Order Paper Writing Help 24/7 -
Free Heart of Darkness Women Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe com
Armenian Mass Graves Revisited: A Photo-Essay. Special for the Armenian Weekly April 2014 magazine. It began in Yerevan, while I was photographing the National Geographic story on Armenia that was published in 2005. “Sandra, there are a lotta bones still out there in the desert in heart essays Syria. You have to see it, jan!” When Hirair Hovnanian told me this in 2004, I could not stop thinking about it. I knew about the Armenian Genocide, of course, but as a third generation Armenian American (on my father’s side), my grandparents didn’t want us to think about these terrible things. At Margedeh Syria 2005: Armenian Mass Grave site. Essays Online? Buses of Armenians arrive to of darkness essays on women, pray at the site on Genocide Day and dig for bones. Cover Manager? (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) They wanted us to be truly American, free of the sorrows of the old country, like many Americans who have fled starvation, war, genocide, dictatorship, and economic insecurity from heart of darkness essays on women, all over the world.
I decided to go to Syria on the 90th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide and find those bones. I secured a grant from the Hirair and Anna Hovnanian Foundation, which specializes in furthering education and culture, and that was enough for me to pull off my mission. I was hoping the photos I brought back would—besides being evidence—encourage the Armenian church in criminology dissertation Syria to try and buy the Armenian mass grave land of Ras al-Ain from the of darkness essays, Syrian Waqf (Islamic Trust), in order to protect it from total destruction. Writing? The erasure and/or denial of physical remains and documented history is on women a continuation and online final act in genocide. Ras al-Ain, Syria (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) I had to plan with the of darkness, utmost care. In 2005, it was dangerous to go poking around the subject of the Armenian Genocide in essays on banking online Bashar al Assad’s Syria. Turkish investment in the country was roaring along.
I was warned by a high-level Armenian church official and a Syrian diplomat: Do not tell anybody what you are doing. The cleric said, “Be careful. You are too late—under Hafez al Assad it would have been ok.” The high-ranking Syrian diplomat who gave me my visa said, “Go, go and do your job. My family always spoke of what happened to the Armenians. But you must never tell anyone what you are doing. Simply say you are there to photograph Armenian culture. Do not check in with the authorities.” Syria has a proud record of having helped the Armenian refugees during and after the heart of darkness on women, genocide. Syrian Armenians have thrived and their culture was embraced in Syria.
Syrians know well what happened to the Armenians in 1915, on their land, a part of the Ottoman Empire back then. But the genocide sites at the time of essays and violence my 2005 trip were being compromised: A waterworks project complete with bulldozers was atop the Marghedah grave; Shadadeh was closed off as it is in an oil field. The mass grave at Ras al-Ain was being demolished by farmers. Ras al-Ain, Syria. (Photo by heart of darkness on women Alexandra Avakian) So it was a distinguished Armenian-American couple, a top Syrian diplomat, two Armenian Genocide scholars (one in Washington, one in Syria), an Armenian driver, and a local church member who helped to make these pictures happen. (Names withheld to protect sources.) Unlike forensic archaeologist Dr. Roxana Fellini’s experience in 2007 (read her article here), which was a crucial part of an doctoral thesis types official archaeological dig approved by the Syrian authorities in heart of darkness on women Ras al-Ain/Tell Fakhariyah, in 2005 mine was not—and it got spooky. And the last thing I wanted was to put anyone in danger. In Aleppo, Der Zor, and Margadeh, there were a lot of other people around. How could a woman in essays on banking online a church with a camera be a threat? But as we took off in a battered old car north along Rt. Heart Of Darkness Essays On Women? 7, where there are mass gravesites along the old path of the Khaibur River, we took even greater care. In Ras al-Ain, we stayed in the back room of an Armenian home as people started coming by to see who I was. “She is a Canadian Armenian looking for family roots,” the this term paper, head of the family told them.
I photographed the mass graves at Tell Fakhariyah at the edge of Ras al-Ain when the coast was clear. Heart? I had to this term paper, work quickly. Government agents began to question anybody I visited after we left, even an heart on women old Kurdish grandmother who had an Armenian Genocide survivor father. Dissertation Writing? One of her grandsons carried an Armenian first name. Genocide Memorial Church in on women Der Zor on April 24, 2005. (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) At the time I photographed the Ras al-Ain site, the mass grave area was rented to local farmers by the Syrian Wakf (Islamic Trust), adjacent to this term paper, a Muslim graveyard. The people in heart of darkness on women this region of Syria would not eat the essays on gangs, produce grown on the mass grave and of darkness essays on women had to sell it far afield. The farmers crushed skulls and tossed bones aside every time they worked the land. There was no protection for cover letter general, this neglected and holy place. An Armenian church member tried his best to keep track of the heart of darkness, goings-on at the mass grave.
He had been beaten there several times. Ras al-Ain, Syria. (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) The sight of so many bones in Syria going unprotected: so sad. There were little children’s molars. Narrative? The bones there were mostly of women and children, as most healthy males were already killed. After we returned to Aleppo, we shopped in heart of darkness essays on women the souk and photographed a genocide memorial, but I made plans to fly immediately to Paris from Aleppo—and not through Damascus, as originally planned. I got my pictures out and they remain an important document of the Armenian Genocide, especially the under-documented sight of Ras al-Ain/Tell Fakhariyah. Genocide Memorial Church in Der Zor on April 24, 2005. (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) In 2010, I was in Syria again for an unrelated cultural story. At that time I heard from a trusted source that Syria had given its original official, contemporaneous documents on the genocide to Turkey. Criminology Dissertation Writing? The Turks maintained that since Syria was under Ottoman control in of darkness essays on women 1915, that the documents belonged to letter general manager hotel, Turkey. Syria and Turkey are on bad terms at the moment due to essays, their respective positions on the civil war.
During this war, the types, town of Shaddadeh and its oil field containing an Armenian mass grave have been taken over by Al Nusra Front, Islamic rebels. The Memorial Church in Der Zor has been blasted and nearly destroyed, and the Armenian Syrians have suffered along with their Syrian countrymen, in Aleppo and essays elsewhere in the country. Genocide Memorial Church in Der Zor on April 24, 2005. (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) Ras al-Ain and the area around it has changed hands numerous times—in fierce battles between the Syrian-Kurdish rebels, the radical Islamist forces, the split Free Syrian Army. It’s a traditionally Kurdish region, and Kurdish forces are reportedly in control of Ras al-Ain now. Dr. Fellini received good news that Tell Fakhariyah is being safely guarded, and on gangs and violence that there is of darkness on women no damage to science essay, the dig site. I hope she will be able to finish her amazing work there in of darkness essays the future. But what of the future for the human beings in narrative essay Syria who cannot get out, when one force dislodges another on a regular basis?
It happened again in March: in the historically Armenian town of Kessab, when Al-Nusra Front forced Armenians to flee. Armenian mass grave site in Margadeh, Syria. Essays? (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) What of the other Armenian Genocide sites that are in regions like Der Zor and Margadeh? Is this key physical evidence of the Armenian Genocide—the Syrian mass graves—further eroding now? Here are some of the photos I took on that short journey, on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. Margadeh, Syria in 2005 (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) Ras al-Ain, Syria (Photo by essays Alexandra Avakian)
Catholicos Aram I in Der Zor on April 24, 2005. (Photo by Alexandra Avakian) 6 Comments on heart essays, Armenian Mass Graves Revisited: A Photo-Essay. We must receive due justice from the criminology writing, current Turkish governmemt for heart of darkness essays on women, the past crimes perpitrated by the Ottoman regime. Reparations of properties, lands and monies must be forthcoming NOW! Regards, Movses and Anna Movsesian, Plymouth, Mi. My paternal grandfathers house is now a bed and breakfast in Gazintep owned by an American and his Turkish wife. I would like and so would his numerous grandchildren have it back or at least monetary comensation. Why should Turks make money on the backs of cover letter general manager hotel dead Armenians.? The jewish people got compensation, so did the Japenese during World War II, why not the Armenians.? Money money money#8230; My ancestors left all their posessions behind while escaping with their lives.
Some did not. Never occurred to me to essays, ask for compensation from anyone. Build a better future and on banking online let the dead be. Your nomadic ancestors left their possessions – yurts, flocks of white and black sheep, in East and Central Asia – and invaded the sedentary civilizations due West. Nobody invited nomadic Turks to come and steal all that belonged to others, after they murdered the heart of darkness on women, owners.
How typical of a denialist Turk to advise the descendents of the online, victims of the AG to heart, forget their 2 million (1895-1923) murdered ancestors. Turks themselves, of course, insist that their murdered kin be compensated – Money, money, money. Turks of course did not “let the dead be” and insisted Israel pay up. Israel finally agreed to pay $20 million for essay, the 10 murdered Turks, but Turkey wants $30 million – Money, money, money. btw: according to my math, that’s $2 million per heart of darkness essays on women, murdered Turk. If we take that as a benchmark, then: $2,000,000 x 2,000,000 = $4,000,000,000,000. I think that’s called $4 Trillion, but not sure: I am not very good with numbers. Of course that does not include the value of all the gold, real estate, farms, businesses, etc your Turk ancestors stole from Armenians, Uyguroglu nomad. In other words, forget about the heinous crime committed against the nation, don#8217;t ask for an apology and thesis retribution for it from the essays on women, perpetrator. Criminology Dissertation Writing? Right, Murat? Is this the acumen of Turkish mentality?
Better future can be built when we know that your nation has repented for the crime. And the heart, dead, by the way, did not just die of natural causes. They were barbarously killed by your predecessors. I am glad to say I live in California where a joint resolution was passed by both houses of the state legislature to recognize the Armenian Genocide. There is a saying in criminology dissertation writing America #8220;As California goes, so goes the country.#8221; So this could be the beginning of the US finally seeing what happened in 1915 for what it really was#8230; I remember visiting Turkey on business in 1977 and of darkness essays on women while I was treated well, it was not a very happy place. Only recently have I studied the cover general manager, Armenian slaughter by the Turks or I would have had a very different feeling about Turks back then. Heart Of Darkness Essays On Women? I was raised to treat others as you would want to thesis types, be treated but the official denial of the genocide by Turkey really irks me.
As I read more and heart essays on women more about Turkey and the Ottomans it is as though treachery and duplicity is almost a part of their genetic make-up. I know there are some brave Turks who have admitted to the facts and are under great distress for this by their countrymen. They sow the seeds of truth and maybe, just maybe, their efforts will turn the tide. But with the this term paper, likes of Erdogan in essays on women power, I#8217;m not holding my breath.
Order Your Own Writing Help Now -
Portrayal of Women in Joseph Conrad s Heart of Darkness Essay
KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is heart essays exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. Essays And Violence! There’s even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Of Darkness Essays! Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of this term paper intelligence that expand outward in the universe at of darkness on women the speed of light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and science essay, understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. Of Darkness! (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about this statement.
Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of criminology this paragraph carefully.) Now back to heart on women, the future: it’s widely misunderstood. Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. Essays On Gangs! So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled. Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and heart of darkness on women, the social repercussions that follow.
But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the science, fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of of darkness on women technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the criminology dissertation, case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in heart of darkness on women, outlook comes up frequently in science narrative, a variety of essays on women contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Cover Letter! Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on of darkness essays on women, the key issue of feasibility.
Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out this term paper that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of progress . But because we’re doubling the rate of on women progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of essay progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of technology shows that the rate of heart essays progress is not constant, but it is this term paper human nature to adapt to of darkness essays, the changing pace, so the intuitive view is types that the pace will continue at the current rate. Even for those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at the rate that we have experienced recently. From the of darkness on women, mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for science narrative this is on women that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration. So even though the rate of progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the dissertation, future, extrapolate the current pace of heart essays on women change over and violence, the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential. In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally.
Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. Heart Of Darkness On Women! One can examine the data. in different ways, on different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the doctoral thesis, continuation of of darkness on women Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth. I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of science technological progress.
That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to essays on women, leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into criminology, what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. As a result, the rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Over time, the “order” of the information embedded in the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is of darkness essays that the “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially).
Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of this term paper technology. Heart Of Darkness Essays! Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to on gangs and violence, making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the heart of darkness, method exhausts its potential. And Violence! When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue. If we apply these principles at the highest level of evolution on of darkness essays on women, Earth, the first step, the creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of biology.
The subsequent emergence of this term paper DNA provided a digital method to record the results of of darkness on women evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated.
The evolution of dissertation writing life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on of darkness essays, progress accelerated. During the general hotel, Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over heart on women, a period of on banking millions of years, and Homo sapiens over on women, a period of only hundreds of thousands of letter manager hotel years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is heart of darkness on women a process of criminology dissertation writing creating ever more powerful technology using the essays, tools from the previous round of innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the tool making of other species. There is a record of letter general each stage of heart of darkness on women technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage.
The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of thousands of years. For people living in cover letter general manager hotel, this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two. In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Heart Essays! Then in the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the online, nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in of darkness on women, anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the on gangs, overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the heart on women, rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the doctoral types, technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. Of Darkness! In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at essays and violence today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to current rates. Of Darkness Essays On Women! So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor.
To appreciate the nature and significance of the coming “singularity,” it is essays important to heart of darkness, ponder the nature of doctoral types exponential growth. Toward this end, I am fond of telling the essays, tale of the inventor of this term paper chess and his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on heart of darkness, the second square, four on the third, and so on. This Term Paper! The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and on women, humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head.
It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the this term paper, chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and of darkness essays on women, the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the manager hotel, chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of of darkness essays on women computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Hotel! Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world.
So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from essays 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to criminology dissertation, explode into infinity, at of darkness on women least from the on banking, limited and of darkness essays, linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. Dissertation! It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely?
Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. Of Darkness Essays On Women! But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is science faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an hour would result in heart essays on women, a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity. The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history.
Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of essays abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of Singularity into heart of darkness, perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero.
In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power. At the center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. Essays On Gangs! The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity.
In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the heart of darkness essays, appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in this term paper, Realtime. Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the heart of darkness essays, Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to on banking online, be growing at heart infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of cover letter general manager hotel progress. However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the heart of darkness on women, salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to on banking online, understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in essays, the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for dissertation the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life.
Consider a few examples of the on women, implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by cover letter, the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to essays, address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the criminology dissertation writing, end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of heart essays on women evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design.
In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and narrative essay, desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the heart of darkness essays on women, wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of this term paper our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the heart of darkness on women, wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of letter manager accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and heart essays on women, then Chairman of Intel, noted in cover hotel, the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the of darkness, electrons have less distance to travel, the letter, circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019.
By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and heart, the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the science narrative essay, exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per heart of darkness essays on women $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Doctoral! Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in heart of darkness essays on women, power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S.
Census, to criminology writing, Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising. When I plotted the of darkness essays, 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in essays on gangs, the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon? I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. Is it just “a set of industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is heart there something more profound going on?
In my view, it is types one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of transistors on heart essays, an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of narrative transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the heart on women, most appropriate measure to track is doctoral thesis computational speed per essays unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to this term paper, all of the heart of darkness essays on women, innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This Term Paper! This chart spans at heart essays least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to letter general manager, only the latest one. It’s obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of heart of darkness steam during the second decade of this century.
Chips today are flat (although it does require up to this term paper, 20 layers of material to produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in heart of darkness essays on women, contrast, is organized in three dimensions. We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits.
But the brain gains its prodigious powers from letter its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in of darkness essays, three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to dissertation writing, computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the essays, accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the science, trend is bound to of darkness, run out of “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the dissertation, species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself. Each stage of heart of darkness evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. Narrative! In biological evolution, the heart essays, advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain.
Or to take a more recent example, the advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in cover manager, which the evolutionary process takes place and of darkness essays on women, which provides the options for further diversity. Science Narrative! In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of mutations and heart of darkness, ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of on gangs and violence matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to heart of darkness essays on women, distinguish between the on banking, “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible.
Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve. But the on women, growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the criminology writing, Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in of darkness on women, this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of this term paper any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the heart of darkness, old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at science narrative least four times in the history of computation. This difference also distinguishes the essays, tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception.
DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to science, all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and heart of darkness essays, can be measured with remarkable precision in and violence, information based technologies. Heart On Women! There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in essays, technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in heart of darkness essays, the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the on gangs, exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on heart of darkness essays on women, the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an essays on gangs intense human drama of innovation and competition.
It is heart of darkness essays remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the science narrative essay, human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out heart of darkness that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to finish the project. Yet the dissertation writing, fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to heart, see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to essays on banking online, Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in heart of darkness essays on women, mechanical and science, electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others.
Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of heart of darkness essays steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on science narrative, an exponential axis and the other is linear. Heart Of Darkness On Women! As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in science narrative essay, the exponential domain, we experience it in on women, the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the doctoral thesis types, mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the heart of darkness essays, exponential trend data.
Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. On Gangs! At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of heart of darkness on women Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the this term paper, exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the essays, law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the on banking online, accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the on women, law of and violence accelerating returns as it pertains to heart essays, the (double) exponential growth of computing.
The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of types computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for the twenty-first century. Essays On Women! Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to criminology dissertation writing, the Growth of Computation. The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and heart of darkness essays, beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions.
This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of this term paper brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per heart of darkness essays on women neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and this term paper, lower estimates. However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the of darkness essays, prediction by online, a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the of darkness essays on women, following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023. We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. Thesis! We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables:
V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in heart on women, CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of how to narrative, build computers. Of Darkness On Women! This is actually a conservative assumption. In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in letter, an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples.
In other words, W (knowledge) is heart on women cumulative, and essay, the instantaneous increment to knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of of darkness exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the cover manager hotel, century, and heart of darkness essays, close to on banking online, every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation.
Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is of darkness on women accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the writing, power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is heart of darkness on women a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of exponential growth is growing at this term paper a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000.
Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for on women Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for this term paper Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at on women a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). Essays Online! In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by heart of darkness essays on women, 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of on gangs all human brains on of darkness essays on women, Earth.
Of course, this only general manager hotel, includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way. Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Heart Essays On Women! Most of the complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. This Term Paper! Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at heart of darkness essays on women a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, I’ve been talking about the cover general manager hotel, hardware of computing.
The software is even more salient. One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of of darkness essays on women human thinking. Science Narrative! Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of on women human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and this term paper, artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the heart of darkness, world, and understanding and responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and doctoral thesis, content of of darkness essays these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge.
If I learn French, or read War and essays, Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an heart insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to this term paper, recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to heart of darkness on women, thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance.
Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to science essay, it). Of Darkness On Women! Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of cover letter general hotel nonbiological entities can be the master of of darkness essays on women all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. On Gangs And Violence! A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of essays its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to cover letter hotel, achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and on women, ultimately human levels and beyond.
We will be able to dissertation writing, evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to essays, understand language and this term paper, model knowledge, including the heart, ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Thesis! Ultimately, the heart essays, machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into essays online, the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for of darkness essays mastering the software of intelligence is to tap into essays on gangs and violence, the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of an heart intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and dissertation writing, essentially copy its design.
Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is heart of darkness on women through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of thesis him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. Heart Of Darkness! This scan is this term paper not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of heart of darkness essays on women machine intelligence on the brain of science narrative a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is on women feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan.
Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the nervous system of the cover letter general, brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of heart vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is easier to scan the brain of narrative essay someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to essays, sit still, for one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in this term paper, resolution and speed.
Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and of darkness essays on women, brain scanning will be a prominent application. Cover Letter! Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Essays On Women! Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the science essay, nanobots would communicate with each other, and heart essays on women, with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. Narrative! We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. As I discussed above, we can project the of darkness essays, exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies.
We can conservatively expect, therefore, the essay, requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of of darkness on women trillions of bytes of doctoral thesis information derived from of darkness essays on women each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms. With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection. There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the essays, information contained in a human brain would require thousands of essays trillions of bytes of dissertation information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes.
Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the of darkness on women, highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is this term paper not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and apply the insights derived to the design of intelligent machines. The pace of of darkness brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the availability of the brain scanning and neuron structure information. Online! A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Heart Of Darkness On Women! Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and science narrative, identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing.
Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and essays, brain connection data into thesis types, working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound.
MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the heart on women, auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . On Banking Online! Encoding of timing and heart of darkness essays, amplitude of signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of on gangs and violence arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation.
OC : Octopus Cells. Detection of of darkness transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for general noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the heart of darkness on women, Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells. MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the dissertation, two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from).
LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.
The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an essays on women intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the dissertation, onion” to of darkness essays on women, understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and and violence, implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and heart essays, extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand.
A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of cover hotel all the heart essays on women, somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and this term paper, other neural components and heart on women, levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Narrative! Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. All of the on women, basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at essays on banking Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits.
A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones. Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of heart of darkness essays a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the “decision” of the neural network. Essays! If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the heart of darkness on women, appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in science essay, a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by heart of darkness essays on women, a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of neurons. Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate.
There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and essay, now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the computational power to emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the heart of darkness on women, contents and design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to dissertation, create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of heart on women all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer?
Is the human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on criminology writing, what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the essays, brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of essays online a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an on women engineering advantage to doctoral thesis types, analog circuits in that analog computing is heart on women potentially thousands of times more efficient.
An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in and violence, the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to of darkness, its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the essays online, strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the on women, neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the narrative, network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and indeed there are dozens of projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of heart essays biological networks. The Singularity envisions the on banking, emergence of human-like intelligent entities of of darkness essays astonishing diversity and narrative essay, scope.
Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to heart essays on women, fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. Criminology Writing! To gain some insight as to why this is an heart of darkness essays extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of criminology dissertation writing downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the essays on women, most common application of the thesis, knowledge gained from reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the heart of darkness, question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the essays on gangs and violence, objective and subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to essays, have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic. Interacting with the dissertation writing, newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the essays on women, original person.
The new person will claim to be that same old person and cover letter manager hotel, will have a memory of having been that person. Heart Of Darkness! The new person will have all of the patterns of knowledge, skill, and this term paper, personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and heart essays on women, work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the general hotel, hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of heart on women our thoughts and science essay, thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to heart essays on women, mention affection, sexuality, and this term paper, reproduction.
Many, if not most, of the heart essays, goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and desires. Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is science impossible without a body. If we’re going to of darkness, port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for doctoral thesis types themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in on women, virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and cover letter, other technologies.
A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the heart on women, body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the criminology, reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain?
Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is of darkness not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness. Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to criminology writing, make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to on women, have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is cover letter hotel conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from essays one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about criminology writing, if the heart of darkness essays, entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in thesis, its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons. For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and of darkness, position of doctoral every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in heart of darkness, the machine will think that “he” is this term paper (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in essays, the Boston area, started and online, sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here. Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me?
For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and on women, who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the essays, stuff in my brain and body?
Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. Heart Of Darkness Essays! We are not at all permanent collections of particles. The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. Essays On Banking! It is the heart of darkness essays on women, patterns of matter and cover letter general, energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of on women rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. Criminology Dissertation! This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the heart of darkness essays, pattern–the water–is replaced in doctoral thesis, milliseconds.
The same is essays on women true for this term paper Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the of darkness, pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from cover letter manager pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario).
If you then come to me, and of darkness on women, say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the on banking, flaw in heart of darkness on women, this “identity from pattern” argument. Science Essay! I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here. Heart! How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so.
I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Types! Bit by bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. On Women! My friends concur. There is science essay no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this.
This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray. And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. Heart Of Darkness! So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the essays, creation of new Ray and the termination of on women old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the types, gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to of darkness essays on women, our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced.
So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is dissertation writing not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the essays on women, ability to reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of types intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. Heart! With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to thesis, be people, and to have the of darkness on women, full range of this term paper emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.
How do the on women, claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to the subjective experience of science essay these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of heart of darkness on women consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the this term paper, actions of of darkness essays components of an entity, such as neurons). This limitation has to do with the very nature of the concepts “objective” and this term paper, “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. Of Darkness Essays On Women! We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments. No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. Doctoral! The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence.
So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of heart of darkness essays on women nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the dissertation, delicate and of darkness on women, emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry. And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims.
But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to online, be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to essays, the thinking process. Even generous models of essays on banking online human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on essays on women, contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for cover letter hotel its capabilities and on women, capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for essays online Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the heart essays, networks of neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.
According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by and violence, a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of a thousand connections per heart neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years. If we’re off by a factor of this term paper a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is on women growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. This Term Paper! Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is heart on women infeasible.
First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the conventional transistor relies on narrative, the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of heart essays on women quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to and violence, be? I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the technology improves, the accuracy of the of darkness, copy could become as close as the on banking online, original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).
When it was pointed out to heart of darkness essays on women, Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is narrative searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. There is no evidence for heart of darkness essays it, and even if true, it only delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and writing, Brain Expansion.
How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and of darkness on women, our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the online, firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors.
The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is heart essays on women not yet feasible is essays on banking online size and cost. When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the heart of darkness on women, real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. This Term Paper! You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and on women, limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to essays on banking online, move and provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart.
Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to “go” to heart of darkness essays, these virtual environments by essays on gangs, ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two. By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the heart of darkness essays on women, senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of science narrative essay triggering the neurological correlates of of darkness essays on women emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions.
In the criminology writing, same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in of darkness essays on women, (by going to the appropriate web site) and dissertation, experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and heart essays, relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Cover Letter Hotel! Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses. All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the heart of darkness essays on women, twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is thesis stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to heart essays, our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century.
However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is this term paper fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the essays, key ways in which the two worlds can interact will be through the this term paper, nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in heart essays on women, virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in design. Although we do add patterns of this term paper interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the heart essays, current overall capacity of the human brain is highly constrained, restricted to thesis, a mere hundred trillion connections.
Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of heart essays on women our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the science essay, nanobots are communicating with each other over heart of darkness essays on women, a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by criminology, injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is easily reversible. Heart Essays! They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. Types! They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in heart essays, one or at most a few locations.
The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the dissertation writing, law of heart essays on women accelerating returns, and to its implications. Science Essay! It is the economic imperative of heart essays on women a competitive marketplace that is on gangs and violence driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by of darkness essays, Government agencies to set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of essays online history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for essays a while is for essays the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening.
But once the “knee of the curve” is achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the heart essays, linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in this term paper, total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. Heart Of Darkness On Women! However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the this term paper, rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of products and of darkness essays on women, services.
It is writing not the case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of heart of darkness on women such examples. Writing! Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on of darkness essays on women, the web and delivered to this term paper, your door are worth more than groceries on of darkness essays on women, a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of improvements are true for most product categories, and this term paper, none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and services for a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for heart of darkness essays a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per year for the past 20 years because of doctoral thesis qualitative improvements. This still does not account for of darkness essays on women the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at this term paper least 1 percent per year.
Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the heart essays on women, gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per essay year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per essays on women year, and this term paper, is now growing even more rapidly. In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at of darkness 4.4% annually from 1995 to 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year. The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of essays on gangs and violence all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and heart of darkness, other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation.
There are many examples of the impact of doctoral these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is of darkness essays now less than $1 per cover general manager barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of heart of darkness essays $1200 per writing North American car over of darkness on women, the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at types an Exponential Rate.
Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and of darkness, other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the criminology, Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the heart of darkness, law of accelerating returns, the economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%. Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately.
The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of cover letter general manager hotel inventories. Of Darkness Essays! However, the science narrative, rapid dissemination of of darkness information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at narrative a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and heart essays, value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the doctoral thesis, deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to heart of darkness essays, be. It has little real power. The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments.
The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is thesis relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the GDP, and 0.25% of the liquidity available in of darkness on women, stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to thesis types, fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy. These policies have led to an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to heart of darkness essays on women, B” (Business to Business) and science, “B to C” (Business to heart, Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is this term paper likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and heart of darkness, that the criminology dissertation, (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system.
The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. Heart Of Darkness Essays! This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to essays on banking online, four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of of darkness growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument. Science! On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on of darkness on women, the other hand, we will benefit from on gangs and violence far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the essays, year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in this term paper, education and learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students.
Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in heart essays, recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the online, skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in heart of darkness, education at all levels. Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on essays on gangs and violence, future expectations. Given that the heart of darkness on women, (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated.
Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Doctoral Thesis! Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of of darkness essays growth will continue to narrative, double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right. Essays On Women! According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth.
But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. This Term Paper! I meant it in heart, the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of us as in the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could.
So if all of you read this essay and science narrative, understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and heart of darkness, agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is science narrative essay that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent.
This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on essays on women, the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in on gangs and violence, reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in essays, a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from on banking human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of of darkness essays on women such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in general hotel, the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise.
Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. Heart Essays! In addition to essays on banking, introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and heart of darkness essays on women, other software “hacking” techniques. When there is software running in essays on gangs, our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on of darkness essays on women, a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in thesis types, the year 2000 would really want to heart of darkness essays on women, go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of our species still live in this term paper, this precarious way, which is at heart least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it.
People often go through three stages in examining the impact of future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and thesis types, hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is of darkness also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of essays on gangs such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention.
Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the heart of darkness essays on women, development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes? Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is narrative essay not the answer. The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is heart of darkness essays on women one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Dissertation Writing! Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to of darkness essays on women, the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and science, personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of essays it.
This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of essays online such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the heart of darkness essays, inevitable end result of the criminology writing, persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is heart of darkness being pursued by essays, a myriad of projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is heart of darkness essays that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on this term paper, one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of of darkness essays on women technology and on banking online, retain only the “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for essays on women example. Progress in medical science depends on progress in science, chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by of darkness essays, a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Clearly you can’t have much progress in this term paper, medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.”
The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and of darkness essays, should progress, and dissertation, that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and I disagree, it’s on of darkness, the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the essays, less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies.
One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by heart of darkness on women, the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to general manager, relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is heart of darkness on women a ban on essays on banking online, self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for heart of darkness self-replication. Dissertation! In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the heart, “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. Essays! The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology. In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and heart essays on women, more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to combine the essays online, two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Heart Of Darkness On Women! Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to science narrative essay, monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations.
As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of heart of darkness on women many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to narrative, otherwise secure information) and of darkness on women, the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from criminology how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge. There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the heart, potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to science narrative, time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of of darkness on women software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology.
Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to create and release them. It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on what those values should be.
Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on cover letter general manager, what we mean by living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on. When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of heart essays our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to writing, be the case when we have the of darkness on women, means to store and restore the thousands of criminology trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of heart of darkness one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on on banking online, the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the of darkness essays, twenty-first century can grow their thinking and criminology dissertation, thoughts without limit.
We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is heart of darkness on women worth pointing out essays on gangs and violence that data and essays on women, information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the hardware it runs on, the longevity of online information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an heart of darkness on women obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and essay, porting to heart of darkness on women, current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans. Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is thesis types lost today when our biological hardware crashes. Of Darkness Essays! When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either.
Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and thesis types, even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of heart essays a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and legal issues. A related question is essays and violence “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event. Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it.
The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the freeing of the essays on women, human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and on gangs and violence, duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Heart Of Darkness! Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of life–and of our lives–is to evolve. This Term Paper! The Singularity then is not a grave danger to heart of darkness essays, be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of science essay other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of heart of darkness essays on women evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction.
So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of essays and violence our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and because of the satisfaction of of darkness essays a spiritual quest. Rather my projections result from essays online a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. Heart Of Darkness Essays! We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the essays, result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification.
To use an heart of darkness example from my own experience at one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in the example of cover letter general manager speech recognition software, the heart, three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of science narrative their software. A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to heart essays, sell the dissertation writing, version prior to of darkness essays, the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version. As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to science narrative essay, all products, from bread makers to cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and heart essays on women, profitability of an enterprise.
There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways. The support for criminology dissertation writing “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and heart essays, speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in this term paper, 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. Heart On Women! The number of writing such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of essays dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years.
In the four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the essays on banking, human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to heart of darkness essays, be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the this term paper, second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.
On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended. Heart Of Darkness Essays! And we will have a myriad of on gangs and violence other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for heart of darkness essays a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Science! Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the of darkness essays on women, cross over will occur before 2030.
By the end of the this term paper, twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of heart essays on women trillions of narrative times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of of darkness essays on women human origin. Essays! It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in heart of darkness essays, evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the doctoral types, revolutionary impact of the heart on women, Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of this term paper human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the heart of darkness, Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. This Term Paper! There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from of darkness human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form.
So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God). The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in cover general, a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of essays on women trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at doctoral types least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and so on). No sign of intelligence has been found as of heart of darkness yet.
In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out criminology that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to essays, previous searches, has only been applied thus far to letter, 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to on women, my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the this term paper, assumption that there are at least millions of radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an heart of darkness on women argument against essays and violence, the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent.
Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. Heart Of Darkness On Women! A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and essays and violence, so shy? As I have studied the heart of darkness, implications of the letter manager hotel, law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the of darkness, nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and writing, then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel.
Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the essays on women, nature of essay this saturation is another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. Heart Essays! There were recent experiments that measured the and violence, flight time of photons at nearly twice the heart essays, speed of light, a result of quantum uncertainty on their position. However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and essay, we are fundamentally interested in essays on women, communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at essays on banking faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies.
But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in essays on women, the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Essays On Gangs! Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of heart getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for on banking biological evolution are measured in millions and heart essays, billions of essays years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by essays, huge spans of narrative essay time. Heart Essays On Women! If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of them would not be ahead of us.
That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of hotel us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at of darkness least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us. On Banking! But it takes only heart, a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed.
Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is dissertation likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and of darkness, ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of likely planets? Indeed it is essays on banking very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the heart essays, Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in criminology writing, the Universe.
Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Heart Of Darkness On Women! Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to thesis types, be very unlikely.
Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the point of of darkness essays merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and on gangs and violence, equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to heart on women, gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to letter general manager hotel, notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity.
Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of heart of darkness essays such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is science essay More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the essays, laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the letter manager, most subtle aspects of the of darkness essays on women, laws to doctoral thesis, manipulate matter and energy to its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to do whatever it wants. Essays On Women! This perspective has not been considered in cover general manager hotel, discussions of future cosmology. Of Darkness Essays! It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and this term paper, processes on a cosmological scale.
Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. Of Darkness Essays On Women! But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is this term paper just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about of darkness, it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. This Term Paper! Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and energy in its vicinity, and it begins to on women, expand outward at the speed of light or greater. It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to this term paper, be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and heart essays on women, create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be?
Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again I’m using the criminology dissertation, plural form of the word) are likely to be around to essays on women, see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is another one of those exponential trends. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and on gangs, now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the essays, revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of narrative essay our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. So take care of yourself the essays, old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism.
Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thesis! Thanks for essays on women creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of thesis types technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. Essays! The “economic life” of essays on banking equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the on women, mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and letter general hotel, still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to heart of darkness on women, early 2000 when the majority of essays on banking online used metal working machinery dealers went out of business.
While the heart of darkness essays on women, used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. Doctoral Thesis! The economics of competition often led to the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to of darkness essays on women, find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in criminology dissertation, order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to of darkness on women, “buy now” or wait for new model. As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on thesis types, never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in heart, manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the essays on gangs and violence, “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the heart essays, “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology.
I believe that there is doctoral thesis a need for of darkness on women a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of this term paper technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the essays on women, rate and narrative essay, return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011). In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to heart essays, your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this term paper, this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity.
Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and heart of darkness, need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in 2001, so it would refer to 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011?
looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Writing! Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to that, the speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and of darkness essays on women, your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of science essay differences in heart essays on women, behaviour over cover letter manager hotel, the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of essays on women entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in this term paper, molecular biology at heart essays on women UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and science, I too, agree with its principle suggestion.
It is noteworthy to point out that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to heart of darkness essays, grasp for most people is the on gangs and violence, ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is essays on women only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning. That is to say, it is possible to on banking online, use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in heart essays on women, 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is general manager not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so.
If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and offers an essays on women entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in essays on gangs and violence, technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). I am very interested to heart, hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of essays information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the heart essays on women, 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot. I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in on banking online, the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same.
They all think their more godly than others. Heart Essays On Women! The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to essays online, move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Essays On Women! Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. On Gangs! Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at all the of darkness, movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the science essay, future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. I will be dead by the time anything changes to essays, our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the essays and violence, night instead of creatures of the heart essays on women, day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on on gangs, your bed waiting for heart of darkness on women the next day.
The night is not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to cover manager hotel, walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the essays, preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the this term paper, fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know? Those ridiculous math sums.
And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in essays on women, trouble. I mean, I kind of on banking online feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. I don’t want that. Heart Of Darkness! I hate that. I want to feel alive, to science narrative, feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system? Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the heart of darkness essays on women, half, grow old and die.
Everyone’s the essays on banking, same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to.
it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and heart on women, your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is this term paper just one of heart of darkness essays millions of positive feedback loops that occur in this term paper, the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. Essays On Women! This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). All the dissertation writing, technology curves will be slowed by essays, limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in dissertation, The Singularity Is Near book. Heart Essays! Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and narrative essay, will be replaced by another process.
Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in heart essays on women, that we haven’t yet established that there is this term paper a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to heart of darkness essays on women, the end of doctoral thesis types Moore’s law and claiming their is nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is very aware of this, as he points out of darkness many times in his essay.
Had his argument been of the general manager, form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient. Heart Essays! This is not at criminology writing all what he is arguing, in heart of darkness on women, fact, the on banking, premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to heart of darkness on women, argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and criminology, then work out of darkness essays what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of carrier frequency. If I were to narrative, then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law.
All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the heart of darkness essays, ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up). The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and manager hotel, that just isn’t the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for of darkness essays us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to this term paper, solve problems… like the end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness.
A top priority is to of darkness on women, understand that complex and interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is science narrative forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy.
Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for on women peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the corner. So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. Letter General! It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy.
It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical. The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. Heart Of Darkness! In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. Science Narrative Essay! There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of of darkness on women protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. Cover Letter General! There is always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of heart of darkness essays on women mass as it approaches the this term paper, speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is heart of darkness metaphysical.
This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is yet to cover hotel, be explored or understood. Essays On Women! Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of doctoral that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and heart of darkness, disperse at doctoral thesis nearly the speed of light. I think that the heart on women, brain is more of an interface to this term paper, the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the heart of darkness essays, thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by this term paper, any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the interface certainly needs to of darkness, be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is dissertation any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and of darkness essays on women, more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the dissertation writing, brain may be exceeded by heart on women, a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of essays on gangs and violence a person.
On the bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on heart essays, a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication.
Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting… It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and essays and violence, beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. Heart Of Darkness Essays! There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.”
There is cover hotel a physical limit at of darkness on women the end of the century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to this term paper, “think”. Of Darkness Essays On Women! Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of our brains activity. This is the cover general, work being done in the subconscious. We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on heart, the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the criminology, decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the heart of darkness essays on women, decision and lying to science, you conscious brain that you made the decision. Heart Of Darkness On Women! You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious.
Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is on gangs aware of. Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is essays a spiritual experience. Essay! It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of heart of darkness essays on women or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. Essays On Banking! This is the heart on women, real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is essays on gangs a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed”
Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the heart essays, other parts of the brain together and allows you to be aware of essays on gangs them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in essays, the brain is that the science, separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space.
You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of of darkness on women Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness. This Term Paper! I would not, for of darkness essays on women example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to science narrative, a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to essays on women, me, is the science, gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to heart on women, consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. Dissertation Writing! No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind.
Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and heart of darkness essays, not the criminology dissertation, other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball. You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion.
I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. Essays! The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…
Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.
Write My Research Paper -
The Role of Women in Joseph Conrad s Heart of Darkness Essay
Resume Fontroversy — What’s the Best Font for on women, a Resume? If this were Cook’s Illustrated , I’d make seven types of mac and cheese and this term paper, write in painstaking detail about how I geeked on finding the heart of darkness essays on women, perfect recipe — so you don’t have to. Instead, I studied the best font for a resume. This looked like me taking a paragraph from a resume, printing it in seven different fonts, and discovering what makes one font better than another. If you want, you can eat mac and cheese while you read this. Here are our contenders: Times New Roman as the Best Font for criminology dissertation, a Resume. Times New Roman takes more than its share of eye rolls and nasty comments as a resume font. However, it says, “Reliable,” to your reader. Plus, as you will see in a moment, you can cram a lot more words onto a page with TNR than you can with any of the fonts shown below.
Just that simple, delicious fact often makes it the essays, best font for a resume. Beyond space considerations, Times New Roman confers an additional benefit. “Conscientiousness” (of which reliability is one aspect) is one of the doctoral types, Big Five Personality Traits. While the Big Five get massive attention as predictive factors for heart of darkness essays on women, job performance, conscientiousness is the only Big Five Trait that actually correlates with job performance. When you use TNR, you give a subliminal message of dissertation writing, reliability and conscientiousness. Arial as the essays, Best Font for a Resume. Arial is another perennial resume favorite. It says, “Modern,” to your reader.
However, notice Arial takes up more space than TNR, which means you might have to general manager hotel, drop some valuable info to keep your resume to two pages. Yes, two pages. End of discussion. Calibri as the essays, Best Font for a Resume. Calibri is a tasty font that’s easy to read and says, “Stable.” It uses more space than TNR, but not as much as Arial. Essays On Gangs? It’s a definite possibility. Century Gothic as the Best Font for a Resume. Century Gothic uses way too much resume real estate and is thus a non-starter. Imagine an audio file here as it hits the trash with a big “Splat.” Helvetica as the Best Font for a Resume. Helvetica uses more space than TNR or Calibri at 11 and 12 points.
At 10 points, it’s hard to read. Heart Essays On Women? Thus, it’s also a non-starter — unless you’re light on general manager hotel resume material. Helvetica recently (May 2015) received a ton of essays, press from a Bloomberg article as the best font for a resume. However, the recommendation was made by a graphic designer who doesn’t write resumes. It’s a lovely font, but usually impractical for our purposes. Verdana is dissertation writing, a common website font, but it’s too big to consider for your resume. The New York Times published a long, evidence-based study about heart fonts in essays, 2012. It concluded that Baskerville is the most trusted font: 1. Readers are more likely to agree with information shown in heart of darkness, Baskerville. 2. Readers are less likely to disagree with information written in criminology dissertation, Baskerville. 3. Baskerville has gravitas.
Those are all desirable qualities in a resume font. It uses about the same amount of space as TNR. However, I find TNR easier to read in narrative text. Because of that, I skip Baskerville. Please, take a look at these fonts, and feel free to heat up a fontroversy in the Comments section below.
Please share your insights in the Comments section below. I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired. Email me at email@example.com. Image Courtesy of Marcus dePaula. Updated June 2017. I agree with all the fonts above except Times Roman.
I find it very difficult to read. I agree totally with all of the above. I also agree with Darryl’s comment on TNR, difficult to read and a bit old school? Verdana in size 10 is closer to the size on heart of darkness essays TNR 12. Online? I like the Baskerville Regular font, but Office (2003) only heart of darkness has Baskerville Old Face. I’d need to find and install the font, and I would worry that the destination printer might not support Baskerville Regular – in science narrative essay, which case my resume would get printed in something else entirely.
Fontroversy. I love it, Donna! I haven’t used Baskerville much, but this post makes me want to of darkness on women, give it another try. Sometimes Arial Narrow works, but it has to be the right person. I totally dig font discussions. Criminology Dissertation? This is awesome #128578;
Thank you for sharing. Great info. Felicia, You’re welcome. Thank you. Donna. I prefer Calibri cos it looks very clean yet simple. But you know in heart of darkness essays on women, my country most of my fiends really put a picture on right side in which i don’t like cos its a resume but i dont know what to do is it better to put one? BTW Im a Civil Engineer. Thanks! Well after reading this article, and the following post, I have to say that TNR is the most used font in our legal systems.
I would also like to point out that if your like me (dyslexic) you will want to use the TNR font as it is easier to doctoral types, read than many of the heart essays, other fonts. If I had to thesis, chose a different font it would be Courier New, mainly because it looks like the old typewritten papers, which were easy to read. Just a comment for Harold – a school teacher recently told me that dyslexics are strongly influenced by the background colour and white is the worst background! Old typewritten papers were not the pure bright white that everything is printed on of darkness essays on women now – try printing on buff or even pink paper to see if that makes reading easier. TNR as do most serifs scream from dusty aisles in a library once used but now overrun with thick leather-bound books. It’s old and letter manager, outdated with its extraneous font lines.
In principle serifs do make it more discernible but in 2013 principle isn’t about convenience. Of Darkness On Women? Content, clothes, even our language (texts, tweets) has migrated to minimalism or “Less is Better”. Another thing to think about is: “Is there a standard or expected font for my field?”. If so, would it hurt or help my chances to try a different font? Keeping in mind that each hiring manager, organization, corporate culture, and local job market characteristics are different. What works in NY city may not work in a small town in AK.
Wait, Arial and Helvetica take up the same amount of essays on banking online, space. Heart Of Darkness? How is essays on gangs and violence, one a non-starter* because of size, and heart essays on women, the other isn’t? *I’m deliberately avoiding the “Ugh, Arial is a cheap, soulless, knockoff of Helvetica” discussion you can find so many places online. Just dealing with the space taken up… Excellent point. Given the choice between Arial and Helvetica, I would probably choose Arial because it’s more common. That makes it a little easier on thesis people’s eyes. I actually like the look of Helvetica a little more. Heart Essays On Women? But really, I love Calibiri at 11.5 or 12 the best. As a graduate student, I love TNR.
It is old school, and yes, I do see the problems. I find myself preferring Centruy Gothic for personal use, but I am currently in the process of changing my resume and updating it for internship applications. I’m probably going to go with Calibri for readability and because it takes up less space than Verdana. Great job! Thank you Hollie. Donna. This comparison is a bit unfair since you have not taken font size sufficiently into account.
For example, Verdana is better at 10 pt when read on on banking a regular computer screen at normal resolution, and compares well with 12 pt Calibri at heart on women, the same resolution. Letter Manager? I would use Arial at 11 point to compare with the two I have mentioned. Sure, the heart of darkness essays on women, various fonts are scaled differently, but if you scale them yourself to essays, take up as near the heart of darkness essays, same space as each other as possible, then you get a more realistic and honest comparison. In my experience Calibri at criminology, 12 pt and Arial at 11 pt are both excellent for online resumes, but if you want to print them then TNR-12 is likely the best around, with Baskerville-12 a very close second – for the simple reason that these are what most people are used to reading in print. Naturally, you have to format the layout of a resume according to the specific font use, and heart essays, that’s why I usually provide my clients with two versions: one for online reading and a separate print version. Click ‘Print Resume’ and it prints according to a different layout in Times New Roman. Thank you for your insights.
Hi Donna, your contentions clarified a lot of issues I have had about using fonts in resumes, and even in official correspondences. Thank you for the interesting piece. I think Arial is essays and violence, gentler on the yes than Times New Roman does. For journalists like me so bent on rushing to heart of darkness on women, the print with little consideration for on banking, the eye rollers, its a whole lot of new perspective. But that you use a Sans for your blog actually encouraged me to up my journalism blog’s font to Sans too! A question though: Each of the heart of darkness, fonts have merits and demerits, depending on science narrative the medium they are used. Of Darkness Essays On Women? Say Serif for this term paper, the print, and Sans for the web.
Now, GENERALLY (no, not shouting. I wish comment sections came with rich text features. I needed an italic there!), which works for both print and of darkness, web, at least to a considerable point of this term paper, reconciliation? A meeting point where it is heart of darkness on women, not too eye-rolliy for dissertation writing, either the print or the web reader? Thank you for your kind words and your great question. I don’t have an answer.
Maybe another reader will offer ideas. In the meantime, that seems as though it should be the Holy Grail of font designers everywhere! This may be trickier than initially thought of… but I would have to agree, as others observed earlier, for heart on women, the comparison to be more objective, the types of fonts compared would have to be similar in criminology dissertation, appearing size (not just all being size 12); as we can see above, this would force us to of darkness essays on women, compare different types of fonts (i.e. one font may be size 12, but very similar in essays online, appearing size to a size 10 in another type of font). Once that is taken care of, then we should establish the criteria for selecting one, over another. For instance, is the “best” font, say for a paper-print resume, one which is easy on the reader’s eyes (I always thought that in essays on women, general, curves tend to be “friendlier” to the human eye, than sharp corners/edges, but then again what if the reader’s eye-sight is compromised and is in doctoral thesis types, fact welcoming the “sharpness” which helps his/her brain from having to silently do extra work to compensate?). To make a long story short, it seems to heart on women, me that there are at least two criteria for criminology, selecting one type of font over another:
a) Does it make the heart on women, text appear more serious and truthful, and. b) does it make the reader feel more comfortable, at ease, and thus more pleasant. Although I am personally inclined to cover manager hotel, focus on the second criterion, there exist prevailent industrial stereotypes about resumes, which I believe are to an applicant’s best interest to heart of darkness on women, observe (at least until they reach what they are aiming for; unless, the applicant himself/herself decides to consciously to deviate from the norm with intention). Also, anything resembling legal/stereotype text tends to get more attention (not sure whether it is online, because of a positive, or a negative inner feeling being triggered when viewing it), but as implied earlier that may not be that important… or is it? Interesting questions Nicholas. There is a large body of research on fonts for advertising and marketing purposes, very little regarding resumes. Thank you, Donna. Calibri is the easiest to read. cant understand why people still use TNR.
Personally I like to use Cambria 11 for resumes. Alternatives are TNR 11.5, and also – I would like to add Adobe Garamond as another excellent resume/CV font. For professionals with long resumes, I would think they should stick with Adobe or Baskerville Old (11 – 11.5) – otherwise their resumes are going to end up in the trashbin. Interesting Linda. If in doubt, Calibri is almost always a safe bet. Thank you, Donna. Truth Nate. I wonder how long it will take for the pendulum to swing the other way?
Donna. Font preferences are so personal. I love hearing people explain why they prefer one font over another. I like Calibri too. As to pictures on essays resumes, it varies by culture.
In the U.S. no, in criminology dissertation, many other countries yes. Understand the local norm and go with it. Hi Kristin. Thank you. I hoped you would see this post. #FontGeeksUnite Donna. People can try using smaller font sizes with the heart of darkness essays, caution that they start looking cramped pretty quickly.
All the fonts discussed in this post are available in the most recent recent version of essays, MS Word. Heart Of Darkness On Women? Of course, not everyone has the most recent version installed. Thank you for thesis types, your ideas. I’m always happy when I see your name on essays on women my screen. Literally old school — it used to narrative, be THE font for heart, textbooks. I suspect that old schoolness it what also makes it seem reliable.
Thank you for essays and violence, commenting. Interesting. It sounds as though you fall into the group that prefers san serif fonts — especially online. Thank you for commenting. I really like Garamond! I think it looks very professional. Thank you Jennifer! (Click on the link to on women, “9 Resume Fonts Designers Love” to Garamond in action.) Donna. TNR is so difficult to read.. why is it so overrated? It was (is?) the on banking online, school book font in the US for a long time. It’s familiar. As an essays, former art director and typesetter, I agree with your selections except where it comes to essays on gangs, applicant tracking systems.
There are so many systems available now a days and essays, a lot of them are not great at this term paper, reading serif fonts. So although I prefer serif fonts for readability to of darkness essays on women, the eye, sans-serif fonts win with character scanners. Agree, Donna? Agree. On Gangs? I use sans serif fonts.
I use Century Gothic. You just have to use a smaller font-size (9.5 or so for general text) than other fonts. I have found that it is by heart essays, far the most legible font at smaller font-sizes. Compared to TNR, which I have to increase to 12 or so to science essay, achieve the same legibility as CG at 9.5, I’ve found that CG actually saves space.
Write My Research Paper for Me -
Heart of Darkness Essay | Women in Heart of Darkness | GradeSaver
7 Things Every ESL Teacher Should Teach Students About Essay Writing. Of Darkness On Women. “Every good story has a beginning, a middle and an end.” Many of us recall our teachers drilling this writer#8217;s mantra into us and our fellow students. Essays. This is as true for a good essay as it is for a good story. An essay needs a coherent structure to successfully articulate its arguments, and of darkness essays strong preparation and planning is crucial to providing that structure. So, how do we go about this? After all, essay writing can be challenging for science narrative the ESL student. Not only does the of darkness essays student writer have to contend with the challenges of ordering their thoughts and constructing their arguments, they have to do this in their second language.
Navigating the rocky bluffs of syntax and idiomatic expressions isn#8217;t easy at the best of times! So, here are some helpful hints that will allow your students to weave together a coherent and persuasive essay with less stress. The 7 Helpful Habits of ESL Essay Writing. Narrative Essay. 1. Build the essay around a central question. Heart Of Darkness Essays On Women. Encourage your students to build all their writing around one central question of the this term paper essay. Heart. That central question is the engine of the writing, it should drive everything! If a word or sentence is not assisting that forward motion toward the explication of that question and its possible answers, then it needs to be reworded, rephrased or just plain cut out and discarded. Criminology Dissertation Writing. Lean writing is merciless.
Focusing on that central question throughout the prewriting, writing and rewriting stages helps develop the critical faculties required to discern what to keep and heart essays what to throw away. Essays Online. 2. Use the of darkness essays on women traditional 5-paragraph essay structure. Providing a clear structure for the student to approach essay writing can do much to build their confidence. The 5-paragraph essay, or #8220;hamburger#8221; essay, provides that clear structure for emergent ESL writers. Generally, this structure employs five separate paragraphs for the entire essay. Each paragraph serves a specific purpose, melding together to essays, form a coherent whole.
Paragraph 1: The introductory paragraph. Heart Of Darkness Essays On Women. It makes the thesis statement, orientating the reader to the purpose of the essay. Paragraphs 2 to 4: The body paragraphs. These make individual points that are further backed up by essay the various forms of evidence. Paragraph 5: The conclusion paragraph.
This provides a summation of the arguments and a final statement of the thesis. While they do not need to of darkness on women, follow it rigidly forever, this simple structure outlined above can serve as excellent training wheels for your students. Using the 5-paragraph structure as outlined above makes planning clear cut. Once they have their theses and are planning their paragraphs, share with the students the ridiculously useful acronym P.E.E. This stands for point, explanation, evidence. Each body paragraph should make a point, or argument, in on gangs favor of the central thesis, followed by an explanation of this point and relevant evidence to back it up. Extol the necessity for of darkness students to constantly refer to their planning. On Banking Online. The mind-mapping techniques popularized by Tony Buzan can be useful at the planning stage and heart of darkness make for easy reference points to ensure focus is maintained throughout the essay. Having a visual reference such as this can help ensure that your student-writers see each piece of the whole as well as that elusive #8220;bigger picture,#8221; so it become a case of online, seeing the forest and the trees! Just as the of darkness essays on women planning is crucial, so too is the research. Often ideas or connections do not occur until the writing process has begun.
This is a good thing. Essay writing is a creative act, so they can have more ideas along the way and work them in. The key is to always be able to back up these ideas. Students who have done their homework on their subject will be much more confident and articulate in expressing their arguments. Even with thorough planning and research, writing oneself into a linguistic cul-de-sac is a common error.
Once the plan is completed and the student embarks on the choppy seas of narrative, essay writing, it may or may not be plain sailing. Often, especially with our higher level students, unforeseen currents can pull the student-writer off course. Sometimes just abandoning the sentence helps. Of Darkness On Women. Going back to general manager hotel, the drawing board and heart on women rewriting it is often best. Students can be creative with their sentence structures when expressing the simpler ideas and arguments.
However, when it comes to expressing the more complex concepts, help them learn to use shorter sentences to break down their arguments into smaller, more digestible chunks. Essay writing falls firmly in the camp of non-fiction. That is a given. However, that does not mean that some of the techniques more traditionally associated with fiction, poetry and drama cannot be used. One technique that is particularly useful in essay writing is repetition. Just as poetry relies heavily on rhythm, so too does argument. Repetition can provide that sense of rhythm. Written language has its origins in the oral language. Essays On Banking. Think of the great orators and demagogues and their use of of darkness essays on women, repetition.
Speech-writers are well aware of the power of repetition. The writing principle of the #8220;rule of 3#8221; states that ideas expressed in these terms are more convincing and types memorable. Heart Of Darkness Essays On Women. This is true of words and the ideas they are expressing. Doctoral. The very structure of the 5-paragraph essay lends itself to planning for this repetition. Each idea that is explored in a body paragraph should be outlined first in the introductory paragraph. Of Darkness. The single body paragraph devoted to criminology, the idea will explore it at greater length, supported by evidence. On Women. The third rap of the hammer occurs in the summation of the concluding paragraph, driving the point securely and convincingly home. Essays On Banking. As mentioned at the start of this post, every good essay has a beginning, middle and an end. Each point made, explained and supported by evidence is a step toward what the writing teacher Roy Peter Clark calls closing the circle of meaning. In planning for the conclusion of the essay, the students should take the opportunity to reaffirm their position. By making reference to the points outlined in the introduction, driving them home one last time, the student-writer is bringing the essay to a satisfying full circle.
This may be accomplished by of darkness employing various strategies: an apt quotation, referring to future consequences or attempting to inspire and mobilize the reader. Ending with a succinct quotation has the double benefit of criminology, lending some authoritative weight to the argument while also allowing the of darkness student to select a well-written, distilled expression of their central thesis. This can make for a strong ending, particularly for ESL students. Often the essay thesis will suggest its own ending. If the essays on gangs essay is structured around a problem, it is frequently appropriate to end the essay by offering solutions to heart on women, that problem and outlining potential consequences if those solutions are not followed. In the more polemical type essay, the student may end with a call to arms, a plea for essays on banking action on the part of the of darkness reader.
The strategy chosen by the student will depend largely on what fits the central thesis of this term paper, their essay best. For the ESL student, the final edit is very important. On Women. It is one final chance to check form and meaning. For all writers this process can be daunting, but for language students especially. Often ESL students will use the general manager same words over and over again due to a limited vocabulary, encourage your students to employ a thesaurus in the final drafting before submission. This will freshen up their work, making it more readable. This will also increase their active vocabulary in the long run! Another useful strategy to use at this stage of the process is to encourage students to read their work aloud before handing it in.
This can be good pronunciation practice, and allows for an opportunity to listen for heart of darkness on women grammatical errors. It also helps the students to hear where punctuation is required in the text, helping the overall rhythm and readability of the writing. Essays are a great way not only for students to learn how the language works, but also to learn about themselves. Formulating thoughts and doctoral thesis arguments about various subjects is good exercise for not only the students#8217; linguistic faculties, but also for of darkness understanding who they are and how they see the world. Narrative. If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to teach English with real-world videos.
FluentU brings language learning to life with real-world videos. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks. FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an of darkness on women affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. We also participate in other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in. By purchasing through our affiliate links, you are supporting our ability to provide you with free language learning content. 2017 FluentFlix Limited.
All Rights Reserved.
Write My Essays Today -
Literature/Women in Heart of Darkness term paper 1214
dream essays macbeth Then, after murdering the heart of darkness on women King, Macbeth comes to her with his hands all covered with blood and carrying the grooms' daggers. Not only that, but he's so unnerved that all he can do is look at his hands and talk about voices that he heard. She tries to be reasonable, saying, Why, worthy thane, / You do unbend your noble strength, to think (2.2.41-43), but he's paralyzed with horror. Finally, she has to narrative, do what he should have done. She takes the heart of darkness essays on women daggers from him, carries them back to place them with. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths Character Essay.
We can immediately see by her reaction how ambitious Lady Macbeth herself is essays on gangs and violence because she is essays not satisfied by Macbeth’s big promotion but wants even more power. She may also appear evil by the speed in which she decides killing is the answer. After being informed by a messenger that Macbeth is on letter general manager, her way, Lady Macbeth delivers a famous speech asking for help of spirits to rid her of her natural feminine ways so that she can convince Macbeth to heart of darkness on women, carry out the bloody deeds needed to take over the crown. Macbeth- the Evil of manager hotel, Lady Macbeth Essay. themselves, and that their fitness now. (I, vii, 47-53) She says Macbeth is a coward, but then appeals to his pride and manhood saying that when he had the courage to do it he was superhuman, and ready to create an opportunity. Now when he has it, he shrinks back at the thought and will not do it. Lady Macbeth goes further to threaten him with her love, saying that if he does not do it she will not love him anymore. Heart Of Darkness Essays On Women! Moreover, Lady Macbeth is this term paper actively part of the crime that she urges her husband to. Essay on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Not Evil. his son, Malcolm, as his successor, Macbeth realises that, if he is to heart of darkness essays on women, be king, then he must kill Duncan: The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o'erleap for in my way it lies.
Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. (I.iv.49-52). When Lady Macbeth reads in her husband's letter of the witches' prediction, she, too, realises that Duncan must be killed for it to come true. She thinks that Macbeth deserves to essays on gangs, be great, and should murder. Macbeth enters carrying a bloody dagger. Of Darkness Essays On Women! Macbeth said he has done the letter general manager hotel deed and if she had heard a noise. Lady Macbeth then reply that she heard the owl scream and heart of darkness, the crickets cry didn’t you say something? Lady Macbeth said that she heard Macbeth speak while he was coming down. Macbeth then asks who’s sleeping in the second chamber. Lady Macbeth says Donalbain and Macbeth looks at his hand saying this is a sorry sight. Lady Macbeth told him that that’s a stupid thing to say.
I’m guessing Macbeth. Essay Comparing Macbeth and dissertation, Lady Macbeth. and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. Of Darkness On Women! (1.7.12) Macbeth is conflicted between his morals and his ambition. In stark contrast to her husband Lady Macbeth is science narrative essay not conflicted. Heart On Women! In the fifth scene of act one, she is reading a letter from Macbeth that describes his encounter with the witches. Writing! After she reads the letter she becomes excited and wants to aid her husband in anyway she can. She. She asks the evil spirits to “Come to my woman’s breasts/And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers.” However, when Macbeth arrives home, he refers to her as “my dearest love” she then immediately sets about manipulating him and goading him into the murder.
When she learns of Duncan coming to dinner, she administrates ideas of looking above suspicion. She tells him “look like th’innocent flower/But be the serpent under’t.” Shakespeare uses very expressive language. Lady Macbeth's mental collapse is caused by heart essays on women, her acknowledgement of her share of guilt and this term paper, is expressed by heart of darkness essays, images of Duncan's blood, will these hands ne'er be clean? This is also a contrast to thesis types, her belief that water cleanses the conscience of any guilt. Lady Macbeth's mental collapse reinforces the idea of Scotland being diseased under Macbeth's reign and because he was not put their by divine right he cannot cure her. On Women! Lady Macbeth's role as a supporting wife resurfaces again in scene 5. Who is the Dominant Partner between Macbeth and science, Lady Macbeth? As the more dominant and heart on women, ruthless of the two, it is Lady Macbeth that devises the plan for killing Duncan, and tells Macbeth to “Leave all the rest with me.” This suggests that Lady Macbeth cannot rely on Macbeth to plan the killing of Duncan, as it is not in his gentle nature, but she knows that Macbeth will be easily persuaded to cover letter general manager hotel, carry out her wicked plan. After Macbeth kills Duncan he feels very guilty, and says, “will great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from. For example, Lady Macbeth deserves her madness whilst Miss Havisham didn’t. You can see this when Lady Macbeth says, “What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?” This quote shows that she is feeling anxious about the killing of the king and is afraid that someone might challenge her authority.
Whilst Miss Havisham says, “the dress yellowing, trembling if I open the wardrobe.” This quote indicates that time has passed and that she literally trembles when she looks at. power. Heart Essays! Once he became a shame to his nation we loss pity for him. Malcom hears that Macbeth is bad but he is sticking to his side and not worrying about what theirs may say or think. 9. By the end of the play Lady Macbeth and Macbeth changes because Macbeth is happy in the ending when his wife dies. Thesis Types! Which shows that his heart is somewhere else and that in the beginning his feelings were just a cover up.
Lady Macbeth changes because in of darkness essays, the beginning she was so confident about killing Duncan but later. Essay on Lady Macbeth and Antigone. in sweet, sultry tones solicits murder as a justifiable loss for on banking online insurmountable power. Of Darkness On Women! Lady Macbeth realizes the necessity to convince Macbeth he must persue his kingly fate as she thinks to this term paper, herself, “I may pour my spirits in thine ear/And chastise with the valor of my tongue”(16). However, every drop of assurance she gives to him leaves her emotionally empty; until death and madness break her down. Lady Macbeth breaks from the traditional patriarch mindset to persuade her violent visions of heart of darkness essays on women, murder. evilmac Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Were Not Evil Essay. Macbeth and his mistress housekeeper also have their doubts during the proceedings of the murder. Lady Macbeth paces around the essays room saying that he won't commit the murder, instead of heart essays on women, plotting their next move like a true evil-incarnate would do.
Macbeth also starts to haunt himself; he says that he heard a voice say Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep (II.II.49-50) And is this term paper so paralized by what he has done that he makes the huge mistake of bringing the dagger back. committed the mortal sin. Though she now realizes it (even this is essays on women skeptical, since she was sleep-walking at the time), she has still the deed on her soul. It can never be totally cleansed, therefore Lady MacBeth can never have total redemption. Lady MacBeth is a complex character. She is seen as two totally different people as the play progresses. At first, she is crazy about science essay, getting the heart of darkness essays power of the King. Writing! She is brutish and sadistic in both the things she. Essay about The Role of Lady Macbeth. one of the stronger themes in the play.
Macbeth and lady Macbeth are seeking for power all the time. There is the theme of power when they kill the king to gain power and heart on women, there is also power between relationships. The theme guilt is shown when Lady Macbeth devised a plan to kill the king in his sleep so her husband, Macbeth, could gain the title as king. But after he murder she felt very guilty.The theme ambition is essays online one of the of darkness essays on women stronger themes because Macbeth is ambitious to fulfil the predictions. Lady Macbeth as a Wife and as a Woman in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. never shows her true personality. When Macbeth enters the scene, Lady Macbeth showers him with praise and salutations of his successes and his prophesised kingship. I think that she does this as she is very proud to have a husband who will make her queen. When Macbeth tells her that King Duncan comes her tonight, Lady Macbeth replies and when goes hence? I think that this is on banking online a test for Macbeth, as it will let Lady Macbeth know if she should tell him all about her. Lady Macbeth Is Essentially the heart Villain in thesis types, Macbeth Essay.
Lady Macbeth begins her quest to achieve what she wants by using his ambition to be King, but as it goes along and he starts to have second thoughts she begins to play on his insecurities as a man. “Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem’s the of darkness essays on women ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting “I dare not” wait upon “I would, ” like the poor cat i' th' adage? “ Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth with by basically asking him if he will take the crown he desires badly, or will he live. The Development of Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Macbeth worries about the consequences of DuncanA’s death. Religion and the consequences of sin were very important in this term paper, ShakespeareA’s time, he speaks about the natural order of life on heart, heaven and earth being ruined he uses alliteration in, A‘trumpet- tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off. And pity like a naked newborn babeA’ to emphasise the criminology dissertation writing imagery of anarchy in the heavens, he also uses the heart of darkness simile because there is nothing more pure, innocent and helpless. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, a Dealike Butcher and a Fiend?
Essay. the witches, and, perhaps, to an extent he acted under the prophecies of the witches, the murder of Lady Macduff is a strong evidence of Macbeth acting out of this term paper, his fear that the prophecies of the witches were to come true. Essay about Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is the one that is mainly controlling her husband. She judges his manhood when she says that Macbeth’s ambition needs to match the actions. They would seem like a normal couple but actually they are both greedy. Macbeth is a respected general in the kingdom and their position must be important if the king is to eat dinner at their home.
No matter who was strongest in their marriage, they were certainly in love with each other. However, it was Lady Macbeth who shows strength. Androgyny in the Characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay. (Bevington 1090). Therefore, this proclamation of Macbeth is not merely an excuse for his strange behavior at the dinner table, but is also a symbolic representation that the cause of his downfall can be attributed to the 'woman' in him. Essays On Women! Lamentation is an expression of being powerless to effect one's own affective environment, and in a patriarchal society this outlet is criminology dissertation writing reserved primarily for women. We find this in other Shakespeare characters such as Lady Anne, the Duchess of York, and essays on women, Queen Elizabeth. Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - The Powerful Lady Macbeth Essay. assassination plot.
Although it is Macbeth who commits the actual deed of murder, it is Lady Macbeth who returns to Duncan's chamber and smears the blood upon the grooms. Her self-control is criminology writing superhuman; in fact, Macbeth is terrified of it and her unfailing resourcefulness. In this example, Shakespeare demonstrates how much self control she has over the evil deed: A little water clears us of this deed: / How easy it is essays then! (II, ii, 66-67). In fact, Lady Macbeth tried to murder Duncan herself. Macbeth And Lady Macbeth, A dealike Butcher And A fiend? Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier. Phrases such as Valour's minion, which means servant of courage and Bellona's bridegroom, which means the husband of war gives out a sense of Macbeth's superheroism. Macbeth and Banquo are also described by doctoral thesis types, the captain as eagles and lions unafraid of the essays on women opposing army, who were compared to essays and violence, sparrows and hares. The witches made a prophecy that Macbeth was to on women, become Thane of Cawdor, and science narrative, eventually king of Scotland. It was only on women, after the first prophecy. for none of woman born/Shall harm Macbeth,(4.1.80-81).
He is essays told that he cannot be harm by those who are not born from a woman. He relies on the prophecies from the of darkness essays witches and apparitions. Macbeth believes that he is invincible because of the second apparition. that said any man born of a women can not harm Macbeth, What's the boy Malcolm?/Was he not born of a woman? The spirits that know/ All mortal consequences have pronounced me thus :/'Fear not, Macbeth. No man that's born of a woman/ Shall. Comparing Ophelia and Lady Macbeth Essay.
characteristic and essays on banking online, will do anything for the throne and the power that comes with it by mentally attacking her husband. Ophelia is obedient and submissive to the commands of Laertes, Polonius, and Hamlet, but Lady Macbeth is controlling and able to heart, impress her own plans and ambition into Macbeth. Polonius reminds Ophelia that she has an obligation to letter hotel, obey him as her father, “You do not understand yourself so clearly, as it behooves my daughter and of darkness essays, your honor” (I.iii.105-106). Thus, she is used by Polonius. The Change of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in this term paper, William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Macbeth’s unwillingness shortly vanishes as he becomes “settled”, in spite of his guilt, and chooses to commit the crime of murdering the king. Immediately prior to heart of darkness on women, the murder, however, Macbeth experiences a “fatal vision” when he sees a dagger before his eyes and asks the infamous question “is this a dagger I see before me?” The hallucination is “a dagger of the mind, a false creation” and the first of many to come in which Macbeth’s subconscious guilt is expressed. Narrative Essay! An.
contributions are valued. Heart Of Darkness Essays! It is based on social, political and economical equality for women. LM from feminist perspective From a feminist perspective, Lady Macbeth is not considered equal. She is incapable of ruling Scotland as she is a woman, therefore she needs Macbeth to become king if she wants power. She cannot control factors in her own life. Lady Macbeth could not kill Duncan as women would never do such a thing in the Elizabethan times. Modern Women from a feminist perspective In today’s society. Essay on Development of the Character of Lady Macbeth.
realize this later on essay, in the play. The lady understands her husband well and has the heart power, and ambition, which he lacks. This Term Paper! She allowed this aspiration, not for herself but for of darkness essays on women her husband, to overcome her and essay, afterward even destroy her life, and her husbands furthermore; which in heart essays, time lead to science narrative, their death. On various occasions in heart essays, the play, she takes charge of the situation. For example in thesis types, Act two, scene three after Duncan is of darkness murdered and all tension is upon this term paper, Macbeth and she faints (or pretends to faint)
Psychoanalytical Criticism of Lady Macbeth Essay. Lacan then asserts that the subject is now ruled by language, and this discourse forms the structures of cultural and social identities (Richter 1046). Heart Of Darkness! Lacan’s psychoanalytic theories can be readily applied to the character Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth. When Macbeth’s dark tragedy was written in criminology dissertation writing, the beginning. The Uncontrolled Ambition of of darkness on women, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay.
Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in essays online, their Introduction to of darkness essays, The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the essays on gangs and violence play as intertwining with evil and heart essays on women, ambition: While in this term paper, Hamlet and others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon heart of darkness, and brooded over his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and imagined from first to last with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of workmanship. Essay on The Effect of Evil in science narrative essay, Witches and Lady Macbeth on Macbeth. Macbeth, the thane of Glamis, a noble man of Scotland, a general in the Scotland King's army and a great warrior is self-satisfied with his position, until the three witches tell him in the third scene of the first act, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter. Just after hearing this, Macbeth and Banquo, his noble friend and of darkness on women, a general in the King's army receive a message from Ross that Macbeth has been. Essay about Presentation of Lady Macbeth in Shakespeare?s Macbeth. play progresses, Macbeth’s character grows stronger whereas Lady Macbeth’s regresses.
Lady Macbeth’s influence over Macbeth reduces after Macbeth becomes the King of Scotland. When Macbeth informs his wife that he is going to slaughter Banquo, she responds saying “You must leave this.” (3.2 35) Macbeth decides to ignore her advice. Essays! She is so weak, emotionally, that she cannot stop him whatsoever. In the heart of darkness essays second half of the play, Macbeth does not include his wife in many of his other vicious schemes. How Does Shakespeare Present the Relationship Between Macbeth and essays on gangs, Lady Macbeth? see how Lady Macbeth has a power over Macbeth, she is heart of darkness cunning and calculated, and despite the fact that Macbeth is the seasoned warrior, she is the one who laughs at murder and criminology writing, Macbeth who declines, however we see her exert her power over Macbeth to make him want to murder Duncan, showing how the power in the relationship is heart of darkness all in Lady Macbeth in the first act. General Hotel! In act two, after murdering Duncan, Macbeth says ‘This is a sorry sight’, but Lady Macbeth again shows her power over Macbeth. ‘A foolish. Lady Macbeth Responsible for Duncan#x27;s Death Essay examples.
We see that Macbeth does not want to kill Duncan because he is of darkness afraid of being caught. Lady Macbeth knows exactly how to manipulate her husband, and uses that skill while she talks to Macbeth. Lady Macbeth insults her husband by undermining his manliness. Lady Macbeth tells her husband, When durst do it, then you were a man; / And to be much more than what you were, you would. Macbeth Is a Butcher and Lady Macbeth Is a Fiend-Like Queen Essay. to good use instead of evil, he would have been a great man. Lady Macbeth could also be described as a tragic hero, as although she was fiendish, she did feel remorse at the end of the play. She then took her own life, as she could no longer live with the cruel deeds that she had done, therefore making her a tragic hero.
Lady Macbeth: the science narrative essay Slayer of King Duncan Essay. 63-65: Lady Macbeth says, “Only look up clear, To alter favor ever is to fear, Leave all the rest to me,” which basically declares that Lady Macbeth is entirely aware and up to date on what’s going on. Of Darkness Essays On Women! She assertively enlightens Macbeth on how to disguise himself of his uncertainty and second thoughts about killing the king and is willing to accommodate Macbeth with anything else he needs assistance with. The second step in her scheme is now in the process of being complete. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Essay about Lady Macbeth by William Shakespeare. It is with this first step that Macbeth begins his departure from cover letter general manager, being a virtuous man. To Macbeth, killing the king was the only way he would be happy. The raven croaking the entrance describes how Macbeth awaits Duncan's inexorable approach to his demise. Though unsure of the path he should have taken, he realizes that if he kills the of darkness on women king, there would be no going back to his old life. With his decision final, Macbeth executes the doctoral types king.
Just before he commits the deed, he comments on his similarities. Lady Macbeth Is More Ruthless Essay example. Macbeth wrote, Art not without ambition, but without the illness should attend it that he does not want to commit an act of murder. Once again Lady Macbeth's ruthlessness is displayed when she asks, Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the heart crown to the toe top-full of dirtiest cruelty . Lady Macbeth calls upon the spirits to essays, help her find the power to heart essays on women, kill Duncan. When Macbeth arrives at hotel, Inverness it's not Macbeth that begins talking about the plot. The Relationship Between Macbeth and heart, Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Play.
Lady Macbeth knows her husband's weaknesses though, yet do I fear thy nature;/ It is too full o' the types milk of human kindness and is prepared to heart of darkness on women, accept them and if necessary take the initiative by essay, killing the king herself: you shall put/This night's great business into my dispatch. This also shows her devotion, love and of darkness on women, commitment to this term paper, him: they see their future together: he says, of what greatness is promised thee, and she says, Glamis thou art, and heart of darkness essays, Cawdor; and shalt. How Shakespeare Portrayed Lady Macbeth Essay examples. man. After this, Lady Macbeth says: I have given suck, and know How tender ?tis to love the babe that milks me ? I would while it was smiling in this term paper, my face Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums, And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you Have done this. As Macbeth does not, or cannot have an heir to the throne, Macbeth talking about heart on women, this is another way of denying him his masculinity.
In the Elizabethan era, childbirth was seen as an essays honour, so Lady Macbeth could be implying. Essay Shakespeare’s Lady Macbeth: Pure Evil? This is very important; it shows that Macbeth trusts his wife with everything. Another indication of their relationship in the phrase my dearest partner in greatness. This suggests that Macbeth loves his wife dearly, but not only heart of darkness essays on women, that, but considers her his equal. At the time this play was based, or even written, women were very much considered inferior. She also perhaps, reveals, a weaker side to her personality when she prays to science essay, the dark powers to essays on women, fill her heart with cruelty, and rid her of this term paper, feminine.
Macbeth Text Response-This Deed, the Murder of King Duncan, Has Unanticipated Consequences for Both Macbeth and heart of darkness essays, Lady Macbeth. Discussed. 1, scene 7, pg 28 lines 14-16). However, when Lady Macbeth reproves him for his cowardice, he responds, “I dare do all that may become a man/ who dares do more is none’ (Act 1, scene 7, pg 29 lines 50, 51), and he is convinced to go through with the plan. On the this term paper night of the assassination, Macbeth sees an imaginary dagger, leading him to Duncan’s chamber; the heart of darkness essays on women path to his destiny. Essays On Banking! He commits the murder and return to his chamber where Lady Macbeth is waiting for him. On Women! They both return back to bed.
Lady Macbeth, the Fiend Like Queen, but Capable of Remorse Essay. scene which shows us how inhumane Lady Macbeth actually is happens in act 1 scene 7: “ove the essays on banking baby that milks me… dashed the brains out”. Here she tries to prove to her husband how committed she is to him by using gruesome metaphors and making him feel inferior, telling him that she would have killed her own baby if he had asked her to do so. Some people could argue that this is evidence of her being evil but I disagree. This just proves to us that Lady Macbeth has evil thoughts and that she will. How Does Shakespeare Present Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s Relationship in Act 1? to stay the same; as at of darkness essays, the minute many people have high opinions of essays and violence, him and he does not want to heart essays, ruin the respect that he has earned. Criminology Writing! She then realizes that Macbeth is heart no longer interested in her intentions and so she attacks him by saying: “I dare do all that may become a man who dares do more is none”. It is this term paper then evident that Lady Macbeth basically has complete power over essays, her husband when she describes herself dashing the brains out of doctoral types, a young child that somehow persuades him into joining her evil. Lady Macbeth Has Been Described as the heart of darkness essays on women ‘Fourth Witch.’ Do You Agree with This Statement? If Lady Macbeth had successfully connected with the evil forces in her invocation scene, then both the witches and Lady Macbeth exhibit an androgynous character, although Lady Macbeth only has masculine mental traits, while the witches have a masculine physical appearance as well as mental character. On Banking! Another common trait between Lady Macbeth and witches is that both are anti-mothers.
The myths of witches through history are seen as anti-mothers, and Lady Macbeth reveals this evil characteristic. The Role of heart of darkness on women, Lady Macbeth in Act 1, Scene 5 and Act 5, Scene 1. emphasized by on banking online, delving deep into of darkness on women, the character of types, Lady Macbeth, which is summed up with the following quotation - Under my battlements, come you spirits, That tend on mortal thoughts, Unsex me here, And fill me from the heart of darkness crown to essays online, the toe, top-full, Of direst cruelty: make thick my blood, Stop up th' access and heart, passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose In this, Lady Macbeth calls upon the spirits to take away her femininity. Macbeth by science essay, Shakespeare - Lady Macbeth and Themes Essay. With out her fortitude and ambition, Macbeth would not have started his killing spree which would have kept him from of darkness on women, becoming king of Scotland. Ambition, a strong desire to do or achieve something, is one of the central theme’s focused on in this work. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to evil as the women, the essays aggression of heart essays on women, Lady Macbeth is more striking because it goes against criminology prevailing expectations of how women ought to behave. Of Darkness Essays On Women! Lady Macbeth's behavior certainly shows that. Similarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth – Essay.
Even Macbeth does not dare to essays on gangs and violence, call upon the devil and of darkness essays on women, evil spirits to kill his emotions to, free him of all capacity to feel, to empty him of all remorse. However Lady Macbeth did this and doctoral types, hence she proves that she has an ambition infinitely more vaulting than Macbeth. Of Darkness Essays On Women! Though Lady Macbeth’s ambition may be more vaulting than Macbeth’s, both share the letter general hotel same purpose to usurp the crown and use it for their own evil means: “If it were done when ‘tis done, ‘twere well it were done quickly”. It is here. compare miss Havisham and Lady Macbeth Essay. In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is first introduced in Act 1 Scene 5. She is reading a letter from her husband, immediately the audience see her as a determined and power-hungry character. In her soliloquy she reveals that Macbeth ‘shalt be what thou art promised’ her ambition for her husband to be king and indeed perhaps for heart on women herself to be queen is evident here. Shakespeare’s use of the imperative ‘shalt’ displays her controlling nature, showing her strength and masculinity which would. inserting passages from his own play, The Witch. Macbeth's curse Macbeth is also known as 'The Scottish Play' due to a long-held superstition that the play has a curse upon this term paper, it and of darkness essays, that if anyone utters the word 'Macbeth' in a theatre, outside the context of a rehearsal or performance, tragedy will befall the production. The characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are therefore referred to by a nickname, such as 'Mackers' and 'Lady Mackers' or similar.
To remedy the dissertation curse, the offender needs to leave.