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Free Sample Retail Business Plan Store Template. To Help you Succeed In Business. A good retail business plan gives the retail firm a pathway to profit. Help. This free sample business plan retail store guide is designed to help an owner-manager work up a sound business plan. To profit in business, you need to on sylvia, consider the following questions: What business am I in?

What goods do I sell? Where is my market? Who will buy? Who is my competition? What is my sales strategy? What merchandising methods will I use? How much money is help paper, needed to operate my store? How will I get the work done? What management controls are needed? How can they be carried out? When should I revise my plan?

Where can I go for help? As the owner-manager, you have to answer these questions to ap united states, draw up your business plan. The pages of this Guide are a combination of text and suggested analysis so that you can organize the information you gather from research to develop your plan, giving you a progression from a common sense starting point to help writing, a profitable ending point. The success of your retail store business depends largely upon fiction short, the decisions you make. A business plan allocates resources and measures the results of your actions, helping you set realistic goals and make logical decisions. You may be thinking, Why should I spend my time drawing up a business plan? What's in it for me? If you've never worked out paper a plan, you are right in wanting to hear about the possible benefits before you do the dissertation binding services, work. Remember first that the lack of planning leaves you poorly equipped to anticipate future decisions and actions you must make or take to help, run your business successfully.

A business plan Gives you a path to follow. A plan with goals and action steps allows you to guide your business through turbulent often unforeseen economic conditions. A retail plan shows your banker the condition and direction of your business so that your business can be more favorably considered for a loan because of the banker's insight into coupons best, your situation. A plan can tell your sales personnel, suppliers, and others about your operations and goals. A plan can help you develop as a manager. It can give you practice in thinking and figuring out problems about competitive conditions, promotional opportunities and situations that are good or bad for your business.

Such practice over a period of help paper time can help increase an owner-manager's ability to advantages penalty essay, make judgments. A second plan tells you what to help, do and how to do it to achieve the goals you have set for your business. In making your business plan, the first question to essay on importance of internet in modern life, consider is: What business am I really in? At first reading, this question may seem silly. If there is one thing I know, you say to yourself, it is paper writing, what business I'm in. Hold on and think. Some owner-managers have gone broke and others have wasted their savings because they did not define their businesses in ap united states history, detail. Paper Writing. Actually they were confused about what business they were in. Look at an example. Binding. Mr.

Jet maintained a dock and sold and rented boats. Writing. He thought he was in the marina business. But when he got into trouble and asked for outside help, he learned that he was not necessarily in the marina business. He was in several businesses. He was in the restaurant business with a dockside cafe, serving meals to boating parties. He was in the real estate business, buying and selling lots. He was in boat repair business, buying parts and hiring a mechanic as demand rose.

Mr. Ap United States Essay. Jet was trying to be too many things and couldn't decide which venture to put money into and how much return to expect. What slim resources he had were fragmented. Before he could make a profit on his sales and a return on his investment, Mr. Jet had to paper writing, decide what business he really was in and concentrate on it. After much study, he realized that he should stick to the marina format, buying, selling, and servicing boats. Decide what business you are in and write it down - define your business. To help you decide, think of of internet life answers to questions like: What do you buy? What do you sell?

Which of paper your lines of goods yields the plath poetry, greatest profit? What do people ask you for? What is it that you are trying to help, do better or more of or differently from your competitors? Write it down in detail. Retail Business Marketing.

When you have decided what business you are in, you are ready to consider another important part of your business plan. Marketing. Ap United History Essay Questions. Successful marketing starts with the owner-manager. Paper Writing. You have to know the merchandise you sell and the wishes and wants of your customers you can appeal to. The objective is to move the stock off the shelves and display racks at the right price and bring in sales dollars. The text and suggested working papers that follow are designed to help you work out a marketing plan for your store. Determining the Sales Potential store. In retail business, your sales potential depends on location. Like a tree, a store has to draw its nourishment from the essay on sylvia plath poetry, area around it. The following questions should help you work through the problem of selecting a profitable location.

In what part of the city or town will you locate? In the paper writing, downtown business section? In the area right next to the downtown business area? In a residential section of the on sylvia plath, town? On the writing, highway outside of town? In a suburban shopping center? On a worksheet, write where you plan to coupons, locate and give your reasons why you chose that particular location. Now consider these questions that will help you narrow down a place in your location area. What is the competition in the area you have picked?

How many of the help paper, stores look prosperous? How many look as though they are barely getting by? How many similar stores went out of business in this area last year? How many new stores opened up in the last year? What price line does competition carry? Which store or stores in the area will be your biggest competitors? Again, write down the creative, reasons for help paper your opinions. Also write out an analysis of the area's economic base and give the reason for your opinion.

Is the area in which you plan to locate supported by ap united states essay a strong economic base? For example, are nearby industries working full time? Only part time? Did any industries go out of help writing business in advantages essay, the past several months? Are new industries scheduled to open in the next several months? When you find a store building that seems to be what you need, answer the following questions: Is the neighborhood starting to get run down? Is the neighborhood new and on the way up? (The local Chamber of Commerce may have census data for your area.

Census Tracts on Population, published by the Bureau of Census, may be useful. Other sources on such marketing statistics are trade associations and directories). Are there any super highways or through-ways planned for help the neighborhood? Is street traffic fairly heavy all day? How close is the advantages disadvantages, building to bus lines and other transportation? Are there adequate parking spaces convenient to your store? Are the sidewalks in writing, good repair (you may have to repair them)?

is the street lighting good? Is your store on the sunny side of the street? What is the occupancy history of on sylvia this store building? Does the help paper, store have a reputation for best failures? (Have stores opened and help paper writing closed after a short time)? Why have other businesses failed in this location? What is the physical condition of the best essays, store? What service does the landlord provide? What are the terms of the paper, lease? How much rent must you pay each month? Estimate the gross annual sales you expect in this store location. When you think you have finally solved the retail site location question, ask your banker to recommend people who know most about location in your line of business.

Contact these people and essay listen to their advice and paper opinions, weigh what they say, then decide. Retail Business Plan: Attracting Customers. When you have a location in mind, you should work through another aspect of marketing. Fiction Writing Short. How will you attract customers to your store? How will you pull business away from your competition? It is in working with this aspect of marketing that many retailers find competitive advantages. The ideas that they develop are as good as and often better than those that large companies develop. Help Paper Writing. The work blocks that follow are designed to essay on sylvia plath, help you think about image, pricing, customer service policies, and advertising. A store has an image whether or not the owner is aware of writing it. For example, throw some merchandise onto shelves and onto display tables in a dirty, dimly lit store and you've got an image.

Shoppers think of it as a dirty, junky store and best avoid coming into it. Your image should be concrete enough to promote in help paper writing, your advertising and fiction creative short stories other promotional activities. For example, home-cooked food might be the image of a small restaurant. Write out on a worksheet the help paper, image that you want shoppers and customers to have of your store. Value received is the key to pricing. The only way a store can have low prices is to sell low-priced merchandise. Thus, what you do about the fiction creative writing, prices you charge depends on the lines of merchandise you buy and help paper writing sell. It depends also on what your competition charges for these lines of merchandise.

Your answers to the following questions should help you to decide what to do about pricing. In what price ranges are your line of fiction short stories merchandise sold. High _____ , Medium _________, or Low _____? Will you sell for paper writing cash only? What services will you offer to justify your prices if they are higher than your competitor's prices? If you offer credit, will your price have to be higher than if all sales are for cash? The credit costs have to come from somewhere. Plan for them. If you use credit card systems, what will it cost you?

Will you have to add to dissertation binding, your prices to absorb this cost. Customer Service Policies in a Retail store. The service you provide your customers may be free to help paper, them, but you pay for it. For example, if you provide free parking, you pay for your own parking lot or pick up your part of the cost of death essay a lot you share with other retailers. Make a list of the services that your competitors offer and estimate the cost of each service. How many of these services will you have to help paper, provide just to be competitive?

Are there other services that would attract customers but that competitors are not offering? If so, what are your estimates of the cost of fiction creative writing such services? Now list all the services you plan to offer and the estimated costs. Total this expense and figure out how you can include those added costs in your prices without pricing your merchandise out of the help paper writing, market. Advertising was saved until the last because you have to have something to say before advertising can be effective. When you have an ap united states history questions image, price range, and customer services, you are ready to tell prospective customers why they should shop in help paper writing, your store. When the money you can spend for advertising is limited, it is creative writing short stories, vital that your advertising be on target. Before you think about how much money you can afford for advertising, take time to determine what jobs you want to do for your store.

List what makes your store different from your competitors. List the facts about your store and paper writing its merchandise that your advertising should tell shoppers and on sylvia prospective customers. When you have these facts listed and in hand, you are ready to think about the form your advertising should take and its cost. Ask the local media (newspapers, radio and television, and printers of direct mail pieces) for information about the services and results they offer for your money. How you spend advertising money is your decision, but don't fall into help paper writing, the trap that snares many advertisers who have little or no experience with advertising copy and media selection. Advertising is a profession. Advantages Penalty. Don't spend a lot of money on advertising without getting professional advice on what kind and how much advertising your store needs. The following work sheet can be useful in determining what advertising is needed to sell your strong points to prospective customers. When you have a figure on what your advertising for the next twelve months will cost, check it against what similar stores spend.

Advertising expense is one of the operating ratios (expenses as a percentage of sales) that trade associations and other organizations gather. If your estimated cost for advertising is substantially higher than this average for your line of merchandise, take a second look. Help Paper. No single expense item should be allowed to get way out of advantages death penalty line if you want to make a profit. Your task in paper writing, determining how much to spend for advertising comes down to the question, How much can I afford to spend and still do the job that needs to fiction creative writing short stories, be done? To complete your work on marketing, you need to think about what you want to happen after prospects get inside your store. Your goal is to move stock off your shelves and displays at a profit and satisfy your customers. Paper Writing. You want repeat customers and money in your cash register. At this point, if you have decided to sell for creative stories cash only, take a second look at your decision. Don't overlook the fact that Americans like to buy on credit. Often a credit card, or other system of credit and collections, is needed to paper writing, attract and hold customers.

Customers will have more buying confidence and poetry be more comfortable in your store if they know they can afford to help paper writing, buy. Death Penalty Essay. Credit makes this possible. To encourage people to buy, self-service stores rely on layout, attractive displays, signs and clearly marked prices on the items offered for sale. Writing. Other stores combine these techniques with personal selling. List the on importance in modern, display counters, racks, special equipment (something peculiar to help paper writing, your business like a frozen food display bin or a machine to measure and cut cloth), and other fixtures. Figure the services cambridge, cost of all fixtures and equipment by paper writing listing them on a worksheet as follows: Type of equipment Number X Unit Cost = Cost. Draw several layouts of fiction creative writing stories your store and attach the paper writing, layout that suits you to the cost worksheet. Determine how many signs you may need for a twelve month operation and estimate that cost also.

If your store is a combination of self-service and dissertation services personal selling, how many sales persons and cashiers will you need? Estimate, I will need ________ sales persons at $ ________ each week (include payroll taxes and insurance in this salaries cost). In a year, salaries will cost: _________. Personal attention to customers is paper writing, one strong point that a store can use as a competitive tool. You want to essay in modern life, emphasize in training employees that everyone has to pitch in and get the job done. Paper Writing. Customers are not interested in job descriptions, but they are interested in death penalty essay, being served promptly and courteously.

Nothing is more frustrating to paper, a customer than being ignored by binding services an employee. Decide what training you will give your sales people in the techniques of help how to greet customers, show merchandise, suggest other items, and handle customer needs and coupons best complaints. When buying merchandise for resale, you need to paper writing, answer questions such as: Who sells the line to retailers? Is it sold by the manufacturer directly or through wholesalers and distributors? What delivery service can you get and life must you pay shipping charges? What are the terms of help writing buying? Can you get credit? How quickly can the ap united essay questions, vendor deliver fill-in orders? You should establish a source of help writing supply on acceptable terms for each line of merchandise and estimate a plan for purchasing as follows:

Name of Item / Name of Supplier / Address of Supplier / Discount Offered / Delivery Time(1) / Freight Costs(2) / Fill-in Policy(3) (1) How many days or weeks does it take the coupons best, supplier to deliver the merchandise to writing, your store. (2) Who pays? You, the buyer? The supplier? Freight or transportation costs are a big expense item.

(3) What is the supplier's policy on fill-in orders? That is, do you have to buy a gross, a dozen, or will the supplier ship only two or three items? How long does it take for the delivery to writing, get into your store? Often shoppers leave without buying because the store did not have the items they wanted or the sizes and colors were wrong. Stock control, combined with suppliers whose policies on fill-in orders are favorable to help paper, you, provides a way to reduce walkouts. The type of system you use to keep informed about your stock, or inventory, depends on your line of merchandise and the delivery dates provided by dissertation services cambridge your suppliers. Your stock control system should enable you to help paper writing, determine what needs to be ordered on the basis of: (1) what is on hand, (2) what is on order, and (3) what has been sold. Some trade associations and suppliers provide systems to members and customers, otherwise your accountant can set up a system that is best for your business.

Inventory control is based upon either a perpetual or a periodic method of essay poetry accounting that involves cost considerations as well as stock control. When you have decided what system you will use to control stock, estimate its cost. You may not need an extensive (and expensive) control system because you do not need the detailed information such a system collects. The system must justify its costs or you will just waste money and time on a useless effort. When an owner-manager buys reasonably well, you can expect to turnover stock several times a year. For example, the stock in a small camera shop should turnover four times to four and help a half times a year.

What is the average stock turnover per year of your line of merchandise? How many times do you expect your stock to turnover? List the reasons for your estimate. In a retail store, behind-the-scenes work consists of the best essays, receiving of merchandise, preparing it for display, maintaining display counters and shelves, and help keeping the best essays, store clean and attractive to writing, customers. The following analytical list will help you decided what to do and advantages death penalty essay the cost of those actions. First list the equipment (for example a marking machine for pricing, shelves, a cash register) you will need for: (1) receiving merchandise (2) preparing merchandise for display, (3) maintaining display counters and help paper shelves, and (4) keeping the store clean. Next list the supplies you will need for essays a year, for example, brooms, price tags, and business forms. Use this format to help paper, figure these costs: Name of questions Equip./Supplies | Quantity X Unit Cost = Cost.

Who will do the paper, back-room work and advantages disadvantages penalty the cleaning that is needed to make a smooth operation in the store? If you do it yourself, how many hours a week will it take you? Will you do these chores after closing? If you use employees, what will they cost? On a worksheet describe how you plan to help paper writing, handle these tasks. Cambridge. For example:

Back-room work will be done by one employee during the slack sales times of the day. I estimate that the employee will spend _______ hours per week on these tasks and will cost ________ (number of hours times hourly wages) per week and _____ per year. I will need ________ square feet of space for the back-room operation. This space will cost _______ per square foot or a total of ________ per month. List and help paper writing analyze all expense items in the same manner. On Importance In Modern. Examples are utilities, office help, insurance, telephone, postage, accountant, payroll taxes, and licenses or other local taxes. If you plan to hire others to paper, help manage, analyze these salaries. Put Your Plan Into Dollars. At this point, take some time to think about fiction writing what your business plan means in help paper writing, terms of dollars. Essay Plath. This section is designed to help you put your plan into dollars. The first question concerns the source of dollars.

After your initial capital investments in a retail store, the main source of help paper writing money is sales. Binding. What sales volume do you expect to do in the first twelve months? Write your estimate here ________, and help paper writing justify your estimate. List the following estimated start-up costs: Fixtures and equipment* ______.

Starting inventory ______. Decorating and remodeling ______. Installation of equipment ______. Deposits for fiction creative utilities ______. Legal and professional fees ______. Licenses and paper writing permits ______. Advertising for the opening ______. Accounts receivable ______. Operating cash ______. *Transfer your figures from previous worksheets. Whether you have the funds (say in savings) or borrow the money, your new business will have to advantages death, pay back start-up costs.

Keep this fact in mind as you work on estimating expenses and on other financial aspects of paper writing your plan. In connection with annual sales volume you need to think about expenses. If, for advantages disadvantages example, you plan to paper, do sales amounting to $100,000, what will it cost you to do this amount of business? How much profit will you make? A business must make a profit or close.

The following exercise will help you to make an estimate of your expenses. To do this exercise you need to know the total cost of goods sold for your line of fiction creative stories merchandise for the period (month or year) that you are analyzing. Cost of goods sold is expressed as a percentage of sales and help paper is called an operating ratio. Check with your trade association to essays, get the operating ratios for your business's. The following is the format for an Income Statement with operating ratios substituted for dollar amounts. Summary of help Operating Ratios. of 250 high Profit Hardware Stores. Cost of coupons best essays Goods Sold -64.92. Payroll and other employee expenses16.23. Office supplies and postage0.40. Telephone and telegraph0.24.

Taxes (other than real estate and help paper writing payroll) 0.46. Depreciation (other than real estate)0.57. Legal and accounting expenses0.31. Dues and subscription0.08. Travel, buying, and ap united entertainment0.19. Total operating expense -26.33. Net operating profit 8.75. Other income 1.65.

Net profit before income taxes10.40. Now using your operating ratio for cost of goods sold and your estimated Sales Revenue, you can breakdown your expenses by substituting your ratios and dollar amounts in the Income Statement. Notice that Gross Margin must be large enough to provide for help paper writing your expenses and profit. and continue to coupons essays, fill out the entire Income Statement. Work out statements monthly or for the year. A budget helps you to see the dollar amount of your expected revenue and expenses each month. Then from month to help, month the question is: Will sales bring in enough money to pay for the store's bills? The owner-manager must prepare for the financial peaks and valleys of the business cycle. A cash forecast is a management tool that can eliminate much of the anxiety that can plague you if your sales go through lean months.

Use the essay on importance life, following format. Cost of Goods Sold -64.92. Payroll and help paper writing other employee expenses16.23. Office supplies and postage0.40. Telephone and telegraph0.24. Taxes (other than real-estate and payroll) 0.46. Depreciation (other than real estate)0.57. Legal and accounting expenses0.31.

Dues and subscription0.08. Travel, buying, and entertainment0.19. Total operating expense -26.33. Net operating profit 8.75. Other income 1.65. Net profit before income taxes10.40. Now using your operating ratio for cost of goods sold and your estimated Sales Revenue, you can breakdown your expenses by substituting your ratios and dollar amounts in the Income Statement. Notice that Gross Margin must be large enough to provide for your expenses and essay plath profit. A budget helps you to see the dollar amount of your expected revenue and expenses each month. Then from month to month the question is: Will sales bring in enough money to pay for the store's bills?

The owner-manager must prepare for the financial peaks and valleys of the business cycle. A cash forecast is a management tool that can eliminate much of the anxiety that can plague you if your sales go through lean months. Use the following format. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total. (Start of Month) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (Start of Month) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (add (1) and (2) _______________ ___ ___ ___.

(4) Expected Accounts. Receivable _______________ ___ ___ ___. Expected _______________ ___ ___ ___. (6) Total Receipts. (add (4) and (5)) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (7) Total Cash and. and (6) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (8) All Disbursements. (for month) _______________ ___ ___ ___.

(9) Cash Balance at end of Month. in Bank Account and Petty Cash. (subtract (8) from (7)* _______________ ___ ___ ___. *This balance is paper writing, your starting figure for the next month. Is Additional Money Needed? Suppose at this point that your business needs more money than can be generated by present sales. What do you do? If your business has great potential or is in good financial condition, as shown by its balance sheet, you will borrow money (from a bank most likely) to keep the business operating during start-up and slow sales periods. The loan can be repaid during the fat sales months when sales are greater than expenses. Adequate working capital is needed for success and survival; but cash on advantages disadvantages death penalty hand (or the lack of it) is writing, not necessarily an indication that the business is in bad financial shape. A lender will look at your balance sheet to see the business's Net Worth of which cash and cash flow are only a part.

The balance sheet statement shows a business's Net Worth (financial position) at a given point in time, say at the close of business at the end of the month or at the end of the year. Free Retail Business Plan How To. Even if you do not need to borrow money you may want to show your plan and balance sheet to your banker. It is never too early to build good relations and credibility (trust) with your banker. Let your banker know that you are a manager who knows where you want to go rather than someone who merely hopes to on sylvia plath, succeed. To make your plan work you need feedback.

For example, the paper, year-end profit and dissertation binding loss (income) statement shows whether your business made a profit or took a loss for the past twelve months. Don't wait twelve months for help the score. States Questions. To keep your plan on target you need readings at frequent intervals. Paper Writing. An income statement compiled at the end of death essay each month or at the end of each quarter is one type of frequent feedback. Also you must set up management controls that help you insure that the right things are done each day and week. Organization is needed because you as the owner-manager cannot do all the work.

You must delegate work, responsibility, and authority. Paper. The record keeping systems should be set up before the store opens. After you're in business it is too late. The control system that you set up should give you information about stock, sales, receipts and disbursement. The simpler the accounting control system, the on sylvia plath, better. Its purpose is to give you current useful information.

You need facts that expose trouble spots. Help Paper. Outside advisers, such as accountants can help. The purpose of controlling stock is to provide maximum service to your customers. In Modern Life. Your aim should be to help paper, achieve a high turnover rate on your inventory. The fewer dollars you tie up in stock, the penalty essay, better. In a store, stock control helps the owner-manager offer customers a balanced assortment and enables you to determine what needs ordering on the basis of (1) what is on hand, (2) what is on order, and (3) what has been sold. When setting up inventory controls, keep in mind that the cost of the stock is not your only cost. Paper Writing. There are inventory costs, such as the cost of purchasing, the essay plath, cost of keeping stock control records, and paper the cost of receiving and storing stock. In a store, sales slips and cash register tapes give the owner-manager feedback at the end of coupons essays each day.

To keep on top of writing sales, you need answers to questions, such as: How many sales were made? What was the dollar amount? What were the essay, best selling products? At what price? What credit terms were given to customers? Break out your receipts into receivables (money still owned such as a charge sale) and cash. Help Paper Writing. You know how much credit you have given, how much more you can give, and how much cash you have with which to essay plath poetry, operate. Your management controls should also give you information about the dollars your company pays out.

In checking on your bills, you do not want to be penny-wise and pound-foolish. You should pay bills on time to take advantage of supplier discounts. Your review systems should also give you the opportunity to make judgments on the use of the funds. In this manner, you can be on top of paper emergencies as well as routine situations. Your system should also keep you aware that tax monies, such as payroll income tax deductions, must be set aside and paid out at the proper time. Break-even analysis is a management control device that approximates how much you must sell in disadvantages essay, order to cover your costs with no profit and help no loss. Profit comes after break-even. Profit depends on sales volume, selling price, and costs. Dissertation Binding. Break-even analysis helps you to estimate what a change in one or more of these factories will do to help, your profit. To figure a break-even point, fixed costs (like rent) must be separated from variable costs (like the of internet, cost of paper writing goods sold) . The break-even formula is: Break-even point (in sales dollars) = Total fixed costs.

. Total variable costs. . Corresponding sales volume. Stop when you have worked out your break-even point. Whether the advantages disadvantages death essay, break-even point looks realistic or way off base, it is paper, time to make sure that your plan is workable. Take time to re-examine your plan before you back it with money.

If the plan is not workable, better to learn it now than to realize six months down the road that you are pouring money into a losing venture. In reviewing your plan, look at the cost figures you drew up when you broke down your expenses for the year (operating ratios on the income statement). Dissertation Binding Services Cambridge. If any of help your cost items are too high or too low, change them. You can write your changes above or below your original entries on the worksheet. When you finish making your adjustments, you will have a revised projected statement of sales and expenses. With your revised figures, work out a revised break-even analysis. Whether the new break-even point looks good or bad, take one more precaution. Show your plan to someone who has not been involved in working out the best, details with you. Get an impartial. Writing. knowledgeable second opinion. Your banker, or other advisor may see weaknesses that failed to appear as you went over the plan details.

These experts may see strong points that your plan should emphasize. Put Your Plan Into Action. When your plan is essay on sylvia plath poetry, as thorough and accurate as possible you are ready to put it into action. Help Paper Writing. Keep in dissertation services, mind that action is the difference between a plan and a dream. If a plan is not acted upon, it is of no more value than a wishful dream. A successful owner-manager does not stop after gathering information and drawing up a business plan, as you have done in working through this Guide. use the plan. At this point, look back over your plan. Look for things that must be done to help, put your plan into action.

What needs to be done will depend on your situation and goals. Ap United History. For example, if your business plan calls for an increase in help paper, sales, you may have to essay on importance of internet life, provide more funds for writing this expansion. Have you more money to on importance of internet life, put into this business? Do you borrow from help writing friends and relatives? From your bank? From your suppliers (through credit terms?) If you are starting a new business, one action may be to get a loan for fixtures, stock, employee salaries, and other expenses. Another action will be to creative writing stories, find and to paper writing, hire capable employees. Now make a list of things that must be done to put your plan into action.

Give each item a date so that it can be done at the appropriate time. To put my plan into action, I must: 1. Do (action) _________ By _________(date) Once you put your plan into action, look out for changes. Fiction Writing Short Stories. They can cripple the best business no matter how well planned.

Stay on top of writing changing conditions and fiction adjust your business plan accordingly. Sometimes the change is within your company. For example, several of your sales persons may quit. Sometimes the help writing, change is plath poetry, with the help paper, customers whose desires and tastes shift and change or refuse to change. Sometimes the change is technological as when products are created and marketed. In order to essay of internet life, adjust your plan to account for such changes, you the owner-manager, must: Be alert to the changes that come about in your line of business, in your market, and in your customers. Check your plan against these changes. Determine what revisions, if any, are needed in the business plan.

The method you use to keep your plan current so that your business can weather the changing forces of the paper writing, market place is up to you. Read trade and business papers and magazines and review your plan periodically. Once each month or every other month, go over your plan to see whether or not it needs adjusting. Binding Services Cambridge. Certainly you will have more accurate dollar amounts to work with after you have been in business for a time. Make revisions and put them into action. Writing. You must be constantly updating and improving. A good business plan must evolve from experience and the best current information. Fiction Creative Writing Short. A good business plan is good business. Other Topics in the 'Staring a Business' Section.

Business Idea Feasibility Study Starting a Business Checklist Starting a Business Basics What Business to Start Starting the writing, Business Buying a Going Business Buying a Franchise Managing Your Business Special Requirements Making the history, Decision Business Plan Developing a Business Plan Sample Business Plan Planning a Business Planning a Service Business Planning a Home Business Planning a Retail Business Planning a Construction Business Planning a Manufacturing Company Starting a Small Business FAQ The Legal Structure Finding New Products How to Borrow Money Basics of Patents Raising Venture Capital Money Making Money With a New Idea Entering Into a Partnership Basics of Retailing Shopping Center Location Deciding on a Store Location Franchise Business Checklist Selecting a Franchise Business. Sidebar: you are invited to visit our car insurance information section featuring a list of articles that may save you hundreds of dollars on your motor vehicles quotes. Paper. In full coverage auto insurance you'll discover helpful tips to getting cheap quotes. For information on essays how to get cheaper quotes on shorter terms see one month car insurance and also short term car insurance. For first time drivers information see cheap car insurance for new drivers. How about obtaining cheaper premium rates for mature women? no problem, look here, best insurance for new drivers over 25 year olds. If you are interested in a half year duration see 6 month car insurance for helpful tips on the topic. How about getting more favorable premiums costs for younger drivers? see car insurance for 17 year olds and help paper motor car insurance for under 21 and essay on sylvia poetry vehicle insurance for male and female under 25 years old. Writing. Here is another list of drivers insurance useful articles, As for helpful tips regarding no deposit premium payments see car insurance with no deposit and for a list of low cost brokers, agents and companies see car insurance with no deposit companies.

Read the following informative article if you are looking for better rates for on sylvia the young drivers in your family, cheaper vehicle insurance for young drivers. Now, for discovering new ways to get lower quotes go to paper, general car insurance Read this article if your after high risk car insurance information. How about getting a better deal on first time driver? just click the link. It may come a time that you'll be interested in canceling your policy, use this article for the instruction of writing short how to help paper writing, do it. Our drivers insurance hub page features a list of guides that can surely help you get dirt cheap car insurance for teens drivers rates. For those of you who seek cheap quotes for a shorter term policy, read this article. and here are tips and advice for fiction creative short special interest groups such as young drivers and temporary insurance.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in help paper writing, a series of dissertation binding services, posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of help paper, expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Coupons Essays. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is help paper a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and essays Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and help paper Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to penalty assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.

Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and help reading only penalty, what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and help writing make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on poetry, your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. Help Writing. 3. Tailor your resume to binding the specific job.

Keep in the forefront of help writing, your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Ap United States History. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to paper 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. Binding Services. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on help paper, your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the essay plath poetry any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in paper, the offering of $300 million in essay, floating rate notes by help a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts.

Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Dissertation Services Cambridge. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of help paper, your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad.

7. Additional Information: Space is essay on sylvia plath poetry a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for help paper a few softball questions to break the ice or end the states history interview on a lighter note. Aside from help paper writing, true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in on sylvia poetry, these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in help, your chair and ap united states history essay questions confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Help Paper. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to poetry list education first.

If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at help paper writing Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of essay of internet, a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on help paper, the page make your eyes happy?

Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on dissertation cambridge, a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Help Writing. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10.

Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to on sylvia plath poetry proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. Help Paper Writing. 10?. Here’s a freebie.

It’s not the writing most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of help paper, you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.

If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to creative short stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about paper, your tweets, think about coupons, setting up a separate e-mail address for help writing the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s.

This singular piece of cambridge, paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in help writing, the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Ap United States Questions. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over help writing 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in fiction creative short stories, the world. Managed by help writing former practicing attorneys from in modern life, top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the help lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about us.

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commis resume sample Sujets de dissertation et textes. Elaboration des cours. Auteurs et oeuvres. Ressources en ligne. Rsum n°1 : texte de Jean Cazeneuve , Guerre et Paix , 1995 Encyclopdia Universalis. Rsum n°2 (PSI, MP) : texte de Charles Nicolle , La Nature, conception et morale biologiques , 1934, Flix Alcan, p. Writing? 108-113. Rsum n°4 : texte de Samuel P. Coupons Best? Huntington , Le choc des civilisations , 1996, Quatrime partie, Chapitre X, tr. Help Paper? fr. Advantages Disadvantages? J.-L. Paper? Fidel, G. Dissertation Binding Services? Joublain, P. Paper Writing? Jorland et J.-J.

Pdussaud, Odile Jacob, 2007, p. Essay Life? 375-380. Rsum n°5 : Clausewitz , De la guerre , 1832, Chapitre 1, § 2 et 3, tr. Help Writing? fr. Coupons Best? Nicolas Wacquet, Rivages poche, Petite Bibliothque, p. Help Paper? 19-22. Rsum n°6 : Carl Schmitt , La notion de politique , 1932, tr. Death Essay? Steinhauser, Champs Flammarion, 1992, p. Paper Writing? 70-73. Rsumez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10%) : La recherche des causes de la guerre, telle qu'elle est apparue dj dans les efforts pour assurer la paix, conduit en dceler les fondements dans plusieurs domaines. Dissertation? Il faut d'abord envisager la dimension sociale propre ce phnomne essentiellement collectif. Paper Writing? De ce point de vue, on ap united states history, peut tudier les sources et les consquences du militarisme.

Herbert Spencer et Auguste Comte croyaient une volution faisant succder les socits industrielles aux socits militaires, celles-ci tant caractrises par des institutions qui subordonnent troitement l'individu la socit et tendent la tyrannie politique en mme temps qu' l'autarcie conomique. Help? De nombreux polmologues placent aussi leur analyse sur l'aspect conomique des guerres. Essay Questions? Ils citent de grandes crises conomiques et sociales qui n'ont entran aucune guerre, mais ils notent que les conflits arms, depuis la disparition de la guerre aristocratique, provoquent une transformation de la vie conomique dans les pays belligrants, de sorte que certaines difficults peuvent tre provisoirement rsolues par le rythme acclr de la consommation en matriel qu'impose l'tat de belligrance. Help Paper Writing? La guerre n'est d'ailleurs pas possible sans une certaine accumulation de puissance conomique, et la lassitude qui met fin certains conflits peut parfois tre attribue l'appauvrissement que finissent par produire les hostilits. Fiction Creative Writing? On peut faire une analyse du mme genre propos des aspects dmographiques de la guerre, laquelle les phnomnes de surpopulation ne sont pas toujours trangers. Help Paper Writing? C'est pourquoi, selon Gaston Bouthoul, la principale fonction sociologique de la guerre serait d'tre, en mme temps qu'un exutoire aux impulsions collectives, un processus de « rquilibration dmo-conomique ». Life? Quant l'aspect technique, dont on help writing, a vu l'importance dans l'volution historique des guerres, il est remarquable aussi dans ses « retombes ». Dissertation? Les guerres, surtout dans la priode la plus rcente, ont probablement ht des dcouvertes, dont certaines ont eu des prolongements dans une utilisation pacifique.

Du point de vue politique enfin, il n'est pas douteux que la guerre ait, dans bien des cas, fortement contribu crer des tats et cimenter leur unit, au point que l'on peut considrer la guerre elle-mme comme un instrument de la politique, et c'est sous cet aspect que l'envisage surtout Karl von Clausewitz. Help Paper Writing? Il en dduit qu'elle doit tre faite avec toute la puissance de la nation, mais soumise aux intrts de celle-ci. L'ide que la guerre peut avoir des fonctions propres a conduit ainsi certains thoriciens en faire l'apologie. Binding Services? Hegel voit en elle le moment o l'tat se ralise pleinement ; Joseph de Maistre la glorifie comme le moyen de fortifier la nature humaine ; Nietzsche trouve dans les vertus guerrires le meilleur aiguillon au dpassement de soi-mme ; plusieurs volutionnistes croient pouvoir tirer de la loi de slection naturelle une justification des pertes qu'engendre la guerre ; L. Help Paper Writing? Gumplowicz voit dans la guerre la source de toutes les institutions et de la civilisation. Essay On Sylvia Plath? D'autre part, les sociologues ont parfois compar la guerre la fte, en lui attribuant des fonctions analogues, notamment l'exaltation collective et le renversement des rgles habituelles.

Pourtant les arguments de divers ordres ne manquent pas contre les thories bellicistes. Help Paper Writing? On peut, l'encontre de ceux qui prnent les vertus militaires, faire d'abord tat des statistiques qui prouvent la recrudescence de la criminalit la suite des guerres. Plath? S'il est vrai que les grandes civilisations se sont rpandues par la force des armes, on writing, peut aussi allguer que c'est de la mme faon qu'elles ont disparu et aux progrs techniques et conomiques raliss sous son aiguillon, on essays, peut opposer un calcul des « cots » de la guerre, qui sont de plus en plus levs mesure qu'elle devient plus totale. Help Paper? Enfin s'il est vrai que la guerre prsente bien des caractres de la fte, elle en diffre en mme temps, du fait qu'elle oppose un groupe un autre et tend plus spcifiquement la destruction. On peut donc se demander si les alternances de paix et de guerre ne constituent pas un cycle universel, inhrent la nature des socits humaines. Ap United States? Les doctrines pessimistes, ici, trouvent dans l'histoire une longue suite de justifications. Help Paper Writing? Cependant, les optimistes peuvent rpondre que, dans les affaires humaines, les ncessits du pass ne sont jamais dfinitives et qu'en fin de compte les efforts pour tablir une paix assure, c'est--dire pour dgager l'humanit de cette dialectique guerre-paix, sont peut-tre maintenant la seule lutte qui vaille. Jean Cazeneuve , Guerre et Paix , 1995 Encyclopdia Universalis. Les guerres s'expliquent par le militarisme qu'encouragent certaines socits, par la tentation de rsoudre des difficults conomiques, et l'on a vu certaines d'entre elles acclrer le progrs technique ou contribuer renforcer des tats, ce qui justifie qu'elles aient trouv leurs dfenseurs ou qu'on ait [50] pu en faire un quivalent de la fte. Ap United States History Questions? Pourtant la guerre a laiss partout le got de la violence et des factures o les civilisations se sont puises ; ses analogies avec la fte s'arrtent cette œuvre de discorde et de mort.

La rcurrence des guerres peut paratre ainsi [101] fatale, mais les efforts pour tablir la paix sont aujourd'hui le seul combat lgitime. On peut distinguer plusieurs causes de la guerre. Paper? Tout d'abord, il existe des causes sociales, conomiques et dmographiques, puis techniques / et enfin politiques. Certains penseurs estiment que la guerre remplit des fonctions bnfiques et en font l'apologie. Coupons Essays? Nanmoins, tous / les arguments en sa faveur peuvent tre contredits. Help Paper? En effet, la guerre n'est pas vertueuse mais accrot la criminalit ; / les tats se dveloppent mais surtout meurent pas elle ; elle est plus coteuse que profitable conomiquement, et loin d'tre / une fte, elle est une entreprise destructrice. La guerre n'est-elle pas cependant invitable ? Les optimistes ne le croient / pas, militant pour la paix universelle.

Vous rsumerez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10%) : […] la lutte entre hommes, la guerre, pour la nommer de son nom odieux, apparat tout d'abord comme un fait biologique normal, on creative writing short stories, pourrait dire oblig. Help Paper? Ses atrocits marquent peu dans le total des hcatombes naturelles. Mais l'homme n'appartient pas seulement l'ensemble des tres, il appartient son espce. Essay Poetry? Elle a fait de lui un animal sociable. Help Paper Writing? L'homme ne peut se passer de l'homme. Creative? Du clan aux nations, l'volution de l'humanit a rendu les humains de plus en plus solidaires. Help Writing? Un primitif pourrait survivre, vgter l'tat isol, un couple primitif se reproduire ; bien vite, priv du secours des autres, la ligne s'teindrait. Essay On Sylvia Poetry? La division du travail, l'appui mutuel qu'elle exige sont devenus des ncessits d'existence pour les civiliss.

l'quilibre gnral et anarchique des tres s'est donc ajout, substitu dans ses parties contradictoires, un quilibre particulier : l'quilibre social humain. Help Paper Writing? Il y eut d'abord quilibre de clans, puis de cits, de pays, enfin de nations. Advantages Penalty Essay? Les premiers groupements se sont faits par suite d'une origine ou de quelques origines communes ; les suivants relvent surtout d'vnements fortuits. Writing? Les groupes actuels que nous nommons nations sont dus l'assemblage d'individus qu'unissent des habitudes de vie, des gots et des dispositions pareils, des souffrances supportes en commun par les anctres, un sol familial ou d'adoption, cher celui qui y est n, profitable, ou bien refuge pour l'immigrant. Ap United? ces liens s'ajoutent les ncessits conomiques dues au compartimentage, une somme d'intrts, bien des prjugs, enfin la contrainte des lois, l'impossibilit, pour un civilis, de n'tre pas inscrit au livre d'une nation, l'tat-civil. Writing? Au regard de ces liens accidentels et purement sociaux, la parent persistante de sang ne joue point le rle qu'on lui attribue ; le plus souvent, elle n'est qu'un prjug vaniteux. De quelque faon qu'elles se soient constitues, les nations s'opposent les unes aux autres dans la dfense de leurs intrts, et chacune poursuit, tant en elle-mme que dans ses rapports extrieurs, la conservation de son quilibre. Fiction Creative Writing Short? Cependant, malgr les tristes dissentiments des nations diffrentes, malgr leurs haines, leurs armes et leurs combats conomiques ou sanglants, il se fait, peu peu, lentement, un intrt gnral humain. Help Paper? Le monde habitable est connu, quelques lacunes ngligeables prs. Advantages Death Penalty? Sa carte politique est trace.

Les peuples non volus sont entrs dans la dpendance d'tats puissants. Paper Writing? Si les diverses nations se sparent encore par bien des traits, des habitudes, les traits, les habitudes, les biens que les hommes possdent en commun deviennent de plus en plus nombreux. Binding Cambridge? Si l'humanit n'est pas devenue uniforme (et il est dsirable qu'elle n'y parvienne jamais), une solidarit gnrale, humaine, s'tablit et, au-dessus des socits diffrentes, une socit encore lche, mais relle tend englober tous les hommes. Paper Writing? Un nouvel quilibre est donc en train de natre, l'quilibre gnral et artificiel humain. Que signifient les guerres au regard des divers quilibres auxquels sont assujettis les hommes ? Elles les perturbent tous, sans nul profit ni pour l'individu, ni pour la nation, ni pour l'humanit tout entire. History Essay? Ce sont des dsquilibres brutaux dont l'amplitude est si grande que l'oscillation compensatrice tarde se produire et que la rparation souvent ne rpare rien. Notre sensibilit d'tres volus, soustraits la barbarie journalire, condamne ces luttes homicides. Paper Writing? Cependant, l'argument le plus puissant contre elles n'est pas, ne peut tre un argument moral. Advantages Penalty Essay? La morale humaine accueille trop de prjugs. Help Paper Writing? Son pass l'en a encombr. Coupons Best? Elle continue de cder des passions traditionnelles.

Amour-propre, vanit, gloire, faux semblants de justice, faux sentiments de la valeur, de la volont, de l'nergie, mauvais emploi de ces vertus, pernicieuses utilisations de l'art, des lettres, de la philosophie, de l'loquence, tous ces ingrdients dtestables souillent notre personne morale. Help Writing? Elle les reoit, s'y emptre, les subit ; elle se perd ou se complat dans leurs contradictions d'un peuple l'autre et dans chaque peuple. Creative? Rien attendre de forces contamines. Paper? Un seul argument est valable, argument de la biologie, l'absurdit vitale des guerres, le trouble grave et inutile qu'elles portent l'quilibre particulier des nations et l'quilibre gnral de la socit humaine. La guerre n'est d'aucun profit ; la guerre ne rembourse pas.

Elle nuit la nation victorieuse autant qu' la dfaite. On Sylvia Poetry? Elle sme les ruines ; elle dtruit, alors que l'intrt de l'quilibre commande qu'on n'anantisse pas le bien d'efforts coteux. Paper? Jamais guerre n'amena de rsultats dfinitifs. Fiction Short Stories? Abattu, le peuple dfait se relve et, refait, abat son vainqueur. Paper? Les frontires des grands tats tmoignent de ces reflux priodiques par les ruines dont chaque sicle s'enorgueillit, par le voisinage des champs de carnage, par l'affreuse illustration, parfois deux visages, de leurs noms.

Les guerres attentent donc, tout d'abord, l'quilibre des nations par l'ensemble des pertes. Coupons? Elles y attentent en dtruisant les lments les plus vivaces et les plus forts, les jeunes gens. Help Paper Writing? Elles donnent le commandement aux vieillards. Best? Un pouvoir snile est une monstruosit biologique. Help Paper Writing? En mme temps, les guerres distraient les activits humaines de buts profitables. Ap United Questions? Nul rgne, illustr par des victoires, n'a donn de gnies bienfaisants. Help Writing? Ces esprits ne lvent qu'aux champs pacifiques. Les guerres opposent leurs forces nfastes ce qui fait la sant, l'quilibre des socits : la justice qui n'en connat point d'innocente, au droit, branl dans ses fondements et qui codifie les pires inconsquences, la libert qu'on enchane, sans laquelle, physique ou spirituelle, l'organisme entier se rouille. Si les vertus, protectrices de l'quilibre, sont affectes, les mfaits destructeurs de cet quilibre trouvent, dans la guerre, des excuses et y florissent : le vol, la rapine, le meurtre, la lchet, la fourberie.

Tout attentat devient lgitime s'il est commis pour une patrie. Advantages Essay? Point d'abus, de monstruosits, que ne sanctifie une victoire. Paper? Est-il surprenant qu'aprs la guerre on on sylvia poetry, assiste au relchement des valeurs humaines ? Cet abaissement traduit l'puisement de forces inutilement gches, le besoin de rparation, la longue convalescence ncessaire la contre-oscillation qui rtablira un quilibre, rendu, pour un temps au moins, prcaire. L'homme est dsarm devant le massacre mutuel des espces ; il ne l'a pas ordonn. Writing? Il sait que, sans ce massacre, son existence, toutes les existences cesseraient. On Importance In Modern? Il lui faut le subir. Writing? L'homme peut tout pour arrter les luttes entre les hommes.

Elles sont un crime pour sa conscience. Death Penalty? Devant sa logique, elles constituent l'erreur la plus grave ; car il n'est point de catastrophe qui mette davantage en pril l'quilibre des individus humains, des socits humaines et de la collectivit des hommes. Charles Nicolle , La Nature, conception et morale biologiques , 1934, Flix Alcan, p. Writing? 108-113. Certes, la guerre participe d'abord de la lutte entre espces et de l'ordre naturel. Stories? Cependant, l'homme est / un tre sociable, qui a petit petit substitu l'quilibre naturel un quilibre social gnral entre les hommes, / que la guerre vient remettre en cause. Pour arrter les guerres, rien ne sert par consquent d'invoquer la morale ; / il faut au contraire dnoncer leur absurdit totale : par les pertes qu'elles occassionnent, elles dtruisent la sant et l' / quilibre vital des individus, des nations et de la collectivit humaine dans son ensemble, sans qu'aucun profit n'en / soit retir. Vous rsumerez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10%) : […] lorsque l'tat, ou lorsque la religion veut [rduire la guerre] l'tat de servante ( ancilla theologi ), elle rsiste, quelquefois elle attaque, et de l des luttes qui peuvent tre et qui souvent ont t sanglantes. Paper Writing? Cet tat de guerre suit de la diversit essentielle des lments ; la guerre, comme la diversit des lments, est ncessaire la vie ; les combats des partis, dans les limites de la constitution donne d'un peuple politique, font la vie de ce peuple. Essay On Importance Life? Il en est de mme l'extrieur. Writing? Les luttes des peuples d'une poque entre eux font la vie d'une poque ; nulle ne s'est coule sans guerre, nulle ne le pouvait. La guerre a sa racine dans la nature des ides des diffrents peuples, qui tant ncessairement partielles, bornes, exclusives, sont ncessairement hostiles, agressives, tyranniques : donc la guerre est ncessaire.

Voyons maintenant quels sont ses effets. Plath Poetry? Si la guerre n'est autre chose que la rencontre violente, le choc des ides exclusives des diffrents peuples, il s'ensuit que dans ce choc l'ide qui sera plus faible sera dtruite par la plus forte , c'est--dire sera absorbe et assimile par elle ; or la plus forte ide dans une poque est ncessairement celle qui est le plus en rapport avec l'esprit mme de cette poque. Help Paper? Chaque peuple reprsente une ide ; les peuples diffrents d'une mme poque reprsentent diffrentes ides ; le peuple de l'poque qui reprsente l'ide le plus en rapport avec l'esprit gnral de l'poque, est le peuple appel dans cette poque la domination. Essay On Importance? Quand l'ide d'un peuple a fait son temps, ce peuple disparat ; mais il ne cde pas facilement la place, il faut qu'un autre peuple la lui dispute et la lui arrache ; de l la guerre. Help Writing? Dfaite du peuple qui a fait son temps ; victoire du peuple qui a le sien faire et qui est appel l'empire, voil l'effet certain et incontestable de la guerre : donc la guerre est utile. Messieurs, je ne viens pas ici faire l'apologie de la guerre ; la philosophie n'est d'aucun parti en ce monde ; elle ne fait l'apologie de rien, comme elle n'accuse rien ; elle aspire comprendre tout. Essay Plath Poetry? Je ne fais pas l'apologie de la guerre, je l'explique. Paper Writing? Sa racine vous la connaissez, elle est indestructible ; ses effets, vous les connaissez, ils sont bienfaisants.

En effet, si ce sont les ides qui sont aux prises dans une guerre, et si celle qui l'emporte est ncessairement celle qui a le plus d'avenir, il fallait que celle-l remportt, et par consquent qu'il y ait guerre ; moins que vous ne vouliez empcher l'avenir, arrter la civilisation, moins que vous ne vouliez que l'espce humaine soit immobile et stationnaire. Creative Writing Stories? L'hypothse d'un tat de paix perptuel dans l'espce humaine est l'hypothse de l'immobilit absolue. Paper? Otez toute guerre, et au lieu de trois poques il n'y en aura qu'une ; car s'il n'y a pas destruction d'une poque et victoire de l'autre, il est clair que l'une ne cdera point la place l'autre, et qu'il n'y aura jamais qu'une seule et mme poque. Ap United Questions? Bien plus, non seulement il n'y aura pas trois poques, mais mme dans une poque donne il n'y aura aucun progrs ; car les diffrences ne se fondront pas, et les diffrents peuples resteront ternellement dans l'abrutissement de l'ide exclusive qui les subjugue, et qui, bonne pour un temps, si elle ne se modifiait jamais, serait la condamnation de ce peuple une erreur perptuelle. Help Paper Writing? Ainsi un peuple n'est progressif qu' la condition de la guerre. Writing Short? Ce n'est pas moi qui le dis, c'est l'histoire : la guerre n'est pas autre chose qu'un change sanglant d'ides, coups d'pe et coups de canon ; une bataille n'est pas autre chose que le combat de l'erreur et de la vrit ; je dis vrit , parce que dans une poque donne une moindre erreur est vrit relativement une erreur plus grande ou une erreur qui a fait son temps ; la victoire et la conqute ne sont pas autre chose que la victoire de la vrit du jour sur la vrit de la veille devenue l'erreur d'aujourd'hui. Aussi, messieurs, quand deux armes sont en prsence, il se passe un bien plus grand spectacle que celui dont la philanthropie dtourne les yeux.

Elle ne voit que des milliers d'hommes qui vont s'gorger, ce qui est assurment un grand malheur. Help? Mais d'abord la mort est un phnomne qui n'a pas lieu seulement sur les champs de bataille ; et aprs tout, comme on advantages disadvantages death essay, l'a dit, la guerre change assez peu les tables de mortalit. Paper? Et puis, ce n'est pas la mort qui est dplorable en soi ; c'est la mort injuste, injustement donne ou reue. On Importance In Modern Life? Que mille cœurs qui battaient tout l'heure cessent de battre, c'est un fait bien triste ; mais qu'une goutte de sang innocent soit verse, c'est plus qu'un fait pnible, c'est un mal et un mal horrible. Help Paper Writing? Un innocent qui prit doit mille fois plus exciter la douleur amre de l'humanit, que des armes de hros qui savent qu'ils vont la mort, et qui y vont librement pour une cause juste leurs yeux et qui leur est chre. On Importance In Modern Life? Il n'y a point d'iniquit dans les grandes batailles, il ne peut mme y en avoir ; car ce ne sont pas les hommes ni leurs passions qui sont aux prises, ce sont des causes, ce sont les esprits opposs d'une poque, ce sont les diffrentes ides qui, dans un sicle, animent et agitent l'humanit. Help Paper? Voil ce que la philanthropie ne voit pas, et ce qui a donn tant d'importance, tant d'intrt, tant de clbrit aux batailles. Victor Cousin , Cours de philosophie , 1840, 9e leon, p. Essays? 250-253. Nul ne peut matriser la guerre, car elle dcoule de la diversit inhrente aux socits humaines. Help Paper Writing? La guerre est donc / d'abord ncessaire et elle participe la vie des peuples et des poques.

Elle est ensuite utile, car en / mettant aux prises les peuples, elle fait se combattre les ides qu'ils incarnent, en faisant triompher une vrit nouvelle, et / en permettant ainsi le progrs de l'humanit. Par consquent, si la mort d'un innocent est tragique, la mort / sur le champ de bataille au nom de la justice ne saurait tre condamne que par une philanthropie aveugle. Rsumer en 200 mots le texte suivant. Creative Writing? Un cart de 10% en plus ou en moins sera accept. Les guerres entre clans, tribus, nations, communauts religieuses ou groupes ethniques diffrents ont t la rgle travers les poques et les civilisations, dans la mesure o elles s'enracinent dans les questions identitaires. Paper? Ces conflits traduisent les particularismes et ne soulvent pas de problmes idologiques ou politiques plus larges susceptibles d'intresser directement des non-participants, bien qu'ils puissent, pour des groupes extrieurs, reprsenter un sujet d'inquitude sur le plan humanitaire. Ap United States History Essay? Ces affrontements tendent tre trs violents et sanglants parce qu'ils mettent en jeu des questions fondamentales d'identit.

En outre, ils ont tendance traner en longueur ; il arrive qu'ils soient entrecoups de trves ou d'ententes, mais en gnral ces dernires ne durent pas, et les combats reprennent. Paper Writing? D'autre part, en cas de victoire militaire dcisive de l'un des deux camps, les risques de gnocide sont plus levs lorsqu'il s'agit d'une guerre civile identitaire. Les conflits civilisationnels sont des conflits communautaires entre tats ou groupes appartenant des civilisations diffrentes. Ap United? Des guerres civilisationnelles rsultent de ces conflits. Paper? Elles peuvent clater entre tats ainsi qu'entre groupes non gouvernementaux. Ap United States History Essay? Les conflits civilisationnels au sein d'un mme tat peuvent impliquer des groupes qui sont majoritairement localiss dans des zones gographiques distinctes, auquel cas le groupe qui n'a pas le contrle du gouvernement se bat en gnral pour obtenir l'indpendance et peut ventuellement se montrer prt accepter des compromis.

Les conflits civilisationnels au sein d'un mme tat peuvent galement impliquer des groupes qui sont gographiquement mlangs, auquel cas ce sont des relations perptuellement tendues qui drapent de temps en temps vers la violence, comme cela se produit entre hindous et musulmans en Inde ou entre musulmans et Chinois en Malaisie, ou encore cela peut donner lieu des combats proprement parler, notamment lorsque ce sont la dfinition mme et les frontires d'un nouvel tat qui sont en jeu, ainsi qu' des tentatives brutales pour sparer les peuples par la force. Les conflits civilisationnels sont parfois des luttes pour le contrle des populations. Paper? Mais, le plus souvent, c'est le contrle du sol qui est en jeu. Coupons Essays? Le but de l'un des participants au moins est de conqurir un territoire et d'en liminer les autres peuples par l'expulsion, l'assassinat ou les deux la fois, c'est--dire par la « purification ethnique ». Writing? Ces conflits ont tendance tre violents et cruels, les deux camps se livrant des massacres, des actes terroristes, des viols et des tortures. Essay On Importance In Modern? Le territoire en jeu reprsente souvent, pour l'un ou l'autre des deux camps, un symbole historique et identitaire trs marqu, une terre sacre sur laquelle ils estiment avoir des droits inalinables : ainsi la Cisjordanie, le Cachemire, le Nagorny-Karabakh, la valle de la Drina ou le Kosovo. Les guerres civilisationnelles prsentent un certain nombre de points communs avec l'ensemble des guerres communautaires. Help Paper Writing? Ce sont des conflits qui s'ternisent. Poetry? Lorsqu'ils ont lieu au sein d'un mme tat, ils durent en moyenne six fois plus longtemps que les guerres entre tats. Writing? Comme ils mettent en jeu des questions fondamentales d'identit et de pouvoir, on essays, a du mal les rsoudre par des ngociations ou des compromis. Help Paper Writing? Lorsque l'on parvient un accord, il n'est pas rare que certaines des parties d’un camp donn refusent d'y souscrire.

L'accord dure alors d'autant moins longtemps. Ap United States History Questions? Les guerres civilisationnelles sont des guerres intermittentes qui peuvent passer de la violence la plus aigu la gurilla la plus larve et l’hostilit la plus latente, pour se rallumer ensuite brutalement. Paper? Il est rare que les brasiers des haines communautaires soient totalement teints, sauf par le gnocide. Essay On Importance Of Internet Life? Du fait de leur tendance traner en longueur, les guerres civilisationnelles, tout comme les autres guerres communautaires, produisent en gnral de grands nombres de victimes et de rfugis. Writing? […] Nombre de ces guerres contemporaines sont simplement le dernier chapitre d'une longue histoire marque par des conflits sanglants, et la violence de cette fin de XX e sicle a rsist aux efforts pour y mettre fin de manire dfinitive. Creative Writing Stories? Au Soudan, par exemple, les combats ont clat en 1959, se sont prolongs jusqu'en 1972, lorsqu'on est parvenu un accord qui garantissait une autonomie relative du sud du Soudan, mais ils ont repris en 1983.

La rbellion des Tamouls au Sri Lanka a commenc en 1983 ; les ngociations de paix pour y mettre un terme se sont interrompues brutalement en 1991, mais elles ont repris en 1994, et on paper writing, est parvenu un accord de cessez-le-feu en janvier 1995. Ap United States Questions? Quatre mois plus tard, les Tigres insurgs ont rompu la trve et se sont retirs des pourparlers de paix, si bien que la guerre a repris avec une violence redouble. Writing? La rbellion des Moros aux Philippines a commenc au dbut des annes soixante-dix et s'est calme en 1976 aprs que l'on eut conclu un accord qui garantissait l'autonomie certaines rgions de Mindanao. Dissertation? Mais, en 1993, les explosions de violence n'taient pas rares et allaient en s'aggravant, aprs que les groupes insurgs ont rejet l'ensemble du processus de paix. Paper? Les dirigeants russes et tchtchnes sont parvenus un accord sur la dmilitarisation en juillet 1995 afin de mettre un terme aux hostilits qui avaient commenc au mois de dcembre prcdent. History Essay? La guerre s'est interrompue pour quelque temps, mais elle a repris l'occasion des attaques tchtchnes contre des personnalits dirigeantes russes et prorusses, suivies de reprsailles russes, de l'incursion tchtchne au Daghestan en janvier 1996 et de l'crasante offensive russe dbut 1996. Les guerres civilisationnelles partagent avec les autres guerres communautaires les traits suivants : longueur dans le temps, niveau de violence lev et ambivalence idologique.

Elles en diffrent toutefois deux gards. Tout d'abord, les guerres communautaires peuvent clater entre groupes ethniques, religieux, raciaux ou linguistiques. Help Paper? Comme la religion est la principale caractristique identitaire des civilisations, les guerres civilisationnelles ont presque toujours lieu entre peuples appartenant des religions diffrentes. Creative Writing Short? Certains observateurs minimisent l’importance de ce facteur. Paper? Ils insistent, par exemple, sur les facteurs ethniques, la langue commune, la coexistence pacifique dans le pass et le nombre lev de mariages croiss entre Serbes et musulmans en Bosnie, et ils cartent le facteur religieux en faisant rfrence ce que Freud appelait « le narcissisme des petites diffrences ». Fiction Writing? Toutefois, ce point de vue est naf. Help Paper? L'histoire, depuis des millnaires, prouve que la religion n'est pas une simplement une « petite diffrence », mais la diffrence entre les peuples la plus profonde qui soit.

La frquence, l'intensit et la violence des guerres civilisationnelles sont nettement aggraves par les diffrences de foi religieuse. D'autre part, les autres guerres communautaires sont relativement localises et prsentent peu de risques de s'tendre jusqu' impliquer d'autres participants. Coupons Best Essays? En revanche, les guerres civilisationnelles clatent, par dfinition, entre groupes qui font respectivement partie d'ensembles culturels plus larges. Help? Dans un conflit communautaire ordinaire, le groupe A se bat contre le groupe B. Creative Short? Les groupes C, D et E n'ont aucune raison de s'impliquer, sauf si A ou B attaque directement leurs intrts. Paper Writing? Inversement, dans une guerre civilisationnelle, le groupe A1 se bat contre le groupe B1, et chacun des deux tente d'tendre la guerre et d'obtenir le soutien de ses proches « parents » savoir A2, A3 et A4 d'une part, B2, B3 et B4, d'autre part. Essay Poetry? Ces derniers leur tour s'identifient leur « parent ». Writing? L'extension des transports et des communications dans le monde moderne a contribu mettre en place de telles connections, et donc « internationaliser » les guerres civilisationnelles.

Les migrations ont donn naissance des diasporas dans des tierces civilisations. Best Essays? Les communications permettent plus facilement aux parties en prsence d'appeler l'aide, et leurs « proches parents » d'apprendre immdiatement ce qui arrive leurs allis. Help Paper? Le rtrcissement de la plante permet ainsi aux « groupes apparents » de fournir un soutien moral, diplomatique, financier et matriel aux parties en prsence. Samuel P. Coupons Best? Huntington , Le choc des civilisations , 1996, Quatrime partie, Chapitre X, tr. Paper Writing? fr. Plath? J.-L. Writing? Fidel, G. Questions? Joublain, P. Help Paper? Jorland et J.-J. States History? Pdussaud, Odile Jacob, 2007, p. Help? 375-380.

Les guerres communautaires, mettant en jeu des questions identitaires, ont toujours constitu la norme dans l'histoire de l'humanit. Dissertation Binding Services Cambridge? / Lorsque ces guerres ont lieu entre groupes appartenant des civilisations diffrentes, elles deviennent des guerres civilisationnelles. Paper Writing? / Celles-ci peuvent se drouler entre tats ou l'intrieur d'un mme tat, et ont gnralement pour but / le contrle d'un territoire symbole d'identit, par la mise en place d'une purification ethnique. Ces guerres partagent / plusieurs points communs avec les autres guerres communautaires : elles ont tendance s'terniser car rtives au compromis ; elles sont / extrmement violentes ; et enfin elles sont idologiquement ambivalentes. Nanmoins, deux caractristiques les en distinguent : premirement, dans les guerres civilisationnelles, / c'est la diffrence religieuse qui, plus que tout autre diffrence de nature culturelle, est le facteur dterminant ; et deuximement, / tandis que les guerres communautaires proprement dites se droulent localement, les guerres de civilisation ont une propension s'tendre / et prendre une dimension internationale. Binding Cambridge? En effet, les groupes culturellement proches tendent s'identifier l'un ou / l'autre des protagonistes et rejoindre ainsi le conflit, ce que facilitent d'autant plus les nouveaux moyens de / communication. Vous rsumerez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10 %). Vous indiquerez imprativement le nombre total de mots utiliss et vous aurez soin d'en faciliter la vrification en mettant un trait vertical tous les vingt mots. Paper Writing? Des points de pnalit seront soustraits en cas de non-respect du nombre total de mots ± 10 % utiliss.

La guerre n'est rien d'autre qu'un duel amplifi. Essay Plath Poetry? Si nous voulons saisir comme une unit l'infinit des duels particuliers dont elle se compose, reprsentons-nous deux combattants : chacun cherche, en employant sa force physique, ce que l'autre excute sa volont ; son but immdiat est de terrasser l'adversaire et de le rendre ainsi incapable de toute rsistance. La guerre est un acte de violence engag pour contraindre l'adversaire se soumettre notre volont. Pour affronter la violence, la violence s'arme des inventions des arts et des sciences. Writing? Elle se fixe elle-mme, sous le nom de lois du droit naturel, des restrictions imperceptibles, peine notables, qui l'accompagnent sans affaiblir fondamentalement sa force. Creative Short? La violence, c'est--dire la violence physique (car il n'en existe pas de morale en dehors des notions d'tat et de loi), est donc le moyen . Paper? Imposer notre volont l'ennemi en constitue la fin . Creative Writing Short? Pour atteindre cette fin avec certitude nous devons dsarmer l'ennemi. Help Paper Writing? Lui ter tout moyen de se dfendre est, par dfinition, le vritable objectif de l'action militaire. Fiction Writing Short Stories? Il remplace la fin et l'carte en quelque sorte comme n'appartenant pas la guerre elle-mme. Ainsi les mes philanthropiques pourraient-elles facilement s'imaginer qu'il existe une manire artificielle de dsarmer ou de terrasser l'adversaire sans causer trop de blessures, et que c'est l la vritable tendance de l'art de la guerre. Help? Il faut pourtant dissiper cette erreur, aussi belle soit-elle.

Car, dans une entreprise aussi dangereuse que la guerre, les erreurs engendres par la bont sont prcisment les pires. Ap United? Puisque l'utilisation de la violence physique dans toute son ampleur n'exclut en aucune manire la coopration de l'intelligence, celui qui se sert de cette violence avec brutalit, sans pargner le sang, l'emportera forcment sur l'adversaire qui n'agit pas de mme. Help? Il dicte par l sa loi l'autre. Ap United History Essay? Tous deux se poussent ainsi mutuellement jusqu' une extrmit qui ne connat d'autre limite que le contrepoids exerc par l'adversaire. C'est ainsi qu'il faut envisager les choses, et c'est un effort vain, absurde mme, que d'carter la nature de l'lment brutal en raison de la rpugnance qu'il inspire.

Si les guerres des peuples cultivs sont bien moins cruelles et destructrices que celles des peuples incultes, cela tient la situation sociale de ces tats, aussi bien entre eux que chacun d'entre eux. Help? La guerre rsulte de cette situation et des conditions qu'elle impose : celle-ci la dtermine, la limite et la modre. Ap United Essay? Mais ces aspects ne font pas essentiellement partie de la guerre, ils n'en sont que les donnes. Paper? Il est donc impossible d'introduire dans la philosophie de la guerre un principe de modration sans commettre une absurdit. Le combat entre les hommes se compose en ralit de deux lments distincts : le sentiment hostile et l' intention hostile . Ap United States Essay Questions? Nous avons choisi le dernier de ces deux lments comme caractristique de notre dfinition car il est le plus gnral. Help? Mme l'emportement de haine le plus sauvage, le plus proche de l'instinct, n'est pas concevable sans intention hostile. Ap United States? En revanche, la plupart des intentions hostiles ne sont jamais, ou rarement, domines par l'hostilit des sentiments. Writing? Chez les peuples sauvages prdominent les intentions appartenant au domaine du cœur, chez les peuples civiliss, celles qui relvent de l'entendement. Ap United Questions? Cette diffrence ne tient cependant pas la sauvagerie et la civilisation en elles-mmes, mais aux circonstances concomitantes, aux institutions, etc. Help Writing? Elle n'est donc pas ncessairement prsente dans chaque cas particulier, mais elle l'emporte dans la majorit d'entre eux.

En un mot, mme les peuples les plus civiliss peuvent se dchaner l'un contre l'autre, enflamms par la haine. On voit par l combien il serait faux de ramener la guerre entre les nations civilises uniquement un acte rationnel de leurs gouvernements, et d'imaginer qu'elle se libre toujours davantage des passions : au point d'en arriver se passer des masses physiques des forces armes au profit de leurs seuls rapports thoriques, en une sorte d'algbre de l'action. La thorie commenait s'engager dans cette direction lorsque les vnements des dernires guerres en montrrent une meilleure. Penalty? Si la guerre est un acte de violence, la passion en fait aussi ncessairement partie. Paper Writing? Si la guerre n'en procde pas, elle y ramne pourtant plus ou moins. Essay Of Internet Life? Et ce plus ou moins ne dpend pas du degr de culture, mais de l'importance et de la dure des intrts antagonistes. Lorsque nous voyons que les peuples civiliss ne mettent pas leurs prisonniers mort et ne ravagent pas villes et campagnes, cela est d la place croissante que prend l'intelligence dans leur conduite de la guerre.

Elle leur a appris un emploi de la violence plus efficace que cette manifestation sauvage de l'instinct. L'invention de la poudre, le dveloppement continu des armes feu montrent suffisamment qu'en progressant la civilisation n'a absolument pas entrav ou dtourn la tendance sur laquelle le concept de la guerre, celle d'anantir l'ennemi. Nous ritrons notre thse : la guerre est un acte de violence, et l'emploi de celle-ci ne connat pas de limites. Help? Chacun des adversaires impose sa loi l'autre. Coupons? Il en rsulte une interaction qui, selon la nature de son concept, doit forcment conduire aux extrmes. Clausewitz , De la guerre , 1832, Chapitre 1, § 2 et 3, tr. Paper? fr. Best? Nicolas Wacquet, Rivages poche, Petite Bibliothque, p. Help Paper Writing? 19-22. La guerre prend la forme d'une lutte collective dont le but est, par la violence, de vaincre l'adversaire / afin de le dominer. Ds lors, il est vain de vouloir faire la guerre par la seule intelligence, en limitant / ainsi la violence, car on history questions, sera dfait par un ennemi sans scrupules. Toute guerre implique une intention hostile, / qui dcoule soit d'un sentiment d'hostilit, soit de motifs rationnels.

Cependant, la guerre civilise, quoique moins cruelle, ne s'oppose pas / pour autant la guerre sauvage. Paper? Non seulement la civilisation n'a fait que rendre plus efficace la violence, mais / elle n'empche pas [par ailleurs] les dchanements de haine. Rsumer en 100 mots le texte suivant. On Importance? Un cart de 10% en plus ou en moins sera accept. La guerre est une lutte arme entre units politiques organises, la guerre civile est une lutte arme au sein d'une unit politique (remise en question de ce fait). Paper Writing? La caractristique essentielle d'une arme est d'tre un moyen de provoquer la mort physique d'tres humains. Advantages Death Penalty Essay? l'exemple du mot ennemi , le mot lutte doit tre entendu ici dans son sens original et existentiel. Help Writing? Ce n'est pas une simple concurrence que ce mot dsigne, ni la lutte purement intellectuelle de la discussion, ni cette lutte symbolique dans laquelle finalement chaque homme est de quelque manire engag tout instant puisque les choses sont ainsi faites, et que la vie humaine tout entire est un combat et tout homme un combattant. Advantages Disadvantages Penalty Essay? Les concepts d'ami, d'ennemi, de combat tirent leur signification objective de leur relation permanente ce fait rel, la possibilit de provoquer la mort physique d'un homme. Help Writing? La guerre nat de l'hostilit, celle-ci tant la ngation existentielle d'un autre tre. Dissertation Binding Services? La guerre n'est que l'actualisation ultime de l'hostilit. Help Writing? Ceci n'implique pas qu'elle soit chose courante, chose normale, ni d'ailleurs que l'on y voie une solution idale ou dsirable ; elle reste nanmoins prsente ncessairement sous forme d'une possibilit du rel tant que la notion d'ennemi garde son sens.

Les choses ne se prsentent donc nullement comme si l'existence politique n'tait qu'une guerre sanglante et chaque acte politique une opration militaire, comme si sans cesse chaque peuple face chaque autre peuple tait accul de faon permanente l'alternative ami ou ennemi, comme si la dcision politiquement bonne ne pouvait pas tre celle qui prcisment vite la guerre. On Sylvia Plath? La dfinition que nous donnons ici du politique n'est ni belliciste, ni militariste, ni imprialiste, ni pacifiste. Help Paper? Elle n'est pas davantage une tentative de prsenter la guerre victorieuse ou la rvolution russie comme un idal social, car la guerre ou la rvolution ne sont ni un fait social, ni un fait idal. Disadvantages Death Penalty Essay? Quant au combat militaire considr en lui-mme, il n'est pas la poursuite de la politique par d'autres moyens, pour rappeler la faon, d'ailleurs inexacte, dont on help writing, cite habituellement le mot clbre de Clausewitz ; il a, en tant que guerre, son optique et ses rgles propres, stratgiques, tactiques et autres, qui supposent cependant toutes que la dcision politique, celle qui dsigne l'ennemi, est un fait donn pralable. Fiction Creative Short? Dans une guerre, les adversaires s'affrontent en gnral ouvertement comme tels, ils se distinguent mme normalement par leur uniforme, et de ce fait la discrimination de l'ami et de l'ennemi n'est plus un problme politique que le soldat au combat aurait rsoudre. Help Paper Writing? D'o la justesse de cette remarque d'un diplomate anglais, qui prtend que l'homme politique est mieux entran au combat que le soldat parce que l'homme politique se bat toute sa vie, alors que le soldat ne le fait qu'exceptionnellement. Essay On Sylvia Poetry? La guerre est loin d'tre l'objectif, la fin, voire la substance du politique, mais elle est cette hypothse, cette ralit ventuelle qui gouverne selon son mode propre la pense et l'action des hommes, dterminant de la sorte un comportement spcifiquement politique. C'est pourquoi le critre qui consiste en la discrimination de l'ami et de l'ennemi ne signifie nullement non plus qu'un peuple donn sera ternellement l'ami ou l'ennemi d'un autre peuple donn, ou qu'une neutralit n'est pas chose possible, qu'elle est un non-sens politique. Help? Simplement, comme tout concept politique, le concept de neutralit, lui aussi, reste subordonn l'hypothse dernire, celle de la possibilit effective d'un regroupement en amis et ennemis ; et s'il n'y avait plus sur terre que de la neutralit, ce serait la fin, non seulement de toute guerre, mais aussi celle de la neutralit elle-mme, tout comme c'est la fin de toute politique, y compris celle d'une politique visant viter le combat, ds lors que l'ventualit concrte du combat disparat.

Les seuls facteurs dterminants sont l'ventualit de la situation dcisive, c'est--dire celle du combat rel, et l'acte de dcider si cette situation est donne ou non. Or, le caractre exceptionnel de cette situation, loin d'en annuler l'importance dterminante, fonde prcisment celle-ci. Fiction Creative Short Stories? Si, de nos jours, les guerres ne sont plus aussi nombreuses et aussi communes que jadis, en revanche, l'emprise totale et l'normit de leur puissance de choc s'est accrue dans la proportion o elles se sont faites moins frquentes et moins banales, et peut-tre plus encore. Writing? Le cas de guerre est rest, jusque dans le prsent, l'preuve dcisive par excellence. Best? En cette occasion comme en beaucoup d'autres, on help paper, peut dire que c'est la situation d'exception qui revt une signification particulirement dterminante, rvlatrice du fond des choses. Dissertation? Car il faut qu'il y ait lutte relle pour que se manifeste la logique ultime de la configuration politique qui oppose l'ami et l'ennemi. Paper Writing? C'est dans la perspective de cette ventualit extrme que la vie des hommes s'enrichit de sa polarit spcifiquement politique.

Un monde d'o l'ventualit de cette lutte aurait t entirement carte et bannie, une plante dfinitivement pacifie serait un monde sans discrimination de l'ami et de l'ennemi et par consquent un monde sans politique. Advantages Disadvantages Death? Ce monde-l pourrait prsenter une diversit d'oppositions et de contrastes peut-tre intressants, toutes sortes de concurrences et d'intrigues, mais il ne prsenterait logiquement aucun antagonisme au nom duquel on help paper, pourrait demander des tres humains de faire le sacrifice de leur vie et donner certains le pouvoir de rpandre le sang et de tuer d'autres hommes. Carl Schmitt , La notion de politique , 1932, tr. Short? Steinhauser, Champs Flammarion, 1992, p. Paper Writing? 70-73. La guerre est une lutte arme entre ennemis, qui a lieu entre ou au sein de groupes politiques, et qui / pousse l'hostilit son stade ultime, savoir anantir l'autre physiquement. Bien que possdant ses rgles propres, elle / est un phnomne essentiellement politique, ce qui ne signifie pas qu'elle soit un idal politique, mais seulement que tout / pouvoir politique doit l'envisager comme un moyen parfois incontournable de parvenir ses fins. Par consquent, un monde sans / guerre, autrement dit o rgnerait une stricte neutralit, serait en ralit un monde sans ennemis et donc apolitique.

Vous rsumerez le texte en 100 mots (+ ou - 10 %) . Si l’on peut comparer la guerre un jeu, c’est parce qu’elle est d'abord une comptition, / dans laquelle les hommes se reconnaissent comme des gaux, et o la victoire est plus recherche pour la gloire / qu’elle procure que pour ses bnfices conomiques ou politiques. Une guerre ne se dfinit donc pas par le seul / usage de la violence, car toute guerre contient un lment ludique, associ des rgles, et un lment de brutalit. Dissertation Binding Cambridge? / Il est vrai nanmoins que nous courons dsormais le risque, avec les guerres contemporaines, de voir disparatre l’aspect ludique / au profit de la seule violence.