with the use of language.

The audience lived in a society dependent on the spoken word. Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and stories. The Best Pizza World? Those who were literate were trained at school in the arts of using language rhetorically to persuade. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to be about presentation essay language. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and the best pizza in the world essay power.

He has a monopoly of command here: he is to be the florida essay arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and the best world forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). The ritual here is ancient and thesis luther traditional and the best pizza essay has little to do with Richard's power as king. He chooses to use his temporal power to break the ritual of divine justice on which the tournament is through coursework, based (God decides in the trial by combat). Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and dispenses with the divine justice. He replaces the ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at line 122 matches the rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is the best pizza, law in this scene, it will not be so for thesis luther, long.

From this point in the play we note the contrast between Richard's and pizza essay Bolingbroke's speech. On his return from exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by his proper title - Lancaster. When York accuses him of treason in thesis luther returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out justice to in the world essay Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire, and his simple and effective words and actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and can you start paper Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of Lancaster. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the the best essay earth using a familiar image of mother and child, yet reverses the usual rôles, as he tries to own the earth and direct it to paper famine act as an effective agent of harm to his enemies.

This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into essay, a fantastic world of excess and disproportion. As he invokes spiders and toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the thesis luther rhetoric of the best pizza in the essay, realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to his own care-tuned tongue. Presentation On Descriptive? Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to sit upon the best pizza in the world, the ground and tell sad stories. Florida State? While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to the best in the essay talk and write. Term Paper? His musings lead him (151) to question his and others' identity. His language isolates him from his supporters; it is the best pizza in the world, no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at state university essay requirements, line 144, Richard turns the power game into a language game: first he asks a series of questions and proceeds, in self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. The Best Pizza World Essay? ) Then he changes from he to I, indicating a problem of identity. He can no longer use language to through display power, so uses it to the best pizza display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the language disturbs by its extravagance.

From line 161 on, the language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and state university essay dearth or to make a pair of graves. He has retreated into image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of uncrowning and to pizza world invent the language for this. While Bolingbroke presides over the ceremony it is largely Richard who enacts it, and state essay requirements uses the objects of the best in the world essay, ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on through coursework the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to invent an imaginary world to people his cell. He can now see the gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is explicit, and he is aware of it. He now has no audience. At the start of the play everyone is obliged to acquiesce in the best in the Richard's language game. He now has no power, only language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.

Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the main action preceded by thesis luther, the sections in the best which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the second half of the play. It recollects the florida state opening of the whole play and the best points a parallel between Bolingbroke and Richard. It emphasises the clash of aristocratic pride with law and kingly power. It looks back to events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and the continuity of history.

It reminds us that the events of the play are historical. Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of requirements, Richard, but he deals with them differently. The Best Pizza In The World Essay? By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in paper his reign). We see the events which cause the the best pizza world essay future. When Richard enters the scene a number of people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and invented this part of the scene.

There is no historical basis for it. There is no suspense involved in through this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). The Best In The? The focus is not on thesis luther what is to happen, but how it will happen. It is a struggle for theatrical, not political dominance. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.

This is a play which seems deliberately not to indulge in action. There is suspension or paralysis of action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the scene is on pizza world objects rather than actions , to each of which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of power. He refuses to read the paper listing his crimes, the symbol of real actions. He smashes the mirror , symbol of vanity and self-knowledge, and shadow of his face. It is a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. This prepares us for the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the different kinds of thesis luther, question you will have to answer.

In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the the best pizza in the world play. In theory any scene in the play could be chosen; in practice the number of thesis luther, suitable scenes is more limited, but of course the extract chosen will only be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the question (usually) which refers to the themes of the play (not necessarily in so many words) and which implies consideration of before and after, scenes from the the best pizza in the world middle of the irish text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.

What (usually) is required is as follows: Consideration of the scene's treatment of the play's general themes - the extract and the best pizza in the world its place in relation to the rest of the play. Can You Start Paper? Matters of staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about theatrical presentation are NOT questions about character and the content of speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.

Again, this is not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and characters. The examiners want to see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of depth and in the thoroughness. In general, essays produced in trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of approach.

It is essential to plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Embody the plan in your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the nature of kingship: to Carlisle the paper right to the best pizza in the essay rule is can you a term paper, God-given and inalienable, while for Northumberland the world throne is available to the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to modify their ideas. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and kings in Richard II ? By what means and with what success does Shakespeare attempt to can you paper with secure our sympathy for Richard? In what ways do the pizza in the minor characters serve to heighten the tragic effect of the play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and certainly won't set an essay on the Second Herald or the paper irish famine Welsh Captain. Essays explicitly about a single character are comparatively rare at 'A' level (as they invite the prepared essay). Essays may well be about relationships and the theatrical presentation of characters.

In this play, questions about Richard and pizza in the essay Bolingbroke must be expected. Questions about York, Aumerle and Northumberland are also possible. The queen, the requirements caterpillars, Carlisle and Gaunt also contribute to how we see Richard, but are not in enough of the play to sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. And they inhibit the in the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of this play is the nature of kingship. Questions about irish famine kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . For example, you may need to discuss the idea of the King's two bodies or whether the play supports the view that not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from th'anointed king.

You may be asked in what sense the play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Any order/disorder question is the best world essay, really a question about the contrasting approaches and fortunes of Richard and Henry, which is qualified by the views (on the thesis luther sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and the best pizza essay York, as well as the Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Thesis Of The Sinclair? Usually, the statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Often the the best essay accuracy of a statement may depend upon the interpretation given to the text in performance.

Questions about the play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is perfectly in order in the other types of question). Subjects on which you should be ready to answer would include some of the things discussed in through a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of tone - see, for example, A. P. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in the Casebook guide, pp. 214-229) and Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and private (informal) scenes; action and inaction; Northumberland's power politics and the best pizza world essay Carlisle's divine right of kings, and so on: these things are not to be examined simply in their own right, but in terms of their effect on the play as a work of theatre.

As language is of such importance here, this is discussed more fully in thesis luther a separate section of world, this guide. A very basic outline for revision. Use this very basic outline to learn the structure of the play. Adapt or customize it to through coursework suit your preferred methods of study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for killing his uncle (Gloucester). Richard declares a tournament at Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Coventry - the the best pizza in the lists - no result but Mowbray and Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and dies. Richard is rude and seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.

Bushy, Bagot and florida state university essay the queen - surely the least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. The Best? York is worried. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of through coursework, bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. toads,Not all the the best in the world water in with the rough rude sea. and For God's sake let us sit upon the ground. . Flint Castle - Richard like the sun on the ramparts but comes down into the base court and says Up, cousin, up. The Best In The World Essay? . The Queen and the Gardener - cue a load of metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the crown and the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at the end like in II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and Aumerle against Henry. (No chance of this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to through his queen, and is diverted from the Tower of London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.

York is sorry for Richard but supports Henry now, and proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an advert for the next play in the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to lock the the best pizza in the world essay door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Thesis By Upton Sinclair? Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. (v) Richard in prison; he is philosophical and resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the would-be rebels. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. Exton is the best pizza in the world essay, also banished and Henry decides to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land to term paper famine make up for what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

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920 Words Essay on the Choice of a Career. Pizza In The? The selection of a career or profession is a term paper, one of the most important things of life. But it is equally difficult. The lack of guiding services, proper counseling and ever increasing unemployment has further complicated the matter. There is cut-throat competition. Therefore, most of the young men and women in search of suitable jobs are a confused, indecisive and frustrated lot. It has generated a deep sense of frustration and indiscipline among the young people. A right choice of a career is fundamental importance. On it does depend one#8217;s success or failure in life.

A correct choice may lead to happy, prosperous and satisfying career and in the world, life. On the other hand, a wrong selection may result in failure, disappointment and sadness in life. The result of prolonged indecision rimy still proves worse. Jungle Sinclair? Image Source : cdn.publishyourarticles.net. Therefore, the problem should be faced and resolved as early as possible. It is better if one decides at the school stage itself what career one is going to adopt in future. But the in the essay school-going students are quite young, inexperienced and florida university, raw to take a right decision. They cannot be the best judge in the matter. What are needed are proper guidance, counseling, advice, vocational training, encouragement and orientation. And parents, teachers, professional guides and counselors should help them.

They can help the students choose right professions and careers, keeping in mind the aptitude, talent, skills, resources etc., of each and every student, a prospective professional. The Best Pizza? This will also go a long way in solving the problem of state university essay unemployment and proper development of the best pizza essay our human resources. Life has become all the more complex and competitive. There is a keen struggle and competition in the world of careers and professions. And only the fittest will survive.

After finishing their school and college education or training, the young students are baffled as to which profession to choose. They find themselves groping in the dark. The tough competition and corruption further increase their difficulties. A young man or woman may possess sufficient training, education, orientation and powerpoint, aptitude for a particular job or position and yet he or she may not get it because of various problems. Gone are the days when life was easy, simple, smooth and harmonious, and in the majority of the cases the son followed his ancestral profession or trade, and was trained in the same at home. With the rapid change in the best in the, attitudes, situations and progress in of the jungle sinclair, science and the best, technology, things have radically changed. The entry of women in professions and services has further increased the complications. And so, the selection of a right career at a right time has become a very tough job. It needs proper, full and comprehensive consideration. There are professions, careers, trades and jobs in plenty. There are a number of paper famine professional and training institutions like It#8217;s., polytechnics, engineering colleges etc., which give training in the best, various trades, skills, professions and jobs, such as medicine, engineering, teaching, business, commerce, banking, computer science, advertising, journalism, government services, positions in armed forces, and powerpoint presentation essay, scores others.

Then one can begin his own workshop, factory or shop, or choose a career in police, films, commercial art etc. The whole world of careers is pizza world, yours, but each and thesis luther, every profession requires a special aptitude, training, guidance, education and preparation. One may wish to become a doctor or an engineer, but mere wish is not enough. Wishes, without proper and matching qualifications and deeds, result in frustration and failure. There are many factors that go in making a successful and essay, happy career. Besides mental make-up, education, training and skills, the financial resources have also to be taken into consideration.

For example a young man may possess all the start a term paper with training, skills and aptitude for running an the best pizza in the world essay, industry. But he cannot venture to be an entrepreneur unless he has sufficient financial backing and muscle. In these circumstances, he will have to settle for a less ambitious career. But if he has a strong will power, nothing can prevent him from achieving the of the goal in the long run. One may start from scratch and end up as a business tycoon. A career should be chosen at the earliest possible stage but with proper and full deliberation. The help and guidance of teachers, parents, experienced people and professionals should be sought in the matter. I am a XII class student and I am- not required to enter into any profession just now. And yet I have decided about my career and profession. I have thought long and well over the best in the essay the matter with the help and guidance of of the jungle sinclair my parents, teachers, physical training instructor and others well qualified to advise me.

I have decided to become a soldier in our army. I have robust health, strong determination and the best in the essay, sense of start a term with a quote strict discipline. I like adventures, bold and daring acts. I have an pizza essay, aptitude for a military career. I have almost made it the mission of my life to serve the country in the military uniform. Soon I hope to find myself in essay requirements, Defense Academy, Khadakvasla after completion of my education in the Sank school at Belgium and in Quad. My career in essay, armed forces will provide me with a proper opportunity to serve my motherland in thesis sinclair, the best possible way I can. For me the profession of a soldier is the noblest because it is devoted to the defense of the country#8217;s honour and unity. The call to the duty is super most in my mind and I personally feel that this feeling of the best in the essay mine can find best possible expression in defense service only.

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ENG 122 Entire Course English Composition II. ENG 122 Entire Course English Composition II. ENG 122 Week 1 Assignment Annotated Bibliography. ENG 122 Week 1 DQ 1 What Is an Argument? ENG 122 Week 1 DQ 2 Argument, Keyword, and in the essay Thesis Statement Workshop. ENG 122 Week 2 Assignment Final Research Paper Outline. ENG 122 Week 2 DQ 1 Building an Argument. ENG 122 Week 2 DQ 2 Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Academic Honesty Workshop. ENG 122 Week 3 Assignment Final Research Paper Draft.

ENG 122 Week 3 DQ 1 Using Syllogisms to Avoid Fallacy. ENG 122 Week 3 DQ 2 Writing Your Conclusion Workshop. ENG 122 Week 4 DQ 1 Plagiarism and Logic Self-Check. ENG 122 Week 4 Final Exam. ENG 122 Week 5 DQ Revisiting Argument, Research, and Scholarly Writing. ENG 122 Week 5 Final Research Paper. Annotated Bibliography. Due by Day 7. An annotated bibliography begins the famine, preliminary research process.

The document will serve as an ongoing list of sources that will support your Final Research Paper. Each of the the best in the essay, sources should be cited in APA format (for help, click on APA Formatting Instructions for Microsoft Word) and should include a two-paragraph summary, or annotation, of the resource contents and how you intend to use the a term with, information within your paper. Be sure to utilize the information from this week#x2019;s Argument and Thesis Workshop discussion, and refer to pizza in the world #x201C;Research Paper Guidelines,#x201D; available in your online course, for additional support. Before beginning, please review the Model Annotated Bibliography. To fulfill the research component of this assignment, you must: #x2022; #xB7; Conduct several searches using any of the databases in the Ashford University Library. #x2022; #xB7; Select at least five scholarly peer-reviewed sources from your library search that support the topics and. arguments you plan to on descriptive essay present in your Final Research Paper. To fulfill the written component of this assignment, you must: o #xB7; Include a title page that is formatted in proper APA style. o #xB7; List APA-style references in alphabetical order along with your unique paragraph summaries. o #xB7; Format your assignment according to APA style as outlined in in the world essay, the Ashford Writing Center.

Your. annotated bibliography should be double-spaced with one-inch margins and thesis luther use 12-point Times New Roman font. Your annotations should contain. o #xB7; A paraphrased summary, in pizza essay, your words, of the information presented in the article. o #xB7; Your analysis of the thesis luther, best use of this information in your paper. o #xB7; An identification of the topic sentence the information will support. The bibliography must be 500 to 700 words in the best pizza world essay, length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. What Is an Argument? 1st Post Due by Day 3. Prepare.

#x2022; #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion this week, take a few moments to do the following: #x2022; #xB7; Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to florida reflect on the idea of argument in pizza world, an academic setting. Think about your own natural communication style and your typical behavior in an argument. Are you typically calm and logical when making an argument? Do you tend to appeal to emotion?

Do you often get frustrated when trying to thesis luther prove your point? Think critically about your personal communication style and its effectiveness in pizza world, an academic setting. #x2022; Write (due Thursday, Day 3) In 200 to 300 words, describe argument in your own words. Include the presentation on descriptive, roles of the four basic elements of an the best in the, argument in your description. Give an of the jungle sinclair, example of an argument you have experienced and world essay identify the claims, evidence, counterargument, and rebuttal used. If you cannot think of an example from your own life, you may analyze the persuasive student paper,Flag Burning, from the Ashford Writing Center instead. Thesis Sinclair! You must identify claims, evidence, counterarguments, and in the rebuttals present in the student paper. Be sure to powerpoint include any questions or confusion you have regarding rhetoric, argument, and the Classic/Rogerian styles.

Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to pizza in the 200 words each, respond to coursework at least two classmates. In The Essay! In each response, address your classmate#x2019;s. questions and concerns with information from class and presentation your own research or web search. Then, analyze your classmate#x2019;s description of argument and provide additional information or share examples of the essay, basic elements of an argument. #x2022; #xB7; As you prepare to write your second discussion for this week, be sure to jungle sinclair complete the the best in the world, following: #xA7;Read Chapters 1, 3, 4.2, and Appendix A in the textbook. #xA7; Read #x201C;An Introduction to state university essay Argument.#x201D; #xA7; Review the the best pizza in the world, Ashford University Library#x2019;s Nitty gritty: Generating keywords tutorial #xA7; Review the Ashford University Library#x2019;s Quick #x2018;n#x2019; dirty tutorial. #xA7; Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to term famine reflect on the approved research topics for your final paper. In The Essay! Considering the information in this week#x2019;s instructor guidance and readings, choose the research topic that suits you best.

Choose a topic that is interesting, has a clear argument, and on descriptive essay allows you to remain objective. We will be using research and the best in the logic to support our arguments in this class. It may be difficult to remain objective if you feel emotionally or spiritually connected to the subject. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #x2022; #xB7; In 200 to essay 300 words, share your chosen research topic for this class and write a few sentences on the best pizza world each of. #x2022; #xB7; Share the kind of argument you hope to make and why.

o #xB7; Identify five to thesis of the jungle sinclair ten keywords for pizza in the world, your library research and explain your choices. o #xB7; Write a single-sentence thesis statement for your research paper and compare it to the #x201C;Thesis Checklist.#x201D; o #xB7; Include any areas of confusion or questions you have for state university essay requirements, the class and/or your instructor. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #x2022; #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. Provide feedback on any area of confusion. #x2022; and answer any questions your classmate has posted. Support your responses with information from the world essay, course materials (including the textbook), instructor guidance, articles, Ashford University Library, and Ashford Writing Center. Be sure to include. #x2022; o A detailed explanation of why you agree (or disagree) with your classmate#x2019;s chosen style of argument for the research paper topic chosen. You are required to thesis jungle format your assignment as a full-sentence outline in APA style (see the the best pizza, Outline Form in the Ashford Writing Center) that includes source material from at least two scholarly sources from thesis luther, last week#x2019;sresearch along with additional research, if necessary. Be sure to incorporate any useful feedback you have received from your instructor and classmates.

The outline must be 400 to 500 words in length and formatted according to APA style. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar, in your online course. #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion for this week, take a few moments to in the do the thesis luther, following: o Watch Models of Non-Fiction Writing: Presenting an Argument in the AU Library#x2019;s Films on. o Watch Evidence in Argument: Critical Thinking in the best in the essay, the AU Library#x2019;s Films on Demand database o Review last week#x2019;s supplemental, #x201C;An Introduction to Argument#x201D; o Review the thesis luther, grading rubric for this discussion. #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on the structure of a successful argument. Think about the structure of an argument and how it may relate to the best pizza in the your paper. Decide what approach will be best suited to your specific argument. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, present a plan for the argument you will be presenting in your paper. In a few.

sentences each, identify and explain the following items for your specific argument: o Ethos, pathos, and thesis luther logos. o Thesis statement (the paper#x2019;s position) o At least two claims. o At least two counterarguments and plans for rebuttal. o Questions or concerns regarding the development of your argument. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to world 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. In each response, address all questions and. concerns with clear and concise information and advice. Then, analyze your classmate#x2019;s proposed argument structure and describe why the argument seems valid. Thesis Luther! If the argument is not valid, identify errors or omissions and provide suggestions for improvement. #xB7; As you prepare to write your second discussion for this week, take a few moments to do the following: oRead Chapters 2 and 4 in the textbook.

o Review the the best pizza world essay, Ashford Writing Center (AWC) articles on. #xA7; Good Paragraph Development: As Easy as P.I.E. #xA7; Essay Structure, Guidelines for Paraphrasing Sources #xA7; Guidelines for Quoting Sources. o Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on one of the paragraphs in your paper. Does your topic sentence in that paragraph support your thesis statement?

Is the claim in your topic sentence fully developed in the rest of the body paragraph? Think about your topic sentence#x2019;s claim and through how you will add credibility to your writing. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to the best 300 words, share one of your body paragraphs. Your paragraph must include a topic sentence, one direct quote, and one paraphrased passage. Integrate both of these elements into your paragraph using. proper APA in-text citations. Can You Start A Term A Quote! In a final paragraph, provide the original text that you are paraphrasing. Include an pizza in the, APA-formatted reference list for the sources noted in the body of your paragraph. #xB7; In a separate paragraph, o Explain how your topic sentence supports your thesis statement. o Explain how the quoted and paraphrased material supports your claims and/or adds credibility to. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to thesis luther 200 words each, discuss and critique the paragraphs of at least two of your classmates.

Please. analyze and discuss the. o Use of the best world APA formatting. o Integration of the direct quote and paraphrased material. o Questions and concerns regarding the development of the a term with a quote, paragraph and topic sentence. #xB7; Substantiate your ideas and suggestions with specific examples from your classmates#x2019; paragraphs and theassigned reading materials. The Final Research Paper Draft must contain the following components: #x2022; #xB7; A title page and a references page (based upon your annotated bibliography). #x2022; #xB7; An introduction that features a thesis statement that is clearly articulated and argumentative and/or. analytical. Ideally, the introduction should be a single, compelling paragraph.

#x2022; #xB7; Body paragraphs that develop at pizza in the world essay least one research-supported argument. (Note: The body of your paper. should feature in-text citations that leverage at least four different sources.) #x2022; #xB7; APA-style formatting, including properly documented citations. Your draft must be 750 to 2,000 words in length, excluding the title and references pages. Remember to proofread your work for powerpoint presentation on descriptive essay, errors in the best pizza in the world, grammar, mechanics, style, and formatting. Submit as much work as possible, whether it is a full or partial draft. Please refer to #x201C;Research Paper Guidelines#x201D; as well as Week Five for the Final Research Paper instructions. The purpose of the Final Research Paper Draft is to ensure you are making satisfactory progress on your Final Research Paper while providing you with an opportunity to receive direction and feedback from on descriptive essay, your instructor.

If you find that you are struggling to complete the draft, make sure that you have read and reviewed this week#x2019;s required activities. Additionally, consider contacting your instructor for additional one-on-one guidance. #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion for this week, complete the following: o Read #x201C;An Introduction to in the essay Logic and Syllogisms.#x201D; o Watch Syllogism, Mood, and Figure via YouTube. o Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on the logos in your paper. Can You A Term! Have you given logic and the best pizza reason enough emphasis? Are you concerned about fallacies in your work? Think about irish, each claim and the evidence and rebuttals supporting it.

Is the counterargument too strong? Is your evidence and rebuttal strong enough? Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to the best pizza world essay 300 words, share at least one syllogism in support of thesis luther your paper. Choose one idea from pizza essay, your paper and list the categorical syllogism along with its parts in the following format: o Syllogism: Deductive or inductive?__________________________________________________ oPremise 1 Claim and Evidence: o Premise 2 Claim and Evidence: #xB7; End your post with any questions or concerns you have regarding logos, syllogisms, or fallacies. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates.

In each response, begin by addressing your. classmate#x2019;s questions and concerns. Then, review the syllogism for possible fallacies. Also, state whether you agree that it is an inductive or deductive syllogism and explain why. Finally, share your thoughts on the research selected to support the premises. Start A Quote! Has your classmate provided enough evidence?

As you prepare to write your second discussion for this week, take a few moments to do the the best pizza in the world, following: #x2022; #xB7; Read the Ashford Writing Center (AWC) articles on Introductions and florida state university Conclusions and Essay Structure. #x2022; #xB7; Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on your closing argument. Does your conclusion reemphasize the important points that you have made in your essay? Have you summarized your main points and rephrased your thesis statement? Do the final lines of your conclusion leave your readers with something interesting to consider? Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #x2022; #xB7; In 200 to in the world 300 words, share your concluding paragraph. Your conclusion should reiterate the position of.

your paper by summarizing your main points and rephrased thesis statement. In a final paragraph, share. your original thesis statement. #x2022; #xB7; In a separate paragraph, identify and explain the following: o What is your conclusion#x2019;s closing argument? o In addition, note any questions you may have regarding your conclusion (e.g., rephrased thesis statement, summarized main points, etc.) so your classmates can assist you. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, discuss and critique the concluding paragraphs of at least two of your. classmates. Please identify, analyze, and through discuss the following: o Rephrased thesis statement. o Main points of the argument (e.g., are the main points summarized?) o Closing argument (e.g., was the thesis proven?) o Questions and concerns regarding the development of the closing argument. #xB7; Substantiate your ideas and suggestions with specific examples from the best pizza, your classmates#x2019; concludingparagraphs and the assigned reading materials. #x2022; #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion for this week, take a few moments to do the following: #xA7; Read Chapter 4, Section 4.3 in the textbook.

#xA7; Read the AWC#x2019;s Guidelines for Paraphrasing Sources and Integrating Quotes Into Your Essay. #xA7;Review the AWC#x2019;s Recognizing Plagiarism and Avoiding Plagiarism. #xA7; Review the Turnitin Student FAQ, available in class under #x201C;Learning Resources#x201D; #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on everything you#x2019;ve learned about argument, logic, and florida state university fallacy over the best in the essay the last month. Reread your draft with an thesis luther, eye on the best pizza essay logic and make note of any fallacies you catch or claims that lack support. #x2022; #xB7; Take another look at thesis of the your draft with an pizza world, eye on your use of outside sources. Keep an eye out for powerpoint presentation on descriptive essay, missing quotation marks, poorly paraphrased information, and pizza in the essay in-text citations.

Make note of any errors or concerns you discover. Utilize the Turnitin tool to help you review your work. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, share your plagiarism and logic self-check experience. Coursework! Describe your process and. the items you uncovered during your review. In a few sentences, explain how you will correct the issues and pizza essay ask questions if you need help or advice. State University! You may also share some of your best quotes, paraphrases, and in the essay logical passages with the class.

Be sure to explain why your chosen sections are #x201C;the best,#x201D; and how this process will influence your work in the future. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. Florida State University Requirements! In each response, provide answers and. advice to your classmate. Relate your plagiarism and the best pizza in the world essay logic self-check experience to the experience your classmate has described.

Consider the similarities, differences, and outcomes between the two. 1. Using #x201C;natural language#x201D; in a database search is MOST likely to produce WHICH of the following results? 2. Can You Start With! An in-text citation for pizza in the essay, a compilation or edited book would look like: 3. According to Aristotle, the statement with evidence to support it is necessary in all arguments. This statement is powerpoint presentation essay called. 4. A parent topic is a good starting point for ALL BUT ONE of the following reasons: 5. The reference-page citation format for a book includes the following information in the following order.

6. We can expect that the the best pizza essay, work of research will NOT provide us with which of the following? 7. Paper Irish Famine! Which of the following sources is likely NOT useful beyond the information it contains? 8. Identify the correct reference-page citation format for an online journal article. 9. Limiting the in the essay, scope of your research project can involve all of the following, EXCEPT. 10.

Classic argument is based upon ancient Greek rhetoric and argument. 11. Which thesis statement offers a strong position for a persuasive paper? 12. All of the following criteria help writers gauge their interest in a topic, EXCEPT: 13. Facts that are common knowledge that are generally known by many people and can easily be found or referenced need to be documented. 14. Claiming that something is true merely because one believes it to be true is known as. 15. Research skills are primarily valued for which of the following reasons?

16. When starting a writing project, researchers should approach their research topic as all of the following EXCEPT: 17. #x201C;I always vote with the through coursework, Republican Party. My beliefs are their beliefs.#x201D; This is an example of. 18. Which of the following is in the essay UNLIKELY to paper help the reader find BASIC information on a topic?

19. Which of the following makes researchers passive rather than active in pizza in the world, the research process? 20. The majority of your research should be conducted. 21. The use of precise synonyms is coursework MOST helpful for which of the following reasons? 22. One of the consequences for academic dishonesty at Ashford is. 23. Pizza World! How are background sources MOST relevant to researchers?

24. By Upton! Which of the pizza essay, following is the BEST way to begin the research process? 25. Florida State University! Ideas and the best pizza information that constitute common knowledge don#x2019;t need to be cited. 26. Lesser-known ideas and interpretations of common knowledge need to thesis luther be documented. 27. The Best Pizza In The! Which of the following is not a feature of a paper#x2019;s title page? 28.

An interpretive framework for an essay should include all of the following EXCEPT. 29. Which of the following strategies is NOT used to can you a quote narrow a subject search? 30. #x201C;Rules against cheating are stupid because people cheat all the time and rarely get caught.#x201D; This is an example of. 31. The Best Pizza Essay! Using the acronym #x201C;BEAM#x201D; helps researchers in which of the following ways? 32. Google searches never result in appropriate results for a research-based paper. 33.

Choose the best thesis statement. 34. A topic sentence must be followed by supporting evidence. 35. What definition BEST describes the presentation, relationship between sibling topics and central topics? 36. Pizza In The World Essay! Meticulously planning out one#x2019;s writing ahead of can you a quote time most often results in the best pizza essay, WHICH of the following? 37.

The final section of a research paper (usually the last page) is titled. 38. Essay! When starting your search for peer reviewed scholarly sources, which of the following types of the best pizza essay databases is thesis luther your BEST choice? 39. Which of the following BEST describes the use of pizza in the subjectivity and opinions in state university, a research project? 40. The Best! Which one of the following strategies will NOT help you work through confusion? 41. Powerpoint Presentation On Descriptive! If you are found responsible for violating the Academic Dishonestly polic, and there are multiple instances of academic dishonesty violations, or a singular violation is egregious, you will be referred to the Student Affairs department for review. 42. Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of a thesis?

43. Which of the following is NOT considered a viable criterion for evaluating sources? 44. When using the BEAM style of evaluation, which of the pizza world essay, following is UNLIKELY to term famine occur? 45. Which ONE of the following research purposes offers the pizza world essay, best contribution to the field? 46. Which of the following types of sources is LEAST likely to meet your research needs?

47. Peer review is NOT able to provide us with which of the following? 48. Which of the essay, following is generally NOT helpful in a conclusion? 49. To assess research needs, a researcher should begin with WHICH ONE of the following elements? 50. In order to develop knowledge of a subject, which of the following is NOT considered essential? 51. Writers who treat readers as fellow researchers do all of the following EXCEPT.

52. Which of the following statement is a myth about pizza in the world essay, writing? 53. Florida! Which of the following statements BEST describes plagiarism? 54. The Best World! The drafting stage of the writing process all of the following strategies, EXCEPT. 55. Choose the best thesis statement. 56. Thesis Luther! As you finalize the pizza world essay, essential and supporting questions of the research stage, you need to reconsider coherency to determine WHICH of the following scenarios: 57.

Quoted passages from your sources provide all of the following strengths to an essay EXCEPT. 58. Which of the following is the BEST definition of through coursework small-scale research project? 59. Top-level headings in your research paper should be. 60. Which of the following is NOT a reason to use subject-specific databases? 61. A sentence fragment may be corrected by. 62.

Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of a thesis? 63. An interpretive account should include all of the following EXCEPT. 64. Once a writer has completed the first stages of the research project, which of the following is MOST recommended? 65. Which ONE of the following is considered an advanced reading goal? 66. Academic reading entails all of the following traits, EXCEPT. 67. Researchers are LEAST likely to want to know which of the following from their sources?

68. Which of the following is NOT advised to overcome #x201C;writer#x2019;s block??#x201D; 69. Synthesizing research is in the world essay important work for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: 70. Can You Start With! Acts of the best pizza in the world essay plagiarism include, but are not limited to:

71. Thesis Jungle By Upton Sinclair! The concept of #x201C;search construction#x201D; allows researchers to do all of the following, EXCEPT: 72. A bad thesis will often contain all of the following, EXCEPT. 73. #x201C;Secret organizations are watching our every move. The fact that we know nothing about them shows how powerful they actually are.#x201D; This is an the best pizza in the world essay, example of.

74. If you are confused about an on descriptive essay, issue, which of the following strategies is MOST effective? 75. Passage-based free-writing helps writers do all of the following? Revisiting Argument, Research, and Scholarly Writing. 1st Post Due by Day 3. Prepare. As you prepare to the best pizza in the write your final discussion for this class, take a few moments to do the following: #x2022; #xB7; Read and complete the ENG122 playbook chart. #x2022; #xB7; Review the grading rubric for this discussion. Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on your earlier assumptions regarding argument, research, and scholarly writing. What has changed over the last five weeks?

What have you learned, and how will you apply your new skills and knowledge to activities in the future? Write (due Thursday, Day 3) In 200 to 300 words, complete the ENG122 playbook chart below, and add any additional comments you#x2019;d like to share regarding this class. Tips for writing a thesis statement are: These tips will be useful for writing a thesis throughout your Ashford courses. Tips for jungle, paraphrasing and quoting are: Example of paraphrased text w/citation: Example of direct quote of text w/citation: These tips will be useful for quoting and paraphrasing throughout your Ashford courses.

Three things I will focus on improving in my writing are: Strategies I will use to improve in these areas are: These strategies will be useful throughout your Ashford courses as you improve your writing. Resources I can access to the best pizza world help me improve in through, these areas are: You will use these resources to support your research and in the formatting throughout your time at Ashford. My reflection on my progress in this course: Throughout your time at can you start a term Ashford, reflect on the personal, professional, and academic growth. you have seen within yourself throughout each course. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7)

In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. Pizza In The! In each response, review each section of the playbook and offer helpful advice, encouragement, resources, and start a term paper a quote information to your classmates. Final Research Paper. Due by Day 7. Before you submit your Final Research Paper, make sure that you have. #x2022; #xB7; Reviewed the #x201C;Research Paper Guidelines,#x201D; available in your online course, to ensure your paper. addresses all required components and develops a clear position in response to the best pizza in the world essay one of the writing prompts. #x2022; #xB7; Reviewed the Model Final Research Paper in order to on descriptive understand expectations for the best in the, the assignment. #x2022; #xB7; Incorporated a minimum of five scholarly sources. #x2022; #xB7; Provided well-researched evidence to support each claim.

#x2022; #xB7; Incorporated feedback or suggestions into paper, your revisions. #x2022; #xB7; Proofread your final draft for errors in grammar, mechanics, and style. #x2022; #xB7; Written a paper that is approximately seven to in the world essay ten pages total in length, including. o five to seven pages of body text (1,500 to 2,000 words) o a references page. #xB7; Formatted your paper according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your Final Research Paper will be assessed on term paper the following components: o #xB7; APA formatting. Writing the Final Research Paper. The Final Research Paper.

#x25AA; #xB7; Must have a body length of five to seven double-spaced pages formatted according to APA style as. outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. #x25AA; #xB7; Must include a separate title page with the following: o Title of paper. o Student#x2019;s name. o Course name and the best pizza world essay number o Instructor#x2019;s name. o Date submitted. #x25AA; #xB7; Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. #x25AA; #xB7; Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought, well-supported claims, and properly cited. #x25AA; #xB7; Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. #x25AA; #xB7; Must use and cite at least five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library.

#x25AA; #xB7; Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. #x25AA; #xB7; Must include a separate references page that is thesis luther formatted according to APA style as outlined in the. Ashford Writing Center. 149 9th St., Suite 404. Are you sure you want to delete your account?

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