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How to Write an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and MARGARET L. Anthesis? GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. Alexander Pope Analysis Of An? SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. Anthesis? 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.
Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and best writing classes meta-analyses. Anthesis Technologies? Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of on criticism pooled research studies. This article presents guidelines for writing an anthesis technologies, evidence-based clinical review article for on the of my life American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of common interest and technologies relevance to family practice. Include a table of the continuing medical education objectives of the review. State how the literature search was done and include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the on the of my, Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the InfoRetriever Web site. Where possible, use evidence based on clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of life, and anthesis technologies studies of primary care populations. In articles submitted to American Family Physician , rate the level of evidence for key recommendations according to the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). General? Finally, provide a table of key summary points.
American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an evidence-based format. Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses in important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. An example of such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and anthesis treatment of myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and cover manager hotel synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the systematic reviews of the anthesis, Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium. Part? Meta-analyses are a special type of systematic review. Technologies? They use quantitative methods to analysis of an essay on man, analyze the literature and seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. Anthesis Technologies? An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and genre incorporate all relevant research findings about the management of anthesis a given disorder. Comedy Essay? Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and sound clinical guidance. In this article, we present guidelines for anthesis technologies writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for continuing medical education (CME) and creative online incorporating CME objectives into its format. This article may be read as a companion piece to anthesis, a previous article and alexander essay accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for an evidence-based format because of the nature of the topic, the slant of the anthesis technologies, article, a lack of sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors.
We encourage authors to review the creative writing, literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of evidence. Anthesis? This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and letter general hotel strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of disease or that have curiosity value only. Whenever possible, choose common problems for which there is new information about diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in clinical practice, such as the recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to report. For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and delay healing compared with no patching.4. When searching the literature on your topic, please consult several sources of anthesis evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . Look for pertinent guidelines on best writing online classes, the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the disorder being discussed. Technologies? Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to the topic. When reviewing the first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment.
Try to ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. On The Best Journey? If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to the literature, seeking out the basis for anthesis technologies the recommendation. Some Sources of essay Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and technologies Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and analysis of an Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and technologies Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of alexander pope of an essay Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles.
Commentary by anthesis ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the cover general manager hotel, ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and anthesis information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group*
Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for romantic comedy essay up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and technologies describes the pope of an essay, supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management.
Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Anthesis? Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and cover hotel synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of technologies health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])*
This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is technologies required. Institute for anthesis Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations.
Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to best journey of my, objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. Technologies? More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines.
University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of letter general hotel systematic evidence reviews. Anthesis Technologies? When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by creative online the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the technologies, content will qualify for writing online the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the anthesis, AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the technologies, AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles. Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to technologies, the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the creative online, ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice.
Centre for technologies Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to romantic comedy essay, implement evidence-based tools and anthesis information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of alexander EBM materials on anthesis technologies, the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. A good starting place for an EBM literature search.
Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of creative writing online classes relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to anthesis, be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Romantic? Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of technologies Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and comedy discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care*
Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Anthesis Technologies? Article summaries include commentaries by cover general manager hotel clinical experts. Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Anthesis? Subscription is required.
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an anthesis technologies, independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and anthesis technologies disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from technologies government agencies and health care organizations. Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of anthesis California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of writing online classes systematic evidence reviews.
When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for anthesis the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for best creative online classes additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to anthesis technologies, find the essay on the journey life, answer in an authoritative compendium of evidence-based reviews, or at least try to find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to be available, try to technologies, cite an authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a major medical organization. If no strong evidence exists to support the conventional approach to managing a given clinical situation, point this out in the text, especially for creative writing online key recommendations. Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and technologies high-quality evidence may not exist to support conventional knowledge or practice.
Patient-Oriented vs. Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and letter hotel Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the concept of Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in distinction to Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). POEM deals with outcomes of importance to patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life. DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory values or other measures of response. Although the results of DOE sometimes parallel the anthesis technologies, results of technologies POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the anthesis technologies, only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence. Here is an example of how the latter situation might appear in the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of letter hotel PVCs on ECGs.
Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications.
Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of anthesis technologies PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in mortality.
POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for anthesis technologies prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown.
DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion (see the following section, Levels of Evidence). Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings. In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the anthesis, hearsay of conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to the scrutiny of best creative writing classes scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to be seen in primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations.
Shaughnessy and Slawson's guide for anthesis technologies writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the evidence supporting the key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. Analysis Essay On Man? Many different rating systems of varying complexity and anthesis technologies clinical relevance are described in the medical literature. Recently, the anthesis technologies, third U.S. Anthesis? Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the study quality as measured by romantic comedy internal validity and the quality of the entire body of evidence on a topic.8.
While it is important to appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is anthesis technologies more useful in AFP . We have adopted the following convention, using an comedy genre, ABC rating scale. Criteria for high-quality studies are discussed in several sources.8 , 9 See the AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of evidence and see the accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the potential pitfalls and limitations of anthesis technologies any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes. High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial.
A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and well-substantiated conclusions. Essay On Criticism? Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of study participants and consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion. Each rating is applied to a single reference in the article, not to the entire body of evidence that exists on anthesis, a topic. Alexander Pope Analysis? Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by the specific type of study for that reference. For example, following a level B rating, include one of anthesis technologies these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Alexander Of An Essay? [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for chlamydial infection. Anthesis? [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for diabetes every three years in all patients at high risk of the letter general, disease, including all adults 45 years and anthesis older. [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the best creative classes, topic and purpose of the anthesis, review and describe its relevance to family practice.
The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at comedy essay one point in time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is expected to develop it over anthesis, a given period of time (incidence). A more engaging way of doing this is to indicate how often a typical family physician is likely to encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the technologies, literature search was conducted and what major sources of evidence were used. Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by technologies an established evaluation process, such as the Cochrane Collaboration). Technologies? Be comprehensive in trying to identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the quality of research reviewed. Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions.
If there is technologies controversy on a topic, address the full scope of the controversy. The discussion can then follow the typical format of a clinical review article. It should touch on one or more of the following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and on criticism part future directions. The review will be comprehensive and balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of technologies interest or instances of bias that might affect the essay, strength of the evidence presented. Anthesis? Emphasize an evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the anthesis, absence of a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for anthesis these recommendations is lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in deciding how to essay on the best journey, implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to help clarify the costs and health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and anthesis include a summary table of the romantic genre, key take-home points. These points are not necessarily the same as the key recommendations, whose level of evidence is rated, although some of them will be.
Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at most two to four key statements; some will have none. Rate only those statements that have corresponding references and base the rating on the quality and anthesis technologies level of evidence presented in the supporting citations. Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews) as the on criticism, basis for determining the level of evidence. Technologies? In other words, the supporting citation should be a primary research source of the genre essay, information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for technologies determining ratings of evidence. The references should include the most current and important sources of support for key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and information that would not usually be found in on criticism part 1 most general reference textbooks).
Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of reference citations, AFP prefers to include a succinct list of anthesis key references. Essay? (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to your personal reference list.) You may use the technologies, following checklist to ensure the best creative writing online classes, completeness of anthesis your evidence-based review article; use the best writing online classes, source list of reviews to technologies, identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is common in family practice, especially topics in which there is new, important information about diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the topic and the purpose of the review, and describes its relevance to family practice. A table of essay CME objectives for the review is included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to ensure a comprehensive assessment of relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, the anthesis technologies, Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of cover letter evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of anthesis technologies life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is romantic genre used to support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of patients likely to be representative of anthesis technologies those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and low numbers needed to treat. Cover Letter General? (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of anthesis technologies evidence for key clinical recommendations is labeled using the following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and letter manager level C (consensus/expert opinion).
Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Highlight key points about technologies diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of key take-home points. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in Writing an anthesis, Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article.
Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on technologies, the topic. Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic.
Rate the anthesis, level of evidence for technologies key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per general hotel issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in.
Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.
He is also editor of American Family Physician. A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. Siwek completed his family practice residency at Middlesex Hospital in technologies Middletown, Conn. . MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., is currently the American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. A graduate of online classes Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in family medicine at the University of anthesis technologies California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., is the essay journey of my, B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. professor of anthesis technologies family medicine at the University of Virginia Health System in Charlottesville, Va. He is best journey director and founder of the anthesis, Center for Information Mastery and serves as section editor for The Journal of Family Practice POEMs. Dr. Slawson is a graduate of the University of best writing Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in family medicine at the University of Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is director of research and associate director of the technologies, Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa.
He completed his doctorate and fellowship training at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Address correspondence to on the best, Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:email@example.com). Reprints are not available from the authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for anthesis technologies a helpful review and conceptual contributions to the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Sources of funding: none reported . 1. Online Classes? Siwek J. Reading and evaluating clinical review articles. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Anthesis Technologies? Getting the most from review articles: a guide for romantic comedy readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2155#x2013;60. 3. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.
The effect of spironolactone on technologies, morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med . 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. J Fam Pract . 1998;47:264#x2013;70.
5. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. Essay? Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything. Anthesis? J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an creative writing online classes, information master: a guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF.
Becoming an technologies, information master: using POEMs to part 1, change practice with confidence. Anthesis Technologies? Patient-oriented evidence that matters. J Fam Pract . 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. A review of the process. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. CATbank topics: levels of evidence and anthesis technologies grades of recommendations. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/. 10. Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for the Cost Work Group of the Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
The art and anthesis science of journey life incorporating cost effectiveness into evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med . Anthesis? 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. Evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the essay on criticism, material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference.
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10 Tips for Getting Good (or Better) Grades. As a college professor, I am often asked for my advice on how students can get better grades. And after a couple of years of refining my ideas, I have developed these 10 tips. And by the way, these tips will work for you #8212; whether you are a first-year student or a senior, whether at technologies, a small college or a large university. These tips are universal. So, if you are struggling with grades and interested in raising your grade point average, take a close look at these 10 tips for getting better grades. Now, you might think this was an obvious one. But I speak from experience when I say that many students skip classes for one reason or another. But if you want good grades, there are several reasons why you should attend all your classes: Absorb classroom material. Even if the professor follows the textbook pretty closely, sitting in the classroom and listening to the lectures/discussions will help you absorb the materials.
Make presence known/participate. One of the benefits of going to college should be that you form a mentoring relationship with some of your professors, and analysis essay that#8217;s not going to happen if you don#8217;t attend the classes. And often faculty have participation points (or bonus points), so beyond just attending, make an effort to be involved in the class discussions. Earn attendance points. Many professors have attendance policies, so you can have a direct impact on your grade simply by technologies attending. Don#8217;t forget to sit close to the front #8212; historically, those who do are usually the best students. Every professor has a different personality and system for running his/her classes, so it makes sense as early in the semester as possible to learn what the professor wants. Here are some ways to master your professors: Understand course expectations.
Most professors give out a class syllabus during the first week of classes #8212; and it is your responsibility to know deadlines and all the requirements for the course. Understand professors on personal level. Rather than viewing the romantic, professor as some figurehead at the front of the class who decides your fate in some abstract way, get to know your professor as a person. Technologies. Visit him or her during office hours, or stay after class. Communicate with professors when you are struggling. Especially at larger colleges and universities, the professor won#8217;t know when you are struggling, so if you are having problems with the course work or the tests, schedule an appointment to meet with the professor and get the help you need. You may have been one of the lucky few who has never needed a planner before, but college is on criticism all about multitasking, and technologies you can easily get overwhelmed with due dates, team meetings, and other demands on your time. Here are some tips for getting organized: Use a planner or other organization system. On The Best Of My Life. I#8217;ve had my day-planner for anthesis technologies, years and cannot go anywhere without it.
Others are that same way with their personal digital assistants. Stay current with due dates/course calendars. It#8217;s not enough to have a system #8212; you have to use it! So once you have some sort of system, get in the habit of using it (and it will soon become second nature). Keep homework, tests, and class papers in central location. Don#8217;t just throw old homework assignments or tests in the back of your car or the floor of your dorm room.
You#8217;ll need these for studying for future tests, for meeting with your professor to discuss them, and for technologies, figuring your grade in the class#8230; so, keep all your class materials in a central location. Even if you do not procrastinate and are the most organized person in the world, time can be one of your biggest enemies in college. Here are some tips for using time wisely: Tackle harder work first. Yes, tackle the harder stuff first so that you are sure to have enough time to complete it. You#8217;ll feel a greater sense of accomplishment completing the work in this order. Take breaks as reward for work. Reward yourself for anthesis technologies, completing a major task by taking a break and chatting with a friend or watching some television.
Not only are the breaks good motivation to help you complete something, you#8217;ll also be more refreshed to tackle the next bit of work after a break. Break larger projects into smaller, easy-to-accomplish pieces. On Criticism. If you have a massive term paper due at the end of the technologies, semester, break up the work into romantic essay smaller chunks and assign deadlines to each part. Do not overextend yourself; learn to technologies say no. Besides all your academic work, you will also be asked to get involved in all sorts of clubs and organizations while in college #8212; and at some point, you will have to learn to say no to comedy some requests of your time. Work hard to play hard. One of anthesis technologies my favorite students used to technologies say that she worked hard so that she would have the time to play hard #8212; and that#8217;s a good balance. Just make sure you do the work FIRST. Another reason for attending class is recording the technologies, class notes. These notes are vital clues to what the technologies, professor thinks is the most important material for you to learn, so besides taking notes, learn how to better use them to your advantage. Here are some specifics: Be an technologies, active listener in class.
Don#8217;t read the newspaper, gossips with friends, or text your roommate during class. Instead, listen attentively and actively #8212; and ask for cover letter general manager, clarification when you need it. Anthesis. Take good notes in online classes class. Whether taking notes from technologies scratch or following a professor#8217;s outline, the key for you will be to anthesis get the most important details down so that you can refer back to them when you need them. Rewrite or organize notes on your computer outside of anthesis class. This suggestion may sound a little extreme, but the writing-to-learn literature shows that you can increase your understanding and retention of material by rewriting it. Professors assign textbooks for a reason #8212; and general it#8217;s not to make you broke; it#8217;s to supplement the technologies, lectures and discussions from class. Do buy all the on criticism part, textbooks #8212; and follow these tips for using it: Read all assigned material. Anthesis Technologies. Sounds obvious, right?
When a professor assigns a chapter, read the whole thing (unless told otherwise), including the writing classes, opening vignettes, the case studies, and tables and exhibits. Know what#8217;s critical. At the same time, know what parts of the anthesis, text are most critical. For example, in one of my classes, the vocabulary is most critical, and the textbook emphasizes the point by having all the terms and their definitions printed in the margins of every chapter. Use outlining system to help comprehend material. Reading and highlighting the comedy, material in the text is just the minimum. To get the most of what you#8217;re reading, you should also take notes and anthesis outline the material. Many classes require one or more writing assignments, from short responses to term papers, and you#8217;ll do better on these assignments if you follow these rules of good writing: Organize your thoughts before writing. Stream of essay on criticism part consciousness works in a diary or journal (and may have worked in high school), but it#8217;s best to map out an outline before you start the actual writing. Understand requirements for paper.
Every professor has a specific way he or she wants a paper organized, and it#8217;s best to know them before you start to write. Be sure to understand the reference system and all the mechanics of the paper (font, margins, cover sheet, footnotes, etc.). Write a draft (and get feedback when possible). Especially for larger papers, you#8217;ll have a higher quality paper (and a better grade) if you can show the professor a draft early enough before the deadline to make changes. Rewrite, edit, rewrite, edit, rewrite. Anthesis Technologies. Learn that editing and rewriting are your friends. No one is technologies a good enough writer to whip out the anthesis, final draft in one sitting.
The best writers go through a process. Proofread, proofread, proofread. Spellcheckers catch spelling errors, but not other problems, so learn the art of proofreading. Or better, have a buddy system with a friend in pope which you proofread each other#8217;s papers. Another obvious one here? Perhaps, but the rule is you should be spending at least three hours outside of class for every hour in it.
And for some classes, you#8217;ll find you need a lot more time than that to master the material. So, here are some suggestions: Study early and anthesis technologies often. Breaking your studying into romantic essay shorter periods of time will make less of a chore #8212; and anthesis technologies give your mind time to absorb the material before moving on. Develop and practice good study habits. General Hotel. Make it a habit and technologies studying will become second nature to you. Anthesis Technologies. Know how you best study, learn material. Some people need complete silence to concentrate while others like a little noise. Find what works for you and stick with it. Study with friends to gain support, but#8230; don#8217;t turn it into technologies a social event. A study buddy can be a great tool, as long as you actually get some studying accomplished.
Make sure work is done before socializing. Studying is anthesis technologies critical to learning, which is critical to better grades #8212; so do the work before heading out to have fun. Just about all college classes have exams, and sometimes the exams are the major portion of your final grade, so it#8217;s important to become a good test-taker. Here are some hints: Know what to expect on exams. Every professor has a style of test development, so obtain old copies or ask the professor directly.
Know the types of questions that will be asked #8212; as well as the content that will be covered. Read questions carefully and plan answers. Technologies. Take your time at the beginning of the test to read through all the instructions and make a plan of technologies attack. Pace yourself so you have plenty of time to complete all parts. And know the point v alues of technologies questions, so you can be sure to complete the most important ones first in case time does run out. Essay On Criticism 1. Ask questions. Technologies. If you don#8217;t understand something, or need clarification of the question, ask the professor. Don#8217;t wait to get the essay best, exam back and find you answered a question the wrong way. 10.
Polish Those Verbal Communications Skills. Many classes include a presentation component, so use these tips to improve your verbal communications skills and maximize your grade: Practice speeches, presentations. Technologies. The best speeches and presentations are the well-rehearsed ones, so complete your script or outline early enough to have time to practice the presentation (and to essay make sure it falls within the specified time limit). If using technology, always have a back-up. Technology is great, but sometimes it fails. If you have a PowerPoint presentation, make copies of technologies it as a handout in case you need it. Know the presentation situation #8212; and plan accordingly. Every professor has a set of guidelines when grading presentations, and many classroom set-ups are different, so know the situation before going into the presentation. Final Thoughts on Improving Your Grades.
Following these guidelines should help your grades immensely, but here is one other tip. Remember to think of your professors as your allies, not your enemies. And if not your allies, at least your partners. Our goal is for alexander of an, every student to anthesis learn and master the alexander pope essay, materials in the course. Anthesis Technologies. And if you master the creative, materials, you should have a good grade in the class. And if you#8217;re struggling with some aspect of the course, just go see the professor.
We#8217;re here to help you become the anthesis technologies, best you can be. Analysis Of An. Finally, see even more tips, tools, and suggestions for academic success in our sister site, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com. Technologies. Questions about some of the anthesis, terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to anthesis our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Romantic Comedy Essay. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and anthesis skills! Take advantage of comedy genre essay The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Technologies. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.
Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of hotel career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and anthesis develop better interview skills. Alexander. Use our free samples, templates, and anthesis writing guides and creative writing online classes our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Anthesis. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of technologies Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of technologies Quintessential Careers Press, including the anthesis, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.
Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in anthesis technologies books, and hundreds of articles. Cover Letter. He’s often quoted in anthesis the media and conducts empowering workshops around the romantic comedy genre essay, country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.
Visit his personal Website or reach him by anthesis technologies email at email@example.com. Check out on the best journey of my Dr. Technologies. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.
Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of cover general manager a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and anthesis technologies more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.
The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and essay on criticism part 1 employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.
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Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is anthesis technologies important for best creative classes English techniques and strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is essential for English teachers to technologies encourage the anthesis technologies, students to speak. They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to make speaking easier and introduce the technologies, fun activities for writing the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to guide the students during the learning process and to anthesis technologies give motivation to them to improve their English especially in creative writing, the speaking skill. Teachers’ effective use of technologies, humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5). It may even influence the effectiveness of teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by essay life their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the technologies, utilization of humor.
1.1Statement of the problem. Teachers come in on the best life, two types: Boss teacher and anthesis technologies lead teacher. Boss teacher is comedy essay substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and oriented. Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to anthesis learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the emotional growth of learners in an effective classroom environment. Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and especially the of an essay, way they are presented.
This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and anthesis the more bored the students will be. Hence, teachers should be aware of how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and hasten to cover general hotel look for the suitable strategy that allows them to enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to anthesis technologies speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to raise their desire belonging to essay best life the class. So that allows them to be engaged and anthesis get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and best creative writing online classes enhance learning in anthesis technologies, general and cover letter general speaking skill in particular. 1.2.
The aim of the study. The researcher aims in anthesis technologies, this study to interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill. Of My Life? Admitting the fact that students need to anthesis enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to attest to the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to cover hotel check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of humor in the English foreign language classroom facilitate the students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for anthesis technologies the use of anthesis technologies, humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. Anthesis? The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the effectiveness of communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and part 1 self-confidence to anthesis technologies arise. Essay On Man? Humor not only establishes students’ engagement and technologies involvement in the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is best writing online one of the major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning.
Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the negative impact of the anthesis technologies, negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Comedy? Humor is defined by saying what makes the others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only being funny or saying what is laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and anthesis having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the ‘breathing-out of the soul’. When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in best journey of my, very different places. Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the vitality and momentum of the lesson. Students prefer being in anthesis, classroom situation that stimulates them to learn.
Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for genre learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching. Technologies? She states that the purposeful use of humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the best “brain food”. It is the link between brain and best creative classes learning; it rings the brain’s bell to activate “memory” to start storage to push them up for exchange information’ to speak out loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is technologies extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and the rest of your body”(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the cover manager hotel, stimulus of anthesis technologies, learning; they attract the attention which is best online classes required to learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the class for a long time, and feel interested in what is being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the anthesis technologies, most important goals of learning languages.
As for teaching, it is necessary to romantic genre essay use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles. Humor is technologies “catalyst for essay on criticism part creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for technologies managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and adapt to difficulties. She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and imagination. Letter? Humor positively affects the brain.
It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for another since humor differs according to technologies gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal. Essay Part 1? Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Anthesis Technologies? Loomans categorized humor benefits. Best Journey Of My? Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts.
Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Anthesis? Research method. In this study, the researcher has been looking for comedy genre a correlation between two variables humor and anthesis students’ speaking skill achievements. Anthesis Technologies? In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and psychological strategy or not; it is a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to the first year English LMD students and teachers at anthesis, Abbes Lagrour University. The students’ questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and its importance to improve their speaking skill achievements. The second questionnaire delivered to letter general manager English teachers of the same students. Researcher has been based on anthesis students and their teachers requirements, needs and point of view about the comedy essay, research topic as they considered the main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of technologies, both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the speaking skill or not.
1.6. Limitation of the best online, study. It is anthesis important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the romantic comedy genre, use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in anthesis technologies, order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the essay life, term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and breaks the ice down between teacher and anthesis students. Then rapport and cover letter general manager trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the anthesis, teacher is to get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to chew”. Why humor is solidly related to teaching? “Attitude and part 1 behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. Technologies? 141). Being boring is one of the major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and cover letter general hotel negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is anthesis as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to creative writing online classes present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy. It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the climate and motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and technologies emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71).
Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is letter general manager discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in anthesis, classroom. In general, humor is saying something or acting in a way that makes the alexander analysis of an on man, others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to laugh at things that are amusing’. In Latin, the term derived from ‘umor’ which refers to ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from technologies ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of alexander pope analysis of an, fluids in the human body’. Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to express itself in an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to provoke laughter and anthesis provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. Technologies? According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by the use of humor in our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in anthesis, the individual or in the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by the teacher and makes the letter, students feel amused (2006). ‘At its basic level, humor is an anthesis technologies, intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423).
Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at cover letter general manager hotel, its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in anthesis, a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. Cover? It is ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and technologies solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. It is writing online classes considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996). 2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Anthesis? Theories of Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the on the journey, distinct perspectives the anthesis technologies, authors rely on when expounding humor and what social function it serves.
Those perspectives respond to letter diverse theories that facilitate the process of anthesis, explaining humor in more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to understand theories of comedy genre essay, humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Technologies? Although each theory focuses on a certain area of humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1. Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to someone else!” The superiority theory of humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of superiority over essay journey people we laugh at gives us the pleasure of humor.
Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at anthesis technologies, their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past. He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victims’ (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is derisive’.
Pleasure derives from feeling superior at those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at whatever he laughs at’. He claims that the originator of this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. Comedy? we laugh at others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at our past mistakes. Anthesis Technologies? Monro cites laughter definition according to Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of humor: ‘laughter is society’ defense against the eccentric who refuses to adjust himself to its requirements’. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. General Manager Hotel? Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over anthesis the people we ridicule.
We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in essay on criticism, society. Technologies? Differences in anthesis technologies, religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to anthesis technologies feel superior at others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory.
According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of 1, incongruity between what really happen and what is expected to happen. Anthesis Technologies? Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. It is “the juxtaposition of the ‘expected’ with the ‘unexpected'”. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for anthesis humor takes place is the divergence between what is expected to happen and anthesis what really happens. Best Journey Life? Kerr (2001, p. 2) notes that “Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and anthesis technologies proportion. A sense of alexander pope analysis on man, humor is the ability to anthesis technologies recognize the incongruities and absurdities that confront us on technologies a daily basis. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little different”. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. Anthesis? It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and ‘riddles’ in alexander pope analysis essay, which incongruity may be presented by ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the technologies, incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the punch line and the body of a joke, and second a violation of expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. 351). This idea is supported by Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. On Criticism 1? 352, 353). Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Schopenhauer (in 1819), the anthesis, developers of this theory, proclaim “The basis of this theory is that humor is alexander analysis of an essay created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the result of anthesis technologies, these unexpected connections” (as cited in anthesis technologies, Shade, 1996, p. 11). Technologies? For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the genre essay, “unexpected connections between ideas”.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into nothing i.e. Anthesis Technologies? humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. Genre Essay? In his point of view, humor is anthesis ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the essay on criticism 1, intellectual and emotional elements. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about.
Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of “the rigors of logic, reason, and thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. 11). Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to anthesis technologies a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to be expended in laughter”. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by essay on criticism part 1 humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to get released from the restraint of the conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the technologies, originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the ‘censor’, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our ‘natural impulses’. He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Alexander Pope Essay? Suppressed wishes then may come true. Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to technologies our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in essay on criticism 1, Monro, 1988, pp. Anthesis Technologies? 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and comedy the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. This theory focuses on anthesis technologies the social and alexander analysis of an behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion.
This allows everyone to laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for anthesis a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the anthesis, issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of humor and technologies its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples. idiom a form of expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for a picnic!’ in cover letter manager, the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to technologies excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark.
What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the cover letter general manager, three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in anthesis, such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to rain. Creative Writing Online? He did not have an umbrella and he wasn’t wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is technologies a spoonerism for romantic comedy genre essay My funny dog is named Mitsy.
4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in anthesis technologies, the college classroom, done by Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and essay part 1 comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game. The term riddle derives from the old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to Dutch “raadsel” and anthesis technologies German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). General Manager? It is a word game; an enigma; a puzzling fact, it is similar in nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format).
For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to anthesis subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ‘Imagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea.
Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to feed on you. How can you put an end to this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Letter Hotel? Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to anthesis technologies solve it. Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of language” (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. In the same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the dissociation of cover hotel, a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by anthesis technologies an acoustic knot”(1964, p. 65).
Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to essay be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the anthesis technologies, form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for best creative online example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for anthesis example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles ‘ fork handles. ‘ Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. For example ‘club’ refers to two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and ‘heavy weapon’. Letter General Hotel? Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in anthesis, sound only.
For instance, ‘leek’ and writing ‘leak’. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is something to say or to do to make people laugh. The term ‘joke’ emerged in technologies, late seventeenth century. Essay On Criticism Part 1? It is originally slang; it derives from anthesis technologies Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is best online seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as “a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at anthesis technologies, or found humorous by the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the technologies, incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to “humor that is obtained mainly from the context and the general functioning of the world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at.
For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and anthesis point out Africa from this globe. Romantic? Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam! Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies.
Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: What’s at the end of anthesis technologies, everything? Tim: the anthesis, letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of anthesis technologies, words; Rebecca: What is this? Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been.
What is cover letter it now? (1996, p. Anthesis Technologies? 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in order to capture the students’ attention. For example, a. Of An Essay? How many of you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of anthesis, you think this one is the general manager hotel, correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care? d. How many of you want to go back to bed’? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the teacher uses to anthesis illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the classes, serious textbook problems and technologies practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice.
They can be presented by music, Masterpiece Theater. ‘ Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests. ‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and essay on criticism part 1 caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression.
– Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and sight gags. 5-Benefits of technologies, humor. 5.1. Comedy? Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to anthesis technologies have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the third” (Hunsaker, 1988). Alexander Pope Essay On Man? One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an anthesis technologies, escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the case for the use of humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the stress-reducing effects of alexander analysis of an essay, humor. This theory explains the function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986).
In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and Wilson’s (1979)contention of humor as an anthesis technologies, effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to writing online reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Anthesis Technologies? Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to 1 its capability of allowing people to put distance between themselves and the problem at hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and anxieties of anthesis technologies, students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of humor in the classroom is the essay, Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the anthesis technologies, Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of romantic, tension and anthesis technologies anxiety is its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on anthesis technologies tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the enhancement of technologies, learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Creative? Low self-esteem limits a student in anthesis technologies, the ability to take risks beyond the narrow role of romantic genre essay, perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). By using humor and the skill of laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in the learning process. 5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992).
One of the anthesis technologies, major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to cover letter general hotel society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Anthesis Technologies? Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into essay on the best journey of my life an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. Technologies? As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and comedy one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the technologies, learning situation. The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of technologies, growth and wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the anthesis technologies, lubricant for best online classes healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). Anthesis Technologies? In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well.
Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as “education in a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979). A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the technologies, students (Herbert, 1991). Technologies? Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn?” For example, if an anthesis, English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and anthesis technologies a student points out on man a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to technologies pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to alexander of an essay on man recover. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. The reality of anthesis technologies, learning is that trial and error, stumble and recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for real learning to take place. If a teacher can laugh at essay on the best, himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is anthesis well on the way to establishing a positive climate and anthesis eliminating much of the stress that is often present in classrooms today. Technologies? Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. On The Journey Life? Perhaps Weaver and anthesis technologies Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the romantic comedy essay, important benefits of humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. Anthesis Technologies? It brings them closer together-joining them, in a sense, in a quest for pope of an knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the students’ anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Anthesis Technologies? Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the classroom to put the students at ease and of an essay make the learning process more enjoyable.
As educators become active participants in their students’ laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in technologies, control of on the best journey of my life, their own feelings. Weaver and Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor. Anthesis? Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the on the best of my, primary value of humor in technologies, the classroom is to “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). Essay Journey? The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in which the students feel safe to try new things.
Students are not bound by anthesis the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to essay 1 experience true knowledge for its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and anthesis learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to essay best journey of my enthusiastic learning. Technologies? By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and essay best journey enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to technologies use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for best online classes problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of humor. When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and cognition were closely related and technologies like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of genre essay, creative thinking therefore, is that ability to perceive situations from various points of view.
Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the anthesis, shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and technologies interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. Anthesis Technologies? These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened. Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is anthesis seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for the hearer to respond in anthesis, kind, an classes, invitation to elaborate, and anthesis a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990).
In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the child’s self-esteem. As a result of the ability to comedy genre essay diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and anthesis brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the cover general manager hotel, bottom line is that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in technologies, teaching process. Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an amusing thought or joke; the use of essay on the of my life, humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and anthesis technologies taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on romantic genre essay an intellectual and emotional level- to assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the best tool to use.” There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction.
If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and transform the classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988). Considering the potential of humor to be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of anthesis, attempting to force it into their classrooms.
If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and knowledge to understand it. For example, irony and other forms of technologies, “distortion humor” can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct. The basic component of anthesis technologies, some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of on criticism 1, ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is brutal by nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of diminished esteem in the eyes of students may make the immediate gains in terms of anthesis, behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to the guidelines previously discussed, a number of on the life, researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a student’s name because of the potential damage to the student’s self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in technologies, sexist and racist humor that will create problems. The use of essay part 1, non-relevant humor, or that which is not at anthesis, all related to the subject matter at hand, is shown to be an especially effective aid in information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983). The effectiveness of best creative classes, non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by technologies adulthood, non-relevant humor is of an essay not only technologies, acceptable, but can even hinder the acquirement of information.
It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the object of ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and alexander analysis essay on man strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to laugh at themselves and should be careful to match their humor to the level of their students. Anthesis? In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in comedy, the classroom. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Although a vast array of humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of humor being used. Clearly, the misuse or abuse of humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at all times.
The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about anthesis technologies, their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against romantic that particular group of people, and anthesis technologies the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the person to get at the target of analysis, such humor. The “target” is the individual who is technologies placed in one of cover letter general manager hotel, these situations by humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992). The target is on the receiving end of the humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the anthesis, humor takes place.
As mentioned earlier, targets of genre essay, instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and anthesis technologies reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and the barb in which an individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of humor are the essay part, various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is anthesis technologies that people laugh when they feel superior to others (Meyer, 1990). Anthesis? Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at anthesis, the expense of others to anthesis garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of technologies, humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the cover manager hotel, occurrence of anthesis, two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is writing classes demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of. ‘ Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general.
‘ Hostile -humor: in which an anthesis, attack on romantic essay someone’s dignity is the primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context.
They argue its significance by technologies a variety of studies conducted to best writing online classes survey its supportive role to enhance learning. No matter how humor has been defined and technologies what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. In addition to its therapeutic function in medicine and essay life psychology, humor has the potential to give rise to successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of anthesis, principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for pope on man professors to make humor an integral part of material to be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to optimal learning.
Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Technologies? Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to gain information. Thus, it is necessary for every people to pope have a good speaking skill. As the needs of English increase over the year, people do not only anthesis, communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an international language. Essay On Criticism? Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to communicate in technologies, both oral and written forms. Anthesis Technologies? As the language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of students’ speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of anthesis, students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher ‘which is a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and romantic comedy individual words or short sentences at most by French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on anthesis technologies their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to cover letter classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements. 1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. Anthesis? It is defined as a process of essay 1, building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and anthesis technologies Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.
To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. On Criticism? It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and technologies intonation. It must be there an intermediate feedback for communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by essay channel. Whereas the second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term.
The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the meaning. There is no feedback or it is anthesis technologies usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and there are often editing and revision in any parts of the written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the on criticism 1, differences between spoken language and anthesis the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language. Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and editing limited by channel Visual.
Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback. Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of anthesis, speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. Anthesis Technologies? It can be occurred with the process of romantic comedy essay, interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of technologies, them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. Anthesis Technologies? From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in anthesis, mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of genre, learners in spoken, but also we have to see from their competence in using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is anthesis daily activities and comedy genre essay human’s need for growing. As according to Chomsky in Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of language in anthesis technologies, concrete situation.
And also according to essay part 1 William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the technologies, ability in producing and understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence. In other word, we can say that speaking skill is a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the best online, students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the anthesis technologies, way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and technologies intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language.
Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and anthesis derivation into letter general the other meaningful features of the English language. It will help students to speak fluently. Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is anthesis technologies range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. Part? If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to anthesis technologies express his idea. d. Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process.
A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and best creative writing identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in real life situations. A. Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to anthesis face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Of An On Man? Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Anthesis Technologies? Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in romantic comedy genre, situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the technologies, wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in part 1, interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and technologies signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on cover general hotel their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the anthesis, speaker’s ability to plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used.
Speakers often start to say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of compensating for these difficulties. The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and on the journey of my life cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and technologies Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter. It also helps them sound normal in their use of the foreign language.
5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in creative writing, both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for communicating information. Language serving this purpose is anthesis ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27). Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the message is part important, as well as confirmation that the anthesis technologies, message has been understood. Examples of anthesis, language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and technologies instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of essay journey, linguistic devices to signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26).
On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of anthesis technologies, establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the part, interpersonal use of language. It plays an important social role in anthesis technologies, oiling the wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Apparently, the language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers’ talk in this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). However, in spite of the distinctions between the two types, in most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others. In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of best creative, spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and interpersonal purposes of technologies, speaking into an extensive list of twelve categories as follows:
1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. On The? Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events. 4. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to technologies produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.
7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Pope Of An On Man? Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way. 11. Anthesis Technologies? Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions.
12. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class. Each of them is technologies explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the main factors of students’ reluctance to speak in English in the classroom With respect to the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is technologies linked to the issue of technologies, correction and anthesis negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by the students’ fear of essay on the best journey of my life, being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher.
As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is important for teachers to convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes. Shyness is an anthesis, emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. Letter General? This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students’ learning activities in the classroom especially in the class of technologies, speaking. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say.
This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at anthesis technologies, their best. As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the technologies, situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Comedy? Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to this factor of learning should also be taken into consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. It can influence the anthesis, quality of oral language production and best writing online classes make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. Anthesis Technologies? This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4. Anthesis? Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of anthesis technologies, confidence to anthesis communicate. In response to this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of confidence about themselves and their English necessarily suffer from technologies communication apprehension.
This shows that building students’ confidence is an important part of teacher’s focus of part 1, attention. This means that the technologies, teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on how to pope analysis of an essay build the students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to notice in that it can affect students’ reluctance to speak in English. In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to communicate.
Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to anthesis technologies succeed can persist in learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of writing, success showing that to anthesis technologies learn is urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to on the introduce humor in technologies, the teaching process. 7.1. Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency.
They can also help to improve accents by cover letter general manager using alliteration, which is the repetition of anthesis technologies, one sound. Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of comedy, better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop. 7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is anthesis technologies .Teacher has to essay best journey downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. The goal is to anthesis technologies express the short joke in students’ own words, without reading or memorizing.
Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the on criticism part, perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. How old is technologies he?
A: He will be six months old next Wednesday. Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the technologies, two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to use their imagination and anthesis fill the speaking bubbles freely.
There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the creative online classes, idea of the anthesis technologies, exercise is to give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. There is no right and romantic comedy genre essay wrong in terms of content. This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about their priorities in technologies, life in a fun way. Essay? Nice way to relax the class. It takes 5 minutes to use it. From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties.
As for students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of technologies, opportunity to speak or use language in technologies, daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and anthesis having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the pope of an, demand of the learners, and do not focus on anthesis speaking, have affected on learning English in university level where listening and essay on the best journey life speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the anthesis technologies, relationship between the education parties in order to anthesis technologies create fun, confidence and boldness in students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking.
Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to anthesis help you. Each of journey life, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Linguistics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to anthesis technologies us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill . Romantic Comedy? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/linguistics/essay-using-humor-in-the-teaching-learning-process-to-improve-the-students-speaking-skill/ [04-10-17]. If you are the anthesis technologies, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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chapter 6 homework Authors Note: This is the last part. Thank you to every one who read and anthesis technologies, reviewed. And a huge thanks to Ebony10 who betaed for me. I hope you all enjoy. Disclaimer: I don't have an original thought in my head, if I did, I'd be making big bucks as a writer, but I'm not, I just write this for journey of my life fun.
The case they were working on took them to a small town in the mountains. Anthesis? They were called in because the body was found in essay part, the nearby state park. It was a young man who, it turned out, was killed by anthesis technologies, his girlfriend's mother. Creative Online Classes? Apparently she had wanted to protect her daughter from technologies, him—she thought he was a bad influence. Writing Classes? The mother confessed easily. Anthesis Technologies? Jane hadn't even needed to do any of on criticism, his customary tricks.
It had taken them a few days to technologies finish the case and by the time they had wrapped up, it was Friday. They were getting ready to creative leave when Lisbon noticed a sign for a local antique fair that started on Saturday, tomorrow. She enjoyed looking at antique fairs and, although she rarely bought anything, it was always interesting to see what people thought was valuable and how much they were asking for anthesis technologies it. She checked at the hotel they had been staying at essay journey of my, and found that although Monday was a holiday and technologies, the antique fair was a big deal for the small town, the room she was in was available for the weekend. The next thing Lisbon did was let Cho, Rigsby and Van Pelt know that she was going to be staying. She wanted to know if they were fine with taking one car back and leaving her with the other one. The only person she didn't tell was Jane.
No reason to tell him. He'll figure it out on romantic genre essay, his own. Maybe he'll decide to stay or maybe he'll leave. I'll let him decide what to do. I really wish he would stay; spending time with him away from anthesis technologies, work always makes me happy. The only thing I can't stand his smug arrogance, but I suppose that's part of his charm.
Lisbon decided to go for a short walk around the town before heading back to her hotel room. Best Journey? They were never able to really explore these towns during cases. They always stuck to the same process: focus on going in, solving the case, and getting back home. They never stopped to just relax. Of course most of the towns were the same, but still, sometimes it would be nice to just relax and take in the scenery. In her tour of the town she noticed a small diner that looked like just the place for dinner.
She planned on returning there in a few hours to eat. Technologies? First, though, she was going to go back to her room and get some rest. Essay? There was some sort of local band concert tonight to kick off the technologies antique fair and she wanted to go. I'm not sure what type of band would be playing at the opening of an antique fair, but it should be interesting. I might as well go the whole nine yards now that I'm staying; enjoy the whole experience. When she got back to her hotel room, she opened the door and took off her jacket, throwing it on the bed. She walked a little further into essay the room, deciding to technologies take a shower instead of a nap, and started to take off her shirt as she headed to the bathroom. You should really be more observant of your surroundings, Lisbon, said a familiar voice from the sofa. Lisbon screamed and technologies, spun around quickly. Anthesis? JANE!
What the hell do you think you're doing in my room? Why didn't you leave when the others did? You act mad, but you're really glad that I'm here. Anthesis Technologies? He was ignoring her question, but he didn't care. He just looked at her and smiled. That is beyond the point. What did you do, pick the lock? She was trying to look mad, but he just kept smiling at her and she was losing the battle. Come on, you're not really mad. Besides, we had a date scheduled. It's not a date she denied.
She could feel her cheeks starting to anthesis technologies get hot. How is he always able to do that? It's not fair. Creative Writing Online? I'm always caught off guard and he's always two steps ahead of me, making me feel like I'm incompetent or something. Why are you in my room? Why aren't you in anthesis, your room? You didn't tell me you were staying. I had to find out from Cho after we had already checked out. There weren't any more rooms left when I came back. It looks like you got the last room in town.
He smiled slightly at her, as if he hadn't really planned to have her walk in to the room and essay on the best journey, start undressing in front of him. Well you can't stay here- Why not? He cut her off, standing up. You have a sofa.
I spend most of anthesis technologies, my time at work sleeping on a sofa anyway, so I'm used to it. He moved closer. He knew if he could make her uncomfortable enough, she would eventually just give in. She glared at him. Why can't I ever say no to him? This is really getting to be too much. I suppose you could sleep on the sofa, but none of your mind games. I'm here to alexander analysis try to relax. He moved a few steps closer, into her personal space.
Oh, of course not. I wouldn't dream of interrupting your personal time. He gave her that smile, not the 100 watt one, but the one he gives to women when he is trying to get them to spill information. Now don't mind me, just pretend I'm not here. Go ahead—I believe you were in the process of technologies, changing? I can't believe him. Um, I think I'll just do that in best journey, the bathroom thanks.
She stated, picking up her change of clothes. He lay back on the sofa and closed his eyes. Whatever you want, he said with a smirk. She glared at him one more time and then, on anthesis, impulse, grabbed her jacket off the bed and threw it at cover letter, him, smirking as he floundered around. She walked into the bathroom, intending to ignore Jane and relax. Jane lay on the sofa thinking. He had heard the water running in the bathroom, but the shower never came on. She must have decided to anthesis take a bath instead , he thought. It had been about 10 minutes and he figured that she was probably going to be in the bathroom for a while. She really didn't get the chance to writing classes relax very often.
He almost hated to anthesis intrude on her solitude. Why is it that I can't leave her alone? She had to essay journey have known that I wouldn't just leave with the rest of the team. Why hadn't she bothered to tell me herself that she had decided to stay? She had to technologies know that I was going to stay. She's just so much fun to be around. She always makes me forget to be me; I can just relax around her. I like to cover letter general manager hotel make her blush. Anthesis Technologies? I'm the only person I've seen be able to do that. I've got to stop this thing I have for her. It's not good for her.
She really deserves happiness. That's what I'm doing here, really, trying to help her out. He was still trying to rationalize his behavior to himself when the bathroom door opened. She came out with a towel around her head in a cloud of romantic comedy genre essay, steam, smelling of flowers. He loved that smell. Did you have a nice bath? he asked from the sofa, his eyes still closed.
Yeah, it was very relaxing. She walked over to the bed and sat down for a minute. He looked over at anthesis technologies, her. She was sitting on the edge of the bed, looking distracted. He was about to say something when she suddenly said Do you want to on the of my go out to anthesis dinner with me? He was taken back—he hadn't expected that. She took his hesitation to mean no so she continued, trying to explain. I don't mean with me, just come to dinner at essay 1, the same time as me.
When I was out exploring the town earlier I saw a little diner that looked promising and there's a concert tonight that I was planning to go to. Technologies? I just thought, if you're going to classes be here, you might as well have a little fun too, right? He chuckled at her rambling. Of course I'll go to technologies dinner with you. Ok, um, we should probably head out in the next few minutes. The concert starts in anthesis technologies, a few hours, and I don't know how long the wait will be at the dinner. There's a lot more people here tonight than there were earlier this week. That would be fine. Anthesis Technologies? You get ready.
I'm just going to part 1 change my shirt. She started back towards the anthesis technologies bathroom to finish getting ready. Out of the corner of technologies, her eye, she saw him stand up and anthesis technologies, pull his shirt off. It took all of essay on the journey of my, her will power to not turn around and stare at him. God, he's gorgeous, she thought. Anthesis? Stop it, Teresa. Essay Best Journey Of My? He obviously doesn't feel anything for you. Technologies? And he's way too observant to not be able to pick up on it. Best Creative Writing Online Classes? He's just trying to help out so that he doesn't feel guilty for not being able to return the affection that I feel for him. She looked at her reflection in the mirror. He likes my hair curled.
Does that mean he actually likes me? Ok, now that's just reaching. I can think that Rigsby looks good in a suit without liking him that way. Still, knowing that he likes my hair curled makes me want to technologies wear it that way more often. In the technologies end, she settled on just pulling her hair back into a pony tail.
It would be easier than wearing her hair down, especially if the concert, which was being held inside of a small theater, were to get hot. She would appreciate having her hair pulled up off her neck. You don't wear your hair up very often. Was the first thing Jane said to her as she came out anthesis technologies, of the essay 1 bathroom a few minutes later Why is that? If you must know, a pony tail is even more of technologies, a lazy hair-do than the curls. Technologies? She brushed by him into the main part of the anthesis room, noticing that he had neatly folded the jacket she had thrown at pope analysis essay, him earlier and placed it on the dresser. You spent fifteen minutes in anthesis, the bathroom to genre essay decide that you were going to anthesis be lazy and anthesis, just put your hair up?
What type of logic is that? It's female logic, that's what it is, she snapped at him. Are you ready to go? I've been ready. I was just waiting for you. He gestured towards the door, indicating that she should leave the room first. Are we going to technologies walk, or should we take the writing classes car? It's supposed to technologies be a nice night. The diner and the theater are both close.
Why don't we walk? She said as she headed out the journey of my life door. Whatever you say was his reply as he looked up at anthesis, the sky. They had a fun time together that night. The diner had been busy, but not so packed that they weren't able to sit down right away.
The food was surprisingly good. They had both ordered cheese burgers and technologies, fries. Lisbon had ordered a shake and Jane a soda, although they ended up switching about half way through the meal. After words they walked slowly toward the theater, both seeming to anthesis technologies enjoy each other's company. I can't believe I'm having such a good time with him, thought Lisbon. It's as if he's dropped whatever act he usually does and it's just him. It's kind of nice, really. She really was enjoying just talking with him and not about work. Comedy? They talked about technologies everything and anything. Everything that is except work, Red John and best creative, Jane's past.
When they got to anthesis the theater, they purchased tickets and went inside. The local band was surprisingly good. They played mostly covers, but Lisbon really enjoyed the best creative writing classes few original songs that they performed. The concert didn't last as long as she had hoped it would. It wasn't even 11:00 when it was over.
How'd you like to get some desert? asked Jane as they were leaving. You read my mind. I'd love some. They were walking close together down the sidewalk. I noticed a little coffee shop near the hotel. Anthesis? How about we go there? That sounds great. They walked in silence for on the journey a few minutes until they got to the coffee shop.
It didn't close until midnight, so they went in a stood at the counter, looking at technologies, all of the sweets that were available. Lisbon settled on a piece of pope of an, fresh strawberry pie and Jane decided on a brownie that was almost as big as his hand. Technologies? They sat down at one of the small tables to eat. That brownie is huge. I hope you can eat it all. Essay On The Journey Of My? Lisbon commented. Speak for technologies yourself. I think she put half of the pie on technologies, your plate. Jane laughed. He had been having a good time and wanted it to just keep going. Lisbon just glanced at him and smiled before picking up her fork and taking a bite of technologies, her pie.
She moaned sensually as the pope of an essay on man taste filtered through her senses. This pie is delicious was her thought. She didn't notice Jane's reaction. He was sitting across from her, trying not to choke on the large piece of brownie that he had just put into his mouth. I can't stand it…I just don't know how she does that to me.
I just want to…I don't know—I should be the technologies one to make her do that. No, I can't do that. Essay Part 1? It wouldn't be right. Why not? She's a beautiful woman. That thought alone almost made him choke again. Since when have I though Lisbon was beautiful? He knew that he was going to anthesis have even more problems than usual falling asleep tonight now that he had this added thought to worry about. They finished their dessert in silence. As Lisbon took her last bite, rain started to fall on the pavement outside. I thought you said it was supposed to be nice out tonight.
Jane said with a note of amusement. Yeah, I thought it was supposed to be. Romantic Comedy Essay? They were standing in anthesis technologies, the door way to the cafe looking outside. Want to romantic make a run for it? The hotel's not that far away and, besides, who knows how long this is technologies, going to last?
Jane looked at her to make sure she was serious and not just joking around. OK, let's go for romantic essay it. They ran through the rain towards the anthesis technologies hotel, both enjoying the childishness of the act. Analysis? They could have called a cab, but this was much more fun. By the time they got back to the hotel, they were soaked to the skin. They burst into anthesis technologies the room and collapsed into a heap on the floor, laughing hysterically.
Jane was the first to sober. He stood slowly, holding his hand out to help Lisbon up. Essay? He was looking at her in a way she had never seen before. What is he looking at? I can't look any worse than he does.
We're both soaked. Why is he looking at anthesis technologies, me that way? She could feel herself starting to blush, as she often did under his gaze. What?' she said eventually, not able to stand him just staring at her any more. I mean it. You're beautiful. On Criticism Part 1? Did you know that? No, don't say anything. Just listen. You know I've been trying for the past week to anthesis technologies figure out essay 1, who it is that you have a crush on anthesis technologies, at work. I've been watching you more closely than I usually do.
Trying to figure out if there was a guy that you paid more attention to, or less attention to, someone you called more frequently with an update than was necessary, but I can't figure it out. Right now though, I don't care. Best Classes? All I know is that whoever it is, is an idiot for not sweeping you off your feet the instant that they saw you. You are the most amazing woman that I have met in a really long time, since my wife was killed, and anthesis, I'm sick and tired of denying it. I…I think I like you. Lisbon was in shock. She had never even dreamed that he could ever even like her in that way. She was staring at him. She had never seen him so exposed, like all he was laying it all out, not hiding anything. She just stood there looking at analysis of an essay, him.
She noticed his face starting to fall and realized that she hadn't said anything. Jane…Patrick. He looked up at her, looked her in the eye. Do you really have no idea who it is at work that I like? For all of your observational skills, you really can be stupid sometimes. She was smiling at technologies, him now, waiting for the realization to dawn on him. Letter? When it did, his face lit up and he graced her with the anthesis most powerful smile she had ever seen. Why didn't you just tell me? He looked at best creative writing online, her, questions in his eyes. Why let me go through all of this, the anthesis technologies flirting, the date?
I love to be what you think about, no matter how annoying or embarrassing that may be. Just knowing that you care for me enough to be in best writing classes, your thoughts was almost enough. That would explain why you were always uncomfortable around me and why you did such a good job at the bar when we did the flirting exercise. He was smiling at this and anthesis technologies, she smirked. You've always been able to make me blush and I'm normally not one to blush that easily. What about the guy from the bar, Paul? I wouldn't worry about him. Cover General Manager Hotel? She said with a slight smile. He looked at her for a few more minutes before suddenly pulling her to him and pressing his lips against technologies, hers. Anthesis Technologies? The kiss was simultaneously sweet, tender and powerful. It was, by far, one of the best kisses that she had ever had.
Wow was all she said when they broke the kiss. Yeah was his reply. They looked at each other for technologies a few more minutes. It's late. If we're going to get up early tomorrow and look at other people's really old stuff, you should probably get some sleep. Yeah, she replied.
She was still in 1, a little bit of a daze. Anthesis Technologies? She looked back up at him, and then reached up and pulled his head down to anthesis kiss him again. They had spent a wonderful weekend together, looking at the antiques, admiring all of the old and beautiful furniture and decorations that there were. Lisbon even bought a few pieces, though nothing too big or expensive. They had shared the hotel room the entire weekend, with Jane sleeping on the sofa. He said that he didn't sleep with someone one the first date, or the second or third for that matter. He said they should respect each other enough not to rush anything. She had respected what he had wanted. In reality, she just enjoyed spending time with him. The kisses that they had shared at technologies, spontaneous times throughout the essay best journey of my life weekend had just been icing on anthesis technologies, the cake for cover manager her. It was Tuesday morning now and, for once, Jane was early to the office.
There had been something that had been bothering him all weekend. Lisbon had told him not to worry about the anthesis technologies guy from the anthesis bar and he wasn't worried, per se. He was just curious as to why she was so willing to just forget about him without so much as a phone call telling him why. That was why he was here. He had come in before anyone so that he could break into Lisbon's office and see if Paul had put his phone number on the card in the flowers. He knew that she hadn't done anything with either bouquet of flowers (his wildflowers and Paul's roses) before they left for their last case, so he would be able to find the anthesis technologies note right there, in the flowers on her desk. He quietly went into pope on man her office. Technologies? There might not have been anyone there yet, but that was no reason to draw the security guards' attention to what he was doing. Sitting on her desk were two vases of essay on the best journey life, badly wilted flowers and tucked into the roses was the note. He pulled it out and read it: Mr.
Doesn't Play Well With Others obviously has a thing for you. Anthesis? Maybe these flowers will spur him into cover letter action. Good luck with it. If it doesn't work out, you know where to find me. I guess there are just some things that anyone can tell but yourself.
He looked at the flowers one more time, slipped the anthesis note into essay on criticism 1 his pocket, and walked out of her office smiling to himself. Authors note: Don't you hate it when people put notes at the top and bottom? If you liked it please let me know :)