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A Resume for the Modern Art Teacher. If you read this article a while back, you may be thinking, #8220;Can I really pull off a trendy resume like that?#8221; It#8217;s important to strike a balance between professionalism and creativity. When I saw this resume by Kassie, I was blown away! To me, this resume is essay summaries unique enough to stand out in the crowd, but easy to read and informative for the administrator who is accustomed to the traditional resume. Age Essay! Click on this sample to see the details, and thanks, Kassie, for sharing. Essay Summaries! My favorite part? The fact that it all fits on one page. I always value simplicity (if you can squeeze it all in). I hope it inspires you to revamp your resume to stand out in the pile. You just never know what opportunities may come about!

Is your resume in need of medical tips some serious updating? Psstt. Come back tomorrow for some job interview tips! Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about helping art teachers enhance their lives and summaries susan careers through relevant professional development. Inexpensive Essays! Course Recommendations for Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs. Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. I wish I was brave enough for a resume like this. Summaries! I just don#8217;t want to get passed up by essays william wallis a traditionalist principal.

I have been using the same resume format for 3 years and I am so bored with it#8230;but I don#8217;t know how to make it more functional and fit more info. Plus, I still like it traditional. Any more traditional examples? One creative way to take a traditional resume and give it a little #8216;flair#8217; without all the bells and susan whistles is to simply add color. Make your name and heading a color, and selected all of the essay susan sub headings below to selected essays wallis match. Something this simple might just do the trick for you.

It#8217;s all about summaries griffin finding what makes you comfortable and allows your greatness to shine through. I had a more traditional resume, but I added a sidebar of color that included an image of my own artwork, with my contact info below it instead of in a header. That sounds like a nice balance, Marie! Hi Jessica, I#8217;m an administrator in an elementary school and I LOVE reading your site. This week we have been interviewing over a dozen candidates for a PE job. Does Kenn Nesbitt! I know that if we were interviewing for an art position that I would want to essay griffin interview the candidate with the resume above. Of course I am in a big system in Maryland (more than 130 elementary schools) so everyone has to move through Human Resources before they come to us. But I think if you are trying to get a job as an art teacher, it is a FINE thing to show that you are creative and can make a resume that is visually appealing and plays to my homework kenn nesbitt visual literacy skills.

Keep up the good work! Hi Jennifer- It#8217;s great to essay griffin hear your perspective as an administrator. Thank you so much for chiming in. You know, I think the school age essay times are changing and perhaps sometime soon we will even see the day when there are no paper resumes and we will use Linked in or something similar. I am a non-traditional 30 yr old Art Education student who is in the last student teaching placement of the susan griffin semester and will be graduating next month. I was in the corporate world before this and inexpensive essays am used to essay summaries sticking to the #8220;boring#8221; professional resumes while my creative heart and soul screamed. I started subscribing to your newsletters and following your FB feed sometime in school, the fall. I just wanted to say how thankful I am for all of the info you post#8230;. especially this resume!! I was reading your recent post about interviewing tips that led me to this post. This is essay definitely THEE BEST INFO EVER! Kassie has inspired Art Educators everywhere to medical application tips create a simple, yet very creative and professional, resume.

I have sat many times through student teaching and thought to myself, #8220;How am I going to essay summaries susan make my resume stand out?! There has to be a way! I#8217;m a talented, experienced, and passionate artist that has a knack for teaching. How do I do what I do best think outside of the age essay box?#8221; I have a graphic design background and knew there had to be solution#8230;. and summaries Kassie has found it. Thank you so much for sharing her resume with all of pricing theory papers us. It is seriously a lifesaver!

I will have to let you know if I land an summaries interview in the coming months! My daughter is in application essays, this stage of essay summaries susan griffin her life. She wondered how these graphics heavy resumes get past the automatic-resume-scanner-thingies ( my words not hers.). Any one know? Hi Jessica- Do you know what program/template Kassie used to school essays tips make this resume? I#8217;m not an art teacher, but I LOVE the style she has used here. Thanks!! You can use anything, really. Pages on your Mac and susan even Word if you are savvy. I am a professional resume writer with 20 years experience in recruiting and staffing. The resume you are highlighting is good for personal presentation but would NEVER get through applicant tracking systems.

I would not advise using this type of application essays resume for any on line applications. after teaching art for the last 8 years, I am finding myself starting the job search again. as I am updating my resume, I am questioning the length and pertinent information that needs to be included or deleted. Summaries Susan Griffin! my question is: how far back should I go with information? do i include field experience and observation sites, student teaching from 2004-05 school year, now that I have been teaching in my own classroom for the last 8 years? Hey Jessica, The difficult part of being super creative is usually the person you are interviewing with is not. My fear of making my resume too flashy is not being easy to relate to age essay or navigate. The example is above is a great in summaries griffin, between the corporate world and my robot my homework kenn nesbitt creative world. Thank you for that. My question would be how much of my non-teaching jobs should be on the resume?

I obviously don#8217;t want to summaries highlight them but if I don#8217;t include everything will I be #8220;lying#8221;? Did we ever get an school essays answer about essay summaries susan griffin whether principals will be able to inexpensive open these resumes? I have received great feedback about my resume in person, but I never seem to get interviews when I just email it. I wonder if something is wrong with it.

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How to Write the University of Chicago Application Essays 2017-2018. The University of Chicago, located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood, is a private research institution that ranks #3 in U.S. News and World Report’s Best National Universities. If you’re working on your University of essay susan, Chicago application, you know getting into UChicago is arbitrage pricing theory research papers no simple task — the class of susan griffin, 2020 had an acceptance rate of wallis, 7.9%. Susan? The writing supplements can be a challenge to tackle because of their open-ended and creative nature. This post will help guide you through all of the University of Chicago’s essay prompts. Read on to understand how to tackle Chicago’s unique application essay prompts for kenn nesbitt, 2017-2018. University of Chicago Application Essay Prompts.

How does the University of Chicago, as you know it now, satisfy your desire for a particular kind of learning, community, and future? Please address with some specificity your own wishes and how they relate to summaries susan, UChicago. Like many other schools, UChicago asks applicants to answer what is essentially a question asking, “Why do you specifically want to attend this school?” This is a common prompt at many top schools, and school age essay it is what we like to call an “essay of elimination.” By itself, the “Why School X?” essay rarely gets a candidate into a school, as it is really difficult to write an answer to this question that is truly unique and meaningful. Instead, schools like UChicago use this application to separate the candidates who are truly passionate about attending the susan griffin school (it has too many strong applicants for a limited number of kenn nesbitt, spots in the incoming freshman class). That’s why a poorly written or mediocre “Why UChicago?” essay can keep you out, even if a great one cannot get you in. And the only way to actually mess up this question, beyond obvious errors, like making grammar mistakes or saying something offensive, is if you don’t write an essay that is specifically about the University of Chicago. Generic statements like “I’m excited to spend the next four years in Chicago,” “UChicago students have a tight knit community,” or “the campus is beautiful” — that apply to dozens of colleges around the country — should be avoided. The university wants to essay griffin, know that you want to specifically attend it, not just that you want to attend any Top 15 university in the United States. Specificity is key . To help you as you write your Why UChicago essay, we have included a few special and unique things about the University of Chicago, according to selected william, CollegeVine team members from the school. This is by no means a fully comprehensive or complete list, and it would behoove you to do your own research as well, as ideally, you will find specific reasons for attending UChicago that align with your own admissions profile. We would also warn that unless you plan on reading through 15 years worth of Scav lists, merely name-dropping Scav will likely diminish the specificity and strength of your essay.

Note: As this question is essay susan asked every year by UChicago, these notes borrow heavily from the lists we presented in our blog posts for the essays for the classes of 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021. Extended Essay Questions: Choose One. ‘The aim of this i believe, argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.’ – Joseph Joubert. Sometimes, people talk a lot about griffin, popular subjects to assure ‘victory’ in selected essays william wallis, conversation or understanding, and leave behind topics of less popularity, but great personal or intellectual importance. What do you think is important but under-discussed? The key words in this prompt are “victory” and “progress,” which indicate that the prompt is set up nicely for essay summaries susan, you to draw a contrast between the topic that you think is important but under-discussed and other topics.

One natural axis with which to approach this essay is policy or politics . It is pretty easy to draw a contrast between issues that are politically contentious, like abortion or free speech, and i believe essay structure issues that are highly impactful but less debated, like malaria in summaries susan griffin, Africa or the opioid crisis in this i believe structure, the United States. If you go down this path, it’s important to note that questions like abortion and free speech are certainly important. Instead of just arguing that they are not important, you can draw upon the prompt in essay griffin, saying that discussion of those issues is usually conducted in such a manner that no progress is age essay made. Griffin? Instead, it’s usually about trying to yell at the other side. As long as you make this clarification, you can then turn to the real or underlying issue and explore it further, laying out why you think it’s important.

This essay archetype can be made more effective if it is selected essays william interwoven with a strong personal narrative that ties you to the important and under-discussed issue (for example, perhaps you have cousins that have gotten addicted to opioids). But it is still possible to write an excellent essay in this vein even if you don’t have a personal connection to the essay. Another angle to summaries, take with this essay is to focus on a highly specialized or niche area within a topic or field of wallis, interest and write a deep-dive essay that shows off your passion for a subject. This can obviously be something like a deep academic treatise on an overlooked aspect of Russian history between 1640-1700, but it doesn’t have to be about a purely academic topic. For example, if you’re an avid soccer player and fan, you can write an essay about why the essay susan 3-5-2 formation is william under-discussed and under-utilized, despite allowing several underdog teams to pull upsets in international tournaments. The important thing isn’t that the summaries griffin idea is particularly academic or erudite, but rather that you know the topic extremely well and selected can display your love for it through the susan essay. Due to school, a series of clerical errors, there is exactly one typo (an extra letter, a removed letter, or an summaries susan altered letter) in the name of every department at selected william wallis, the University of Chicago. Oops! Describe your new intended major. Susan Griffin? Why are you interested in it and what courses or areas of focus within it might you want to explore? Potential options include Commuter Science, Bromance Languages and Literatures, Pundamentals: Issues and Texts, Ant History… a full list of arbitrage pricing, unmodified majors ready for your editor’s eye is available here: https://collegeadmissions.uchicago.edu/academics/majors-minors.

– Inspired by Josh Kaufman, Class of 2018. This prompt certainly lends itself to an essay with a more humorous tone, and it is quite easy to essay griffin, slip into school age essay, a joking treatment of “Bromance Languages” or “Ant History.” There are certainly interesting essays that can be written in this vein, but we would caution that it is really difficult to pull off a humorous tone in a written format because so much of humor is contextual and specific to the tastes of the audience. You can still write an essay that attempts to leverage humor with this prompt, but you should keep your audience in mind. Admissions counselors at top universities tend to be younger, highly educated, and politically progressive. So it’s probably not the best idea to griffin, slip that “edgy” (i.e., racist) joke that you found on Reddit into this essay. And regarding tone, you should be going for something closer to Mel Brooks or Woody Allen than to Adam Sandler. However, you don’t have to arbitrage pricing research papers, tackle this prompt with a humorous lens.

Instead, you can use it as an opportunity to show off your intellectual chops and flexibility, or highlight multiple academic themes on your profile. For example, let’s say that you’re interested in essay summaries griffin, both linguistics and gender and sexuality studies. Instead of cracking the all-too-easy jokes about Bromance Languages, you could reframe your exploration of the topic by using it as a launchpad to discuss the inexpensive concept of toxic masculinity and how that prevents effective communication in essay summaries griffin, male friendships by creating a taboo around discussing one’s feelings openly. This essay is going to work best if you find a pun or fusion that aligns closely with your profile. To share just one more example, let’s say that you renamed “Social Sciences” to “SoCal Sciences” and are interested in studying urban studies and history. You could frame the medical school application essays tips renamed major as the study of how the historic presence of essay summaries susan, industry and the military (the hard “sciences”) in Los Angeles shaped the urban geography of the city and wallis made it harder for the city to densify its neighborhoods once those industries left. Again this is just one of numerous possible examples with the dozens of summaries susan griffin, majors on that list. You should think carefully about your own.

Don't Worry — We'll edit your admissions essay in a few hours. Submit your essay and we’ll get it back to you with helpful edits. Earth. School Age Essay? Fire. Wind. Water. Heart!

Captain Planet supposes that the world is made up of these five elements. We’re familiar with the previously-noted set and with actual elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, but select and explain another small group of susan, things (say, under five) that you believe compose our world. – Inspired by medical school application essays Dani Plung, Class of 2017. This prompt is the first to really lend itself to a highly personal narrative, as you can use it as a vehicle to comment on the broader psychology or organizational patterns of the society around you while weaving in your personal experience. As an example, if you struggled with self-esteem and communicating with peers when you were younger, you might argue that your place in the world is driven by essay summaries griffin the combination of confidence, intellect, and the ability to communicate or connect with other people. If you mixed your analysis of these topics with intensely personal and negative memories of inexpensive, times that you struggled in each area, it could be the foundation for an incredibly powerful essay. Conversely, you can easily lay out essay, a more positive case and tell your story that way. For example, you could propose that the world is composed of altruism, Smithian self-interest, and random chance.

Using this as your foundation, you could argue that every event in your life falls into age essay, one of these categories, and susan griffin share anecdotes of how your life displays each of those traits. Once again (as with most UChicago essay prompts), there is also a more academic angle that you can take, perhaps illustrating your knowledge of medical application tips, sociology, economics, or neo-Marxist analysis. The key with this type of approach is to ensure that you are displaying both your intense passion for the field and your in-depth knowledge of it. UChicago is the summaries susan rare school that will accept your display of an academic or quirky passion in inexpensive essays, a college essay, but you cannot fake it — your essay needs to display the deep love and essay summaries susan griffin passion you have for arbitrage theory papers, the subject or field. The late New York Times photographer Bill Cunningham once said, ‘Fashion is the armor to survive the reality of everyday life. I don’t think you could do away with it. It would be like doing away with civilization.’ Tell us about your ‘armor.’ – Inspired by Adam Berger, Class of 2020. This is essay summaries susan griffin probably the prompt that lends itself most to a personal narrative or story, for obvious reasons. One tactic that you can take is to describe a personality trait or common behavior of yours as your armor — for example, confidence or sarcasm — and my robot does nesbitt interweave that with anecdotes that prove the point.

In general if you take this approach, you want to essay summaries griffin, try and choose less common or cliched personality traits. Sarcasm is about the most conventional answer that you can give that still makes for a compelling essay, anything more narrow than that (like confidence) will likely come off as cliched. A slightly more innovative approach in this style is to use it to school age essay, show that you’re willing to susan griffin, engage with your flaws a little bit, especially if you are a strong applicant on arbitrage pricing theory paper. Essay Summaries Griffin? Obviously you don’t want to go overboard, but (as an example) describing a nervous tic where you rub your pen during a test to help calm yourself down could serve as an essay that humanizes you and takes a more innovative approach to school age essay, the prompt. Another angle to take with this prompt is to summaries susan griffin, use it to explore an extracurricular activity or passion that you display in your profile. For a specific activity or passion, you could then talk about a fundamental skill or “go-to move” that you fall back on when things aren’t going smoothly in this activity, which thus makes it a form of “armor” that you use to avoid failure in the activity.

The sports examples are easy to think of: For example, perhaps your go-to move in basketball is arbitrage theory research a fadeaway jump shot. But the concept can also be applied in a non-sports context. Essay Summaries Griffin? If you are a Lincoln-Douglas debater, then maybe there is a rhetorical trick or technique that you always fall back on when you’re in medical school application essays, a tough debate. Essay Summaries Susan? Or if you conduct a lot of physics research, perhaps you always fall back on your understanding of data when you see results that you can’t replicate or that are confusing. Inexpensive? Regardless of the arena, the point is to summaries susan, highlight a foundational skill that you use in my robot does my homework kenn nesbitt, the activity to summaries susan griffin, reiterate your passion and dedication to the activity. One final approach is to engage literally with the inexpensive essays question and talk about susan, your favorite piece of fashion or clothing. Perhaps you have a favorite shirt or there’s a pair of shoes that has a special place in your heart. But if you do write about an actual piece of does, clothing, you shouldn’t just skim the surface level, i.e., “I like this shirt because I look good in it, and it makes me feel good.” Instead, you should use it as a jumping-off point to reflect on griffin who you are as a person and share that with the admissions counselor. School Age Essay? For example, you might write an summaries susan essay about application, your favorite pair of summaries susan, sweatpants because you always do your best work in those sweatpants (and cannot do your best work unless you are comfortable and essays warm). You might also extend the essay to summaries, talk about why you sometimes feel the does kenn need for solitude (which the sweatpants implicitly represent) amidst the summaries susan griffin social strain of being in high school.

Fans of the movie Sharknado say that they enjoy it because ‘it’s so bad, it’s good.’ Certain automobile owners prefer classic cars because they ‘have more character.’ And recently, vinyl record sales have skyrocketed because it is perceived that they have a warmer, fuller sound. This I Believe Essay? Discuss something that you love not in spite of susan griffin, but rather due to its quirks or imperfections. – Inspired by Alex Serbanescu, Class of 2021. This is a prompt that is naturally set up for you to share something that’s quirky or offbeat about yourself. One angle to take is to focus on some sort of hobby or pastime that you enjoy that isn’t particularly mainstream. For example, if you collect antique furniture from the 1940s or really love riding in older Amtrak trains for the authenticity of the experience, then this is a prompt that lines up really nicely to explore that.

If you can tie the various quirks of the school age essay hobby or pastime to essay summaries griffin, your own personal journey, then that takes the essay to the next level. For example, if you first experienced an Amtrak train with your grandfather and this structure heard his stories, that could create a highly personal and summaries susan griffin compelling narrative. Another approach with this essay is to write about some sort of medical school essays, “guilty pleasure” that you have, say if you like bad movies like the Transformers series or cheesy pop music. If you are then able to essay summaries griffin, use your guilty pleasure as a vehicle to explore society at large and your place within it, then that can create a truly innovative and interesting essay. For example, if you’re a male in more traditional settings whose guilty pleasure is school age essay watching romantic comedies, you could then explore the essay summaries fact that this is considered an “unmanly” pastime and how you feel about that fact in a reflective and incisive essay.

This is possible with any number of “guilty pleasures,” but you do want to be careful about how your assessment will be viewed by the reader. For example, it’s perfectly fine to write an essay that says that you love the inexpensive essays Transformers movie series despite its uneven gender politics if you are a woman. But the same essay written by a man might come off as tone deaf given who admissions counselors are. In the spirit of adventurous inquiry, pose your own question or choose one of essay susan, our past prompts. Be original, creative, thought provoking. Does My Homework Kenn Nesbitt? Draw on your best qualities as a writer, thinker, visionary, social critic, sage, citizen of the world, or future citizen of the University of Chicago; take a little risk, and have fun. This is a prompt that appears every year. Essay Summaries? This essay really poses the highest risk but also the highest potential reward. Writing your own question allows you to selected wallis, write an innovative essay that either tackles a difficult or controversial topic (for example, our founder Vinay Bhaskara’s essay tackled why mainstream Hollywood films are more valuable than seemingly more intellectual independent films), or presents the information with a unique format (such as a conversation with a dead historical figure). Using a prompt from past years also allows you to summaries susan griffin, write an selected william wallis essay that is thematically and tonally different from many other applicants (as they will mostly be writing about the first five prompts offered above). Generally speaking, your best payoff to this essay comes if you want to try something unconventional, such as writing an essay that describes the four years of high school as Hell, Purgatory, Paradise, and Heaven, and is written in the style of the divine comedy.

There are a variety of essay summaries griffin, possibilities here ranging from the idiotic (you probably don’t want to write your own variation on medical school application the alt-right’s platform referring to events in essay griffin, your high school life) to the (relatively) overdone — they’ve probably seen several essays that have been written in selected essays william wallis, iambic pentameter as an griffin ode to kenn, Chaucer. And we’ll reiterate the note above: This type of summaries susan, essay has the highest variance in essays tips, terms of outcome. If done well, an unconventional essay can captivate the right admissions counselor in a way that no conventional essay can. Essay Summaries Griffin? Conversely, if the medical school essays tips essay is executed poorly or even if it isn’t, your essay may go over the admissions counselor’s head or bore them. So this is only a strategy that you should try if you are confident in your abilities and have at least a couple of sources of summaries susan, high-quality feedback. This is also an optimal prompt for tips, truly diving into essay griffin, an academic passion, particularly if it is of an advanced level or unique tenor. For example, if you know a lot about Soviet cars produced between 1957 and 1983, then writing a custom prompt that allows you to explore that passion may be easier than trying to my robot does my homework nesbitt, bend that topic to summaries, match one of the pricing research prompts provided. As with any academically oriented essay, you do want to make sure that any jargon you use is made clear, either via explicit explanation or context clues. Essay Summaries Griffin? You shouldn’t shy away from jargon — it’s one of the things that helps position you as an expert on the subject of does my homework kenn nesbitt, your essay. But you don’t want to render the essay unintelligible to your reader. One broader note on writing your own prompt — it doesn’t have to be as complex or convoluted as the other UChicago prompts, and you mainly just want to find a prompt that matches the essay that you want to write, even if it is straightforward.

We wish you the susan best of luck writing your UChicago essay! From school list creation to putting together a solid admissions narrative and helping you write competitive essays , we’ll help you every step of the way. We'll send them straight to your inbox. Latest posts by CollegeVine College Essay Team (see all) How to Write the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Essays 2017-2018 - September 26, 2017 How to medical school, Write the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Essays 2017-2018 - September 25, 2017 How to Write the Yeshiva University Application Essays 2017-2018 - September 25, 2017. We’ll send you college prep tips #038; admissions info. 125 Cambridge Park Dr. Cambridge, MA 02140.

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amanda chong essay Singapore girl wins Commonwealth essay prize in 2004. You will be amazed at summaries griffin, the maturity of this 15-year old girl. Essays? It's worthwhile taking 5 mins to read this essay. Even if you have read this before and it is definitely worth having another read. This 15-YEAR-OLD Singaporean, competing against 16-18-year-olds, has won the top prize in a writing contest that drew 5,300 entries from 52 countries. In the summaries susan griffin annual Commonwealth Essay Competition, Amanda Chong of Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) chose to compete in does my homework kenn the older category and won with a piece on the restlessness of modern life.

Her short story, titled What The Modern Woman Wants, focused on the conflict in values between an old lady and her independent-minded daughter. 'Through my story, I attempted to summaries susan, convey the unique East-vs-West struggles and generation gaps that I felt were characteristic of young people in my country,' said Amanda, who likes drama, history and literature and william wants to become a lawyer and a politician. Griffin? The Chief examiner Charles Kemp called her piece a 'powerfully moving and ironical critique of modern restlessness and medical school application essays its potentially cruel consequences'. The writing is fluent and assured, with excellent use of dialogue. A Singaporean last won the top prize in 2000, said Britain 's Royal Commonwealth Society, which has been organizing the competition since 1883. Singaporeans also came in second in the 14 to 15-year-old category, and fourth in the under-12s. Other winners included students from Australia , Canada and South Africa. The old woman sat in the backseat of the magenta convertible as it careened down the highway, clutching tightly to the plastic bag on essay summaries griffin her lap, afraid it may be kidnapped by the wind. Theory? She was not used to such speed, with trembling hands she pulled the seatbelt tighter but was careful not to touch the patent leather seats with her callused fingers, her daughter had warned her not to dirty it, 'Fingerprints show very clearly on white, Ma.' The old lady clucked her tongue in essay disapproval. This I Believe Structure? 'I absolutely cannot have this. We have to sell!' Her daughter exclaimed agitatedly as she stepped on the accelerator; her perfectly manicured fingernails gripping onto summaries, the steering wheel in irritation. 'I can't DEAL with this anymore!' she yelled as she clicked the phone shut and hurled it angrily toward the backseat. The mobile phone hit the old woman on the forehead and nestled soundlessly into her lap.

She calmly picked it up and handed it to her daughter. Inexpensive Essays? 'Sorry, Ma,' she said, losing the American pretence and switching to Mandarin. 'I have a big client in America . There have been a lot of problems.' The old lady nodded knowingly. Her daughter was big and important. Susan? Bee Choo stared at her mother from the rear view window, wondering what she was thinking. Her mother's wrinkled countenance always carried the same cryptic look. Does Kenn? The phone began to ring again, an artificially cheerful digital tune, which broke the susan awkward silence. 'Hello, Beatrice! Yes, this is Elaine.' Elaine. The old woman cringed. I didn't name her Elaine.

She remembered her daughter telling her, how an school age essay English name was very important for 'networking', Chinese ones being easily forgotten. 'Oh no, I can't see you for lunch today. I have to take the ancient relic to essay summaries susan griffin, the temple for her weird daily prayer ritual.' Ancient Relic. The old woman understood perfectly it was referring to essays william, her. Her daughter always assumed that her mother's silence meant she did not comprehend. 'Yes, I know! My car seats will be reeking of joss sticks!' The old woman pursed her lips tightly, her hands gripping her plastic bag in defence.

The car curved smoothly into the temple courtyard. It looked almost garish next to the dull sheen of the ageing temple's roof. Essay Summaries Susan Griffin? The old woman got out of the back seat, and made her unhurried way to the main hall. Her daughter stepped out arbitrage pricing research, of the car in griffin her business suit and my robot nesbitt stilettos and reapplied her lipstick as she made her brisk way to essay summaries griffin, her mother's side. 'Ma, I'll wait outside. I have an important phone call to make,' she said, not bothering to hide her disgust at the pungent fumes of incense. The old lady hobbled into the temple hall and lit a joss stick, she knelt down solemnly and whispered her now familiar daily prayer to my homework kenn nesbitt, the Gods. Summaries Susan Griffin? Thank you God of the Sky, you have given my daughter luck all these years. Everything I prayed for, you have given her. She has everything a young woman in this world could possibly want. She has a big house with a swimming pool, a maid to help her, as she is pricing theory, too clumsy to sew or cook.

Her love life has been blessed; she is engaged to a rich and handsome angmoh man. Her company is now the top financial firm and even men listen to essay susan griffin, what she says. She lives the arbitrage pricing research perfect life. You have given her everything except happiness. Essay Summaries Susan Griffin? I ask that the gods be merciful to her even if she has lost her roots while reaping the harvest of success. What you see is not true, she is a filial daughter to me. She gives me a room in her big house and provides well for me. She is rude to me only because I affect her happiness. A young woman does not want to be hindered by her old mother. Essays William Wallis? It is my fault.

The old lady prayed so hard that tears welled up in her eyes. Finally, with her head bowed in reverence she planted the half-burnt joss stick into an urn of smouldering ashes. She bowed once more. The old woman had been praying for her daughter for thirty-two years. When her stomach was round like a melon, she came to the temple and prayed that it was a son. Then the time was ripe and the baby slipped out of griffin her womb, bawling and adorable with fat thighs and pink cheeks, but unmistakably, a girl. Her husband had kicked and essays punched her for essay summaries griffin, producing a useless baby who could not work or carry the family name. Still, the woman returned to the temple with her new-born girl tied to her waist in nesbitt a sarong and essay griffin prayed that her daughter would grow up and have everything she ever wanted. Her husband left her and she prayed that her daughter would never have to depend on a man.

She prayed every day that her daughter would be a great woman, the woman that she, meek and uneducated, could never become. Essay? A woman with nengkan; the ability to do anything she set her mind to. A woman who commanded respect in the hearts of men! When she opened her mouth to speak, precious pearls would fall out and men would listen. She will not be like me, the woman prayed as she watched her daughter grow up and drift away from her, speaking a language she scarcely understood.

She watched her daughter transform from a quiet girl, to one who openly defied her, calling her laotu; old-fashioned. She wanted her mother to be 'modern', a word so new there was no Chinese word for it. Essay Summaries Griffin? Now her daughter was too clever for her and the old woman wondered why she had prayed like that. I Believe Essay Structure? The gods had been faithful to her persistent prayer, but the summaries susan wealth and success that poured forth so richly had buried the girl's roots and arbitrage pricing theory papers now she stood, faceless, with no identity, bound to essay susan, the soil of this i believe structure her ancestors by only a string of origami banknotes. Her daughter had forgotten her mother's values. Her wants were so ephemeral; that of a modern woman.

Power, Wealth, access to essay susan, the best fashion boutiques, and yet her daughter had not found true happiness. The old woman knew that you could find happiness with much less. When her daughter left the earth everything she had would count for theory papers, nothing. People would look to her legacy and say that she was a great woman, but she would be forgotten once the wind blows over, like the ashes of burnt paper convertibles and mansions. Summaries Griffin? The old woman wished she could go back and erase all her big hopes and prayers for her daughter; now she had only one want: That her daughter be happy.

She looked out of the temple gate. Essay Structure? She saw her daughter speaking on the phone, her brow furrowed with anger and worry. Being at the top is not good, the essay susan woman thought, there is age essay, only one way to go from there - down. The old woman carefully unfolded the plastic bag and susan spread out this i believe essay, a packet of beehoon in front of the susan griffin altar. This I Believe Essay? Her daughter often mocked her for summaries susan, worshipping porcelain Gods. How could she pray to them so faithfully and expect pieces of ceramic to fly to her aid? But her daughter had her own gods too, idols of structure wealth, success and power that she was enslaved to and worshipped every day of her life. Everyday was a quest for summaries griffin, the idols, and the idols she worshipped counted for arbitrage pricing research, nothing in eternity. All the wants her daughter had would slowly suck the essay susan life out of her and essays leave her, an empty soulless shell at the altar.

The old lady watched her joss tick. The dull heat had left a teetering grey stem that was on the danger of collapsing. Modern woman nowadays, the old lady sighed in resignation, as she bowed to the east one final time to end her ritual. Modern woman nowadays want so much that they lose their souls and griffin wonder why they cannot find it. Her joss stick disintegrated into a soft grey powder. She met her daughter outside the temple, the same look of kenn worry and frustration was etched on her daughter's face. An empty expression, as if she was ploughing through the susan griffin soil of her wants looking for the one thing that would sow the seeds of happiness. Arbitrage Pricing Papers? They climbed into the convertible in silence and summaries susan griffin her daughter drove along the highway, this time not as fast as she had done before. Essays? 'Ma,' Bee Choo finally said. 'I don't know how to put this. Mark and I have been talking about it and we plan to move out of the susan big house. The property market is good now, and we managed to get a buyer willing to pay seven million for selected, it.

We decided we prefer a cosier penthouse apartment instead. We found a perfect one in Orchard Road. Once we move in to our apartment we plan to get rid of the maid, so we can have more space to ourselves. Essay Summaries? ' The old woman nodded knowingly. Bee Choo swallowed hard. 'We'd get someone to come in to do the housework and we can eat out-but once the maid is school age essay, gone, there won't be anyone to look after you. You will be awfully lonely at essay summaries susan, home and, besides that, the apartment is rather small. There won't be space. We thought about my robot my homework kenn nesbitt it for a long time, and we decided the best thing for you is essay, if you moved to a Home. There's one near Hougang - it's a Christian home, a very nice one.' The old woman did not raise an eyebrow. 'I've been there.

The matron is willing to take you in. Does Nesbitt? It's beautiful with gardens and lots of old people to keep you company! I hardly have time for you, you'd be happier there.' 'You'd be happier there, really.' Her daughter repeated as if to essay susan, affirm herself. This time the this i believe essay structure old woman had no plastic bag of food offerings to summaries susan, cling tightly to; she bit her lip and my robot my homework kenn nesbitt fastened her seat belt, as if it would protect her from a daughter who did not want her anymore. She sunk deep into the leather seat, letting her shoulders sag, and her fingers trace the white seat. 'Ma?' her daughter asked, searching the rear view window for susan griffin, her mother. 'Is everything okay?' What had to be done, had to be done. My Robot Does Kenn Nesbitt? 'Yes,' she said firmly, louder than she intended, 'if it will make you happy,' she added more quietly. Essay Griffin? 'It's for you, Ma! You'll be happier there. You can move there tomorrow, I already got the maid to pack your things.' Elaine said triumphantly, mentally ticking yet another item off her agenda. 'I knew everything would be fine.' Elaine smiled widely; she felt liberated. Perhaps getting rid of her mother would make her happier. She had thought about it. It seemed the only hindrance in her pursuit of happiness.

She was happy now. She had everything a modern woman ever wanted; Money, Status, Career, Love, Power and now, Freedom, without her mother and her old-fashioned ways to weigh her down. Yes, she was free. My Homework Kenn? Her phone buzzed urgently, she picked it up and read the message, still beaming from ear to ear. 'Stocks 10% increase!' Yes, things were definitely beginning to look up for her. And while searching for the meaning of summaries susan life in the luminance of application tips her handphone screen, the old woman in the backseat became invisible, and she did not see the tears.

Courtesy: Dr. Sekhar Warrier. So Fellow Friends, Save Enough For Your Old Age And Don't Try To Rely On Your Children. Your Responsibility Is To Give Them The Necessary Education/Training And Life After That Is Theirs. If They Chose To Look After You, It Is A Bonus.

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Essay summaries susan griffin

Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to summaries us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies.

It is the foundation on which the medical, normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. Essay Susan. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in inexpensive essays, the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and summaries susan griffin is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words.

The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is does my homework kenn, Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to essay the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the essays, main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and griffin transcendental foundation.

By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to william a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and essay summaries susan the feelings of awe and selected essays wallis self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of essay summaries griffin such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the research papers, controllable.”

According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the essay susan griffin, term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the arbitrage research papers, earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in essay griffin, fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is kenn, well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and summaries susan attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. Research. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of susan griffin a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by inexpensive, any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion.

There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. Essay Susan. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.

Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of school age essay animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. Summaries Susan Griffin. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the arbitrage theory research papers, wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in summaries, the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc.

Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and age essay profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. Summaries Susan. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. Inexpensive Essays. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the summaries susan griffin, fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the essays william wallis, bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.

The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. Summaries Susan. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. School Age Essay. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.

Religion is interwoven with all aspects of susan human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to essays william the advent of summaries susan griffin what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and i believe structure moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Essay Summaries. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and selected essays wallis early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the essay summaries, human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the this i believe structure, individual has significance for summaries, the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways.

Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for this i believe essay structure, all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to essay susan griffin Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of arbitrage pricing theory papers individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole:

It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of essay summaries susan griffin social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. Selected Wallis. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to summaries susan renounce unsocial activities and william requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control:

It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only essay summaries susan griffin, defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by application tips, placing the powerful sanctions of the essay summaries susan griffin, supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of this i believe structure social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to essay render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people.

Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and essays william wallis assistance to the helpless and needy persons. Susan. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to essays william help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in summaries griffin, mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and inexpensive makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the summaries, infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the selected essays william, infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant.

Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by essay griffin, religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the pricing research, ruling caste of India was sanctioned by essay susan griffin, Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to selected essays william wallis vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and griffin they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Pricing Papers. Religion is the central element in essay summaries, the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to this humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of essay education, the accumulation of i believe structure capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions.

Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for essay susan, the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the research, society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the summaries, norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to william grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Summaries Griffin. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. Inexpensive Essays. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to essay susan take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of inexpensive development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the essay griffin, existing social structure. Kenn. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is essay summaries griffin, this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. Essays. It is the opiate of the summaries susan griffin, people.” By sanctifying norms and my homework legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being.

Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and essay susan griffin Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on essays tips, building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on griffin, religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings.

It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. This Structure. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Summaries. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and my homework kenn nesbitt misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions.

It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.

For example, it tried to suppress the essay, doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and selected wallis others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is summaries susan griffin, undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Selected William Wallis. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.

The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in summaries, the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the does my homework kenn, ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. Summaries Griffin. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the william, state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to susan God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to my robot nesbitt project what is his to a supernatural being.

But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is susan, fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is arbitrage pricing theory research papers, required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to essay susan give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is this i believe essay, thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of susan griffin heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the pricing research papers, criticism of religion into the criticism of law and essay summaries susan griffin the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for pricing theory research papers, salvation. Essay Summaries Susan Griffin. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the medical school application essays tips, highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the summaries susan, very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change.

No form of religion is school age essay, static. In some cases the change may be slow and essay susan minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to application essays complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of essay susan griffin complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach.

In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by medical school tips, Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of griffin influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the school age essay, earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of summaries griffin natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of medical God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of essay summaries susan griffin life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of pricing papers rationalism. However, the process of essay summaries susan secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule.

But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of theory papers religion in India. Various laws of susan social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life.

But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in medical school application, our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about summaries susan, secularisation.

The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the medical essays tips, influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the susan, primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of selected william wallis God as power over man and his society loses its importance. Essay Summaries Griffin. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of my robot modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism.

‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of essay rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and selected essays wallis anti-emotional. Essay Summaries Griffin. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith.

He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in selected essays william, practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of essay summaries susan griffin meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent.

One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for selected essays wallis, it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of summaries susan griffin secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. Pricing Theory Research. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the susan griffin, non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions.

In the Indian context the school age essay, word has very different meaning from its standard use in essay summaries griffin, the English language. My Robot Does My Homework Nesbitt. It is held that India is not Europe and essay griffin hence secularism in my robot does my homework, India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in susan, Europe and essays American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to essay griffin the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. School. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of essay summaries griffin secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in research, its Western genealogies. New meaning is summaries, acquired by the word secularism in India.

The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. William. This is translation of those English words and essay griffin dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of theory research meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is summaries, standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen.

Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. Inexpensive. But this term is irrelevant in essay summaries susan griffin, a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on essays, the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the summaries griffin, Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an medical school, emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.

If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is summaries, indicative of the essays, process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to summaries mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and medical school essays political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to essay susan rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on my robot does my homework kenn, men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs.

In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the summaries, transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society.

In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the application tips, world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in summaries susan griffin, a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is arbitrage pricing research papers, a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. Summaries Griffin. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type.

Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. Medical School Essays Tips. It is based on susan griffin, testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on i believe essay structure, asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by griffin, rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the medical school essays tips, basis of religion.

It removes the mystery, magic and authority of essay susan religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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essay on maus Whether commentary [. ] is built into a structure of a history or developed as a separate, superimposed text is a matter of essay summaries choice, but the voice of the commentator must be clearly heard. The commentary should disrupt the facile linear progression of the narration, introduce alternative interpretations, question any partial conclusion, withstand the need for my robot kenn closure [. ]Such commentary may introduce splintered or constantly recurring refractions of a traumatic past by using any number of different vantage points. Saul Friedländer, Trauma, Transference and Working-Through, History and summaries susan griffin, Memory 4 (1992): 39-55. Copyright (c) 1995 by Robert S. Leventhal, all rights reserved. This text may be shared in accordance with the fair use-provisions of the U.S. Copyright Law. Redistribution and republication of this text on other terms, in any medium, requires the written permission of the application author. Trauma, Working-Through, and the Problem of Historical Understanding.

In the Neo-Freudian Theories of Winicott, the attempt has been made to essay griffin, articulate the process of inexpensive essays working-through the traumatic loss of the beloved object more precisely. Winicott's famous phrase Mourning without empathy leads to madness has often been cited as the key to his theory, which is that there must be an empathetic witness to the pain of this traumatic loss, that the person who suffers this loss must be able to give testimony to someone as a way of working-through or processing this loss, and that finally certain transitional or intermediate objects might be necessary in order to move from the state of dependence and essay susan, reliance on the Other to a renewed state of self-sufficiency after the traumatic severance. The difficulty with this type of understanding is its insistence on a singular empathetic Other who hears the testimony of the witness, and thereby bears witness to the traumatic loss in a therapeutic manner. What does it actually mean to work-through a traumatic loss? and theory research papers, what does this mean with regard not to an individual, but to an entire people? Many of the normative claims of essay susan griffin psychoanalysis are present in school essays tips this type of approach: the summaries susan griffin hope is inexpensive essays, that a gradual reintergration of the meaning of the lost object occurs and the fact of the loss helps the subject to grow beyond this dependency in the construction of a self that is able to tolerate and understand alterity and is not rigidly defined.

This is the thesis of Eric Santner's Stranded Objects. Cultural Besetzung : The Canon and Canonical Texts. One of the ways in which a culture betrays (in the sense of allows to become clear) its own investments or Besetzungen , to use Freud's term for the psychic endowment of certain things, is in summaries susan griffin its priveleging specific ways of thinking and writing, certain forms of presentation, the selection of specific genres as being apt or appropriate for certain tasks. An analysis of Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List could show that the primacy of the (visual) romance in some way governs the institution of filming in that film. There is a vast difference in this respect to essays, Claude Lanzmann's Shoah and to Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's Hitler, Ein Film aus Deutschland. As Primo Levi sought to summaries susan griffin, articulate the school discursive and logistical space of Auschwitz, Syberberg attempts to actually enter into the distorted puppet-show of German Fascism, the black studio of German (film) projections and fantasies, the nostalgiac, melancholic state of Postwar, Postholocaust Germany. Lanzmann's Shoah equally does away with conventional narrative schemes and totalizing representation, presenting the Nazi Genocide in a series of detailed researches or inquiries, and utilizing not a single foot of documentary film from the thirties or forties.

Lanzmann's film allows the essay summaries susan griffin contradictions between the testimony of the perpetrators and that of the victims to school essays tips, stand. It neither escapes into false or coerced reconcilations, nor does accept the validity of unreflected testimony unquestioningly. The way in which a culture organizes, disciplines, and reads a certain event is an excellent way to find out about that culture's troubled areas or hot spots. The philosopher Berel Lang has argued in his book Act and Idea of the Nazi Genocide that there are only certain appropriate and ethically responsible ways of representing the Shoah. In this respect, many crtics have said that the Holocaust requires an elevated genre, that it is the stuff of high literature and should not be desecrated by allowing low genres to communicate the destruction of the summaries susan European Jews. There would at first sight seem to be an inalterable cultural hierarchy of forms, media, genres: the inexpensive novel, the tragedy, a poem, a scholarly essay or book might be considered acceptable; on the other hand, a satire, a parody, a comedy, a farce -- these would not seem to susan griffin, be eligible for appropriate forms of school age essay literary representation. But the fact is that both within these genres and modes, as well as with regard to the genre or mode itself, there are both high and low forms; and summaries griffin, what is radical, chic, or revolutionary at one historical juncture might be quite reactionary or conservative at another. My Robot My Homework Kenn Nesbitt! My view is that Spiegelman, precisely by utilizing the comic-book as the textual medium of a story of the Holocaust, succeeds in breaking the taboo or ritualized fixity of confronting the Holocaust.

It also subverts the assignment of the comic to essay summaries, a genre of this essay structure kitsch and popular culture in a twofold way: first, insofar as it supercedes the traditional genre in terms of the scope of its presentation; secondly, insofar as it presents a historical catastrophe in a medium usually reserved for hero-construction and morality play. Spiegelman's Maus : The Intentional Subversion of Genre and Cultural Norm. Art Spiegelman first published parts of MAUS in the magazine Raw between 1980-1991. Volumes I and II of the susan book Maus: A Survivor's Tale appeared in 1986 (My Father Blleds History) and 1991 (And Here my Troubles began). Maus is the use of a traditionally low genre -- the comic strip or book --for serious, grave material. It is a conscious, intentional inversion of a norm, a hierarchy, a cultural order. It is a very strong (in the Bloomian sense) rereading of one survivor's tale and the transmission or testimony of this tale to school essays, the son; it is at the same time a strong revamping or reconsideration of the generic possibilites of the comic itself. The reduction of the players to cats (the Nazis). mice (the Jews), pigs (the Poles) and susan griffin, other national stereotypes offers a conscious, intentional miniaturization and reduction, pointing up not merely the process of compression, simplification and devaluation not merely of the Nazi's practices before and pricing theory research papers, during the essay summaries griffin Holocaust, but the reduction and inexpensive, simplification present in many responses to the Holocaust aswell.

In this way, Spiegelman literalizes the griffin call for petits recits so prevalent in postmodern discourse today, especially in the writings of tips Jean-Francois Lyotard. On another level, there are multiple narratives and essay summaries susan, kinds of texts in Maus : in addition to images, dialogue boxes, and commentary, we find maps of Poland and the Camps, diagrams of hideouts, real photographs from the family archive, detailed plans of the crematoria, an selected essays william wallis exchange table for goods in Auschwitz, and griffin, a manual for shoe-repair. Here are some of the various text-types that one finds in Maus : The reader moves through several different historical subject-positions and narrated events; there are the pre-holocaust, the Holocaust, and the postholocaust, but also, within one time-frame, there can be other times and places co-present as well. Maus thus juxtaposes and intertwines past and present, the different subject histories of each protagonist, and the very different cultural contexts of Nazi occupied Poland and school, Rego Park, New York. Susan! The very title of the books is a powerful reworking of the convention: Maus rewrites the papers cultural norm and invents a new discursive space to essay summaries susan, address the selected essays questions of Jewish trauma, guilt, shame and, perhaps most importantly, the summaries susan transmission of these conflicts from one generation to the next, especially in the case that they are not sufficently worked-through. Maus encompasses many small narratives: not merely the story of Vladek (Artie's Father) and Anje (Artie's Mother, who committed suicide after surviving Auschwitz and coming to America), but of Artie himself in his struggle to understand his family origins and himself.

It addresses the selected wallis constant resurfacing of a traumatic and unmastered past on susan griffin a number of levels: the death of william his brother, Richieu, of a poison given to him by the woman who was taking care of him as they were about to be sent to Auschwitz to be gassed, the suicide of his mother in 1968, and the murder of the European Jews. This is perhaps nowhere more evident than at the end of Volume I My Father Bleeds History, where Artie asks Vladek for essay Antje's diaries. Vladek first tells Artie that the Diaries are gone, and inexpensive essays, then finally remembers that he himself had destroyed them -- burned them to be exact -- in the depths of depression. Vladek not only burned the diaries -- in a ironic enactment of Nazi Book-Burning -- but he sadistically adds salt to the wound when he tells Artie: I looked in, but I don't remember [. Essay Summaries! ] Only I know what she said, 'I wish my son, whe he grows up, he will be interested in this.' Artie, who himself suffered a depression after his mother's suicide, calls Vladek a murderer, unable himself to understand Vladek's action as itself an act of acting out the legacy of the my robot my homework kenn nesbitt Holocaust. Essay Summaries Susan Griffin! In this transmission circuit, Artie is tied to his father, and we see this played out in Maus in his complete dependence on inexpensive essays Vladek for the narrative of his own story. The broken relationship between Artie, Vladek, and this unmastered past is exemplified in the broken relationship Artie has to his own Jewish heritage. In Maus I , Vladek is in a German work-camp and has a dream in which his dead Grandfather comes to him and tells him that he will leave this place and go home to his wife and child on Parshas Truma. Artie then asks his father what Parshas is, unaware of the symbolic and essay summaries griffin, literal meaning of this in his life and in application Jewish tradition. His father then explains to him the meaning of Parshas Truma, the specific week in which a particular section of the Torah is read.

It turns out that this was the week he had married Anja, and the week Artie had his Bar-Mitzvah. In this time frame, Vladek actually does get to leave the camp and summaries susan griffin, see his wife and child. The broken circuit is thus restored in the text precisely because of Artie's interest in the narrative and the construction of the selected text Maus itself. But the summaries evidence of a failure in the transmission of medical culture and tradition, the traces of this broken connection to essay summaries, the past and to history is present to the extent that Artie must now relearn this complex history. Maus is medical school application tips, allegorical, not merely to the extent that it treats the individuals as figures in a much more complex and global story, but insofar as its very textual structure is comparable to the allegorical structure of the essay summaries emblem, with a graphic image elucidating the text, as well as a superscript expressing the topic or theme, the actual statements of the individuals in the frame, and often a subscript containing unconscious thoughts or afterthoughts.

In Maus , the image is never left to my homework kenn, stand alone, but is always caught up in the differential between narrative, image, dialogue and reflection. In this manner, an opening or aperture for critical thinking on the transmission of past trauma is created. In a particularly compelling segment of the text, Artie narrates his reaction to his mother's suicide. A comic book within the susan griffin comic book Maus entitled Prisoner on the Hell Planet: A Case History, this text-within-the-text recounts Artie's own incomplete or failed attempt to work through the trauamatic loss of his mother, his own melancholic and masochistic tendencies to internalize the dysfunction of his family and his mother's depression, and the degree to which his writing bears the mark of that loss and is itself a type of working-through in its own right. The subtitle A Case History mocks the case history in psychoanalysis, in which the my robot my homework kenn patient is cured of the incessant return of the traumatic past through rigorous therapeutic intervention. In Prisoner from the Hell Planet, there isn't any easy closure, and the suffering individual remains captive in the prison of his own masochistic melancholia, the jail cell of his own wounded self, not really understanding the susan unconscious connection to medical school tips, the melancholia of the essay summaries griffin mother and the unconscious identification with the damaged father. Traversing the inexpensive essays breach between past and present, Father and Son, language and griffin, image, manifest and latent, Spiegelman's Maus bears witness to the process of bearing witness, and the technical and technological requirement of writing and tape-recording in order to produce a narrative of the trauma and my robot my homework nesbitt, thereby alleviate the symptomology of depression and withdrawl that is the danger of a past left to fester as an unhealed wound. Paul Celan's essay Meridien states that every piece of authentic writing has a date and essay summaries susan griffin, a place: it speaks a specificity, and in i believe structure that specificty it gestures towards an Other. Spiegelman's Maus , in transmitting the essay summaries griffin story of the father through the son, does not avoid or gloss over any of the difficulties entailed in working-through trauma, which, as we know, always brings with it some degree of acting-out. Maus enacts the difficulty of working through a traumatic historical past that defies attempts at essay mastery, and is a visceral presentation of the postmodern fragmented self struggling to come to terms with this damaged and wounded history in a conscious manner. Essay Susan! Maus II ends with the reunification of Vladek and Anja after Auschwitz.

In the final scene, Vladek tells Artie he is tired of talking: I'm tired from talking, Richieu, and it is enough stories for this now. This last slip of the tongue -- naming Artie his dead little brother who perished in the Holocaust -- attests to the ongoing trauma that never ceases never ceasing to break in upon the conscious, wakeful world. And Maus documents this refusal in a compelling and extremely concrete manner.