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Business Plan: Your Financial Plan. The financial part of dream, a business plan includes various financial statements that show where your company currently stands and where it expects to be in dtp, the near future. This information helps you determine how much financing your business needs and helps outsiders determine whether lending you money or investing in dream essay conclusion, your business is a wise use of their funds. Lenders and investors will expect that you have invested your own money in the firm to of cool argumentative essay about, demonstrate that you are committed to your idea and confident that your business will succeed. American Dream Essay Conclusion! The amount of english essays on my, your own money you will need to american dream, have invested in the business compared to the amount you want to finance varies, but it usually ranges from assignment code 20% to 50%. You must also determine what type of dream conclusion, financing would be most suitable for your business. Banks offer several types of loans to businesses that do not present too much risk. Do you need a short-term working capital loan to increase your inventory? Do you want a transaction loan, where you receive all the assignment provision, money at american essay once, or a line of assignment provision, credit, where you draw on funds as you need them? Do you need an dream intermediate-term loan to purchase larger assets such as real estate or equipment?

Would you prefer revolving credit, which has a longer time frame than a line of credit and allows you to heights duality, re-borrow funds that you have previously paid back? Or are you a high-risk business that needs to jump through the extra hoops required to conclusion, secure a government-backed Small Business Administration loan? (See Expanding Your Small Business with an SBA Loan .) Structuring Your Financial Plan. Good Cover Letters! Begin your financial plan with information on american dream conclusion where your firm stands financially at the end of the wuthering heights duality, most recent quarter what its financial situation has looked like historically. Then lay out your goals with financial projections for dream conclusion the next three to duality, five years, depending on what lenders or investors have asked for. These are called pro forma statements, and dream conclusion, they are based on your assumptions about how your business will perform. Your one-year projections should be broken down by month, while your more distant projections can be broken down by year. If your business plan is for the expansion of an existing business, your statements will be based on your business's existing financial data. If your business is new, your statements will be speculative, but you can make them realistic by basing them on the published financial statements of existing businesses similar to yours. If you can’t find this data on wuthering your own or if it simply doesn’t exist because your business concept is essay conclusion, too unique or all similar companies are privately held, look for assignment an accountant who has experience working with businesses similar to dream conclusion, yours and can help you create realistic financial projections. Three Key Financial Statements.

Your financial plan should include three key financial statements: the income statement, the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Let's look at what each statement is and why you need it. Dtp! The income statement, also called the profit and american essay conclusion, loss statement or PL, summarizes your company's revenue and expenses. Revenues are your company's sales and/or other sources of income (for example, a cleaning business earns revenues from the hourly or per-room or per-home fee that it charges its clients; a grocery store earns revenue from the assignment, foods and other products and services it sells. Expenses include items such as the cost of goods sold (the money you spend buying produce, meat and conclusion, dairy from local farmers, for example) payroll for wuthering duality employees, payroll, sales and dream essay conclusion, income taxes, business insurance and loan interest. The bottom line of the income statement shows the essays family, company's net income, or its revenue minus expenses.

Lenders and investors want to know what kind of numbers your company is working with and whether your company is profitable or expects to be soon. (To learn more, read Understanding The Income Statement .) Balance Sheet. The balance sheet shows your company's assets and liabilities. It's called a balance sheet because the assets must perfectly balance the essay, liabilities. Of Cool Essay! Within each category are numerous subcategories. For example, your assets will include cash, accounts receivable, inventory and conclusion, equipment. Argumentative Essay! Your liabilities will include accounts payable, wages and salaries, taxes, rent and american conclusion, utilities, and loan balances. The balance sheet is important because it shows the company's financial position at ict coursework a specific point in time, and it compares what you own to what you owe. (For more information, see Reading The Balance Sheet .) Cash Flow Statement/Cash Budget. The cash flow statement shows the sums you expect to be coming into and going out of your business in a given time frame. Topics you'll need to examine to predict cash flow include sales forecasts, cash receipts vs. credit receipts and the time frame for collecting accounts receivable. Dream Essay Conclusion! How much will these expenses be, and how often will you need to pay them?

Will you have trade credit, and how long will you have to pay your suppliers? Cash flow statements not only show potential investors that you know what you're doing, they also help you to make sure your business model is financially viable and to wuthering heights, establish goals that you want to achieve. (For more on american this subject, check out What Is A Cash Flow Statement? and essays on my, The Essentials Of Cash Flow .) Your financial statements should show both a long- and short-term vision for your business. In business plans, three-year and five-year projections are considered long term, and american dream essay conclusion, your plan will be expected to cover at least three years. Your projections should be neither overly optimistic best-case scenarios, nor overly cautious worst-case scenarios, but realistic in-between projections that you can support. Don’t commit the common error of making hockey-stick projections that predict sudden, sharp growth – that’s a classic way to look like an assignment limitation amateur. (For further reading, see What You Need To Know About Financial Statements and our in-depth Financial Statements Tutorial .) Lenders may want your statements presented in a certain way, so ask before you draw them up. American Dream! A bank, for example, may want to see monthly projections for the first year, quarterly projections for the second year and annual projections for cover letters the third year. In addition to financial statements for your company, if you are a new business, you may need to provide personal financial statements for american conclusion each owner. These statements should list each owner’s assets, such as checking and savings account balances, stocks and bonds, retirement account balances and home equity, as well as liabilities such as mortgages, student loans, taxes owed and other debts. When you put together your financial statements, make sure there are absolutely no typos or mistakes in your calculations. If you are inexperienced in preparing these statements, hire an accountant to help you.

Even if you and all of english, your business partners know exactly what you are doing, you may still want to hire an unbiased, outside professional to check your work and give you a second opinion on dream essay whether your projects are realistic. You don't want to be blindsided by on my family, mistakes or problems in your financial statements when a potential lender or investor reviews your proposal. What You Can Learn from Your Financial Statements. While the financial statements are helpful in and of dream conclusion, themselves, the data they contain can also be used to calculate financial ratios such as gross profit margin, return on ict coursework investment and dream essay, return on owner's equity. Ratios provide helpful information about a company's liquidity, profitability, debt, operating performance, cash flow and investment valuation. Letters! (Learn more about financial ratios in our Financial Ratio Tutorial .) Additional Financial Information. In addition to financial statements, prospective lenders or investors will also want to see a sales forecast and, if your business will have employees, a personnel plan. The sales forecast is a chart that breaks down how much your business expects to sell in various categories by month (for the next year) and by year (for the american dream essay conclusion, following two to four years). For a cleaning service business, the sales forecast might list one-time cleanings, monthly cleaning contracts and annual cleaning contracts and further break those down by houses, condos, apartment units, entire apartment buildings and office buildings. Provision! For a grocery store, the sales forecast might list projected sales of dream conclusion, fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, seafood, packaged goods and hot prepared meals.

If your business sells a product, your sales forecast should include the cost of goods sold. Code! If your business will have employees and not just managers, you will need a personnel plan showing what types of employees you will have (for example, cashiers, butchers, drivers, stockers and cooks along with what they will cost in terms of salary and wages, health insurance, retirement plan contributions, workers compensation insurance, unemployment insurance, and Social Security and american conclusion, Medicare taxes. Use of Loan or Investment Capital. You’ve made a strong case for your business idea, its viability and merchants argumentative uniqueness, your ability to execute it. So how, exactly, do you plan to use any money that lenders or investors offer you? They’ll want to dream essay conclusion, know.

If you’re requesting a $100,000 loan, for example, you might break that down into the amount that will go toward equipment such as cash registers, shelving and refrigerated display cases; purchasing inventory; and assignment code, carrying out dream essay conclusion your marketing campaign. If you’re seeking capital to expand your business, you might show how much you plan to spend on remodeling or adding store locations. Duality! Proposed Repayment Schedule or Exit Strategy. Dream Essay Conclusion! Potential lenders will want to know how and when you intend to repay the loan or line of credit, so you should put together a proposed repayment schedule and letters, terms. They may not agree with your suggestion, but offering proposed terms shows that you are considering the loan from the lender's perspective. Also describe what collateral is available to secure the loan, such as inventory, accounts receivable, real estate, vehicles or equipment. Be aware that lenders do not count the full value of your collateral, and each lender may count a different percentage. American! Potential investors will want to know when their investment will pay off and how much of a return to expect. Letters! They will also want to see that you have an exit strategy to cash out on dream essay conclusion your investment and theirs.

Do you plan to sell the business outright to ict coursework, another individual or company? Hold an initial public offering and american dream, go public? What will your exit strategy be if the business is failing? At what point have you determined that you will cut your losses and sell or close down, and how will you repay investors if this happens? (See Top Exit Strategy Tips for Small Businesses and argumentative about, A Look At Exit Strategies .) Remember, no one has to lend you any money or invest in your company, and when they are considering doing so, they will be comparing the risk and return of working with you to the risk and return they could get from lending to american conclusion, or investing in other companies.

You have to convince them that your business is the essays on my, most promising option.

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Descriptive Essay – What is the American Dream? | ScholarAdvisor com

The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. American Essay Conclusion? Regional Studies . This paper uses a technopolitical approach to analyse China’s South–North Water Transfer Project. The project promises to channel 25 billion cubic metres of water a year from the Yangtze River northward, connecting four river basins, three megacities, six provinces and hundreds of millions of water users. The paper argues that the project embodies a particular, engineering-heavy approach to ict coursework, water management; that, even so, it poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of governance; and that it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment. ??????: ??????? Regional Studies . ??????????,??????????????????????????????????????,???????,??????,???????????????????,?????????????????????; ????,????????????????????; ?????????????,?????????,?????????????????????? Le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud: refaire la geographie de la Chine. Regional Studies . Cet article se sert d’une approche technopolitique afin d’analyser le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud en Chine. Le projet cherche a acheminer vers le nord 25 milliards de metres cubes d’eau par an a partir du fleuve Yangtze, reliant ainsi quatre bassins hydrographiques, trois megalopoles, six provinces et des centaines de millions d’utilisateurs d’eau.

Ce present article affirme que le projet incarne une approche particuliere de la gestion des eaux lourde d’ingenierie; que, toutefois, il represente un defi fondamental aux structures de gouvernance regionales en vigueur; et qu’il annonce des effets prejudiciables environnementaux continus dans les regions d’origine tandis qu’il sollicite des interventions futures similaires au niveau de l’environnement hydrologique en Chine. Das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt: Umgestaltung der Geografie von China. Regional Studies . In diesem Beitrag analysieren wir mithilfe eines technopolitischen Ansatzes das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt in essay conclusion China. Durch das Projekt sollen pro Jahr 25 Milliarden Kubikmeter Wasser vom Jangtse nach Norden umgeleitet und vier Flussbecken, drei Megastadte, sechs Provinzen sowie hunderte Millionen von Wasserverbrauchern angeschlossen werden. Wir argumentieren, dass das Projekt einen besonderen und techniklastigen Ansatz der Wasserbewirtschaftung verkorpert, dass es dennoch die vorhandenen regionalen Regierungsstrukturen vor grundlegende Herausforderungen stellt und dass es zu fortgesetzten schadlichen Umweltauswirkungen in den Quellregionen fuhren wird, wahrend es daruber hinaus zu ahnlichen kunftigen Eingriffen in die hydrologische Umwelt von China einladt. El proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte: transformacion de la geografia de China. Regional Studies . Mediante un planteamiento tecnopolitico, en este articulo analizamos el proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte en China. Con este proyecto se canalizaran 25.000 millones de metros cubicos de agua al ano desde el rio Yangtze hacia el norte, conectando cuatro cuencas hidrograficas, tres megaciudades, seis provincias y cientos de millones de usuarios de agua. En este articulo argumentamos que el proyecto implica un particular enfoque centrado en la ingenieria para la gestion del agua, que no obstante plantea retos fundamentales a las actuales estructuras regionales de gobernanza, que amenaza con continuos efectos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente en las regiones de fuente, y que ademas conlleva la creacion de programas similares en el futuro para el entorno hidrologico de China. The South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the most ambitious inter-basin water transfer scheme in the world. It is a complex of diversion channels that promises to deliver tens of dtp billions m 3 of fresh water a year over 1000 km from the relatively well-watered south of China to the drier north.

The project connects four major river basins, three megacities, six provinces, and hundreds of millions of water users and polluters. The project comprises three routes. Dream Conclusion? The Eastern Route has the capacity to supply 14.8 billion m 3 per year from the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) to the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Hebei and the municipality of Tianjin through a system of pumps, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals, including the essay Grand Canal, itself more than 2500 years old. The route began operating in late 2013. The Middle Route can provide 9.5 billion m 3 per year to the provinces of Henan and Hebei and the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin from Danjiangkou reservoir on american essay conclusion the Han River (a tributary of the middle Changjiang). Ten years in good cover letters for jobs construction, it involved raising the wall of the dam at Danjiangkou by dream essay conclusion, nearly 15 m and constructing a pair of tunnels to carry water under the HuangHe (Yellow River).

Water began to flow in late 2014 and there are plans to expand its capacity to 13 billion m 3 per good cover for jobs, year. A third (western) route would be capable of diverting another 20 billion m 3 of water annually from tributaries of the upper Changjiang through tunnels to american dream conclusion, the upper reaches of the HuangHe. The route is of cool, still being debated and there is no commitment to construct it, which would be the most expensive of the american three routes, nor any information about when a decision will be made (Figure 1). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the provision geography of China. Figure 1. The three routes of the american dream essay South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). Figure 1. The three routes of the assignment South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP).

Planning and dream essay design for the project were overseen by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), through its Planning, Design and Management Bureau of the SNWTP (Chinese Government Public Information Online, 2015 Chinese Government Public Information Online. ( 2015 ). ?????????????? [Ministry of Water Resources South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management Bureau]. Retrieved from http://govinfonew.nlc.gov.cn/gtfz/i11-24-18362 [Google Scholar] ). Assignment Provision? In 2002, this bureau completed a blueprint for the construction period and, in 2003, the Office of the Construction Committee for the SNWTP (Office of the SNWTP) was established directly under the american dream State Council to oversee construction (State Council, 2003 State Council. ( 2003 ). ?????????????? ??????????,??[2003]17? [Notice from the State Council on the founding of the argumentative about State Council’s Construction Committee for the South–North Water Transfer Project, official communication (2003) No. Essay? 17]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2008-03/28/content_7672.htm [Google Scholar] ). Various design institutes and river basin commissions compiled the designs and plans, while construction was done by Hanjiang Water Resources and Hydropower Corporation on letters for jobs the Eastern Route and Danjiangkou Water Resources and Hydroelectric Corporation on the Middle Route (water-technology.net, n.d. water-technology.net. Dream Essay Conclusion? ( n.d. ). South-to-north water diversion project, China . water-technology.net. English Family? Retrieved from http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/ [Google Scholar] ).

Estimates of the project’s cost differ enormously. The cost of constructing the Eastern and dream Middle routes has been estimated at US$79.4 billion (Chang, 2014 Chang, G. ( 2014 ). China’s water crisis made worse by policy failures. Merchants Of Cool Argumentative Essay About? World Affairs . Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/gordon-g-chang/china%E2%80%99s-water-crisis-made-worse-policy-failures [Google Scholar] ); an official of the Office of the SNWTP told Li ( 2014 Li, Y. ( 2014 ). ?????????? 2100???????????? [Will the investment of RMB 210 billion in the Middle Route of the south–north water transfer be reflected in american dream essay cost-based water pricing?]. 21st Century Business Herald . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/20140614/032619411109.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that the construction of the two routes would likely end up costing RMB 300 billion (US$47 billion at late 2015 exchange rates). There are many other estimates within this range.

These costs do not include evicting and resettling 365,000–375,000 people for the enlargement of assignment limitation Danjiangkou reservoir and construction of canals (the Office of the SNWTP estimates 300,000 people, but later estimates are higher). The experience at Three Gorges (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in essay conclusion rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . Argumentative Essay Uniqueness? [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) suggests that the evictions cost at least RMB 100,000 each (excluding the costs to households), adding another US$5.75 billion to the construction cost. Nor do estimates of construction cost include environmental protection and evicting farmers from the american essay catchment of Danjiangkou reservoir. To put these figures in assignment limitation perspective, Chinese state-budgeted investment totalled RMB 10,769 billion between 2004 and 2013, so the project cost at least 3% of government investment while it was being constructed. This, then, is a huge project, linking four major river basins across the majority of China’s land mass. It is a complex engineering project that required the american essay deployment of extensive representational resources to essays, justify it. As a socio-technical infrastructure the SNWTP mediates between Chinese society and its environment, comprising a political and a material response to dream, social needs and environmental demands and complementing at least another five interbasin diversion projects within China (Chen Wenger, 2014 Chen, H. , Wenger, R. B. ( 2014 ). Water diversion projects in China . In R. M. Clark S. Hakim (Eds.), Securing water and wastewater systems, protecting critical infrastructure 2 (pp. 213 – 232 ). Cham : Springer . Merchants Of Cool Essay About? [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). American Dream? Yet while it embodies elements of China’s long tradition of water resources management (Pietz, 2014 Pietz, D. Code? ( 2014 ). The Yellow River: The problem of american dream water in modern China . Cambridge , MA : Harvard University Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP nevertheless poses challenges to the existing structure of China’s socio-environment.

The literature on the operation and implications of the SNWTP is still in its infancy, and is principally concerned with the management of the project. Wuthering Duality? Three topics dominate. One is the elucidation of the principles that should underpin operational management, including water allocation modelling and the pricing model (Nie, Duan, Liu, 2013 Nie, Y. H. , Duan, W. American Essay Conclusion? G. , Liu, D. ( 2013 ). Water allocation model for Shandong segment of the on my family East Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . American Dream Conclusion? Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute , 30 (8), 75 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wu, Dong, Guo, Li, 2013 Wu, Z. N. , Dong, M. L. , Guo, R. L. , Li, Y. English Family? ( 2013 ). Study on american dream two-part water price calculation and its impact factors for main line of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 148 – 152 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Lu, Fei, 2013 Zhang, L. C. , Lu, H. , Fei, X. X. ( 2013 ). Analysis and research on water resources optimal allocation of Henan province intake area of the Middle Route of wuthering heights essays South to North water diversion project . Yellow River , 35 , 61 – 63 , 67. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Another concerns the evaluation of, and potential mitigating measures against, the principal risks that face managers of the american conclusion project (Hu, Zheng, Li, Shi, 2013 Hu, D. , Zheng, L. , Li, S. , Shi, G. K. Wuthering Heights Duality Essays? ( 2013 ). Study on the risk evaluation method for the open channel operation in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and essay conclusion Water Science Technology , 11 , 98 – 101 . Heights Essays? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), especially floods (Cong, Kang, Cheng, Ding, 2012 Cong, H. X. American Dream? , Kang, L. , Cheng, X. Merchants About Uniqueness? J. , Ding, Y. Conclusion? ( 2012 ). Flood risk analysis in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project of China based on Bayesian network . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 10 – 13 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), security of water supply (Lin, Liu, Chen, 2012 Lin, C. S. , Liu, W. Cover Letters? , Chen, H. ( 2012 ). Unified allocation of american dream essay conclusion water resources of intake area at Henan province in the South-to-North water diversion Middle Route project . Ict Coursework? South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 11 – 12 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Jiang, Li, Yang, Sun, 2012 Zhang, Z. Conclusion? W. , Jiang, H. Merchants Argumentative? J. , Li, C. Essay? G. , Yang, J. Cover Letters? , Sun, X. Essay Conclusion? Z. ( 2012 ). Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of water security in central water source area of cover for jobs Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 16 – 21 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ) and high groundwater levels (Hu Weng, 2013 Hu, G. Q. American Dream? , Weng, Y. Z. English Essays On My Family? ( 2013 ). Dream Essay? Variation of groundwater level along the section of Sha River to family, Yellow River of the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 120 – 124 . American Essay Conclusion? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). The risk of pollution in sources and along the route has received particular attention (Guo Ren, 2014 Guo, P. , Ren, J. ( 2014 ). Variation trend analysis of water quality along the Eastern Route of assignment provision South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 12 , 59 – 64 . Essay? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Wu, Ren, 2013 Guo, P. , Wu, P. R. , Ren, J. ( 2013 ). Analysis of ict coursework annual variation of main pollutants discharge into the river along the Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 62 – 66 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Xiao, Shang, Wang, 2013 Guo, H. , Xiao, W. Dream Conclusion? H. , Shang, J. S. , Wang, W. C. ( 2013 ). Impact assessment of wuthering heights Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project operation on the water environment of Nansi Lake . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 49 – 53 , 57. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Xin, Li, Finlayson, Wei, 2015 Xin, X. American Dream Essay? K. , Li, K. , Finlayson, B. , Wei, Y. ( 2015 ). Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou reservoir, China . Assignment? Water Science and Engineering , 8 , 30 – 39 . doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Dream? The third topic concerns the implications of the SNWTP for source regions (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of essays on my family water transfers from the american dream lower Yangtze River on water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of cover letters Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Fan, Yang, Tang, 2012 Fan, W. X. , Yang, Z. X. , Tang, H. F. ( 2012 ). On the construction of eco-economic zone in the water source area for Middle Route of South–North water diversion project . Forestry Economics , 2 , 39 – 42 . Dream Conclusion? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Huang Zhang, 2014 Huang, L. J. , Zhang, Z. W. On My Family? ( 2014 ). Ecological compensation standard of Xiangyang section of dream essay Han River middle and lower reaches in assignment limitation the Central Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of american Xiangfan University , 35 , 57 – 61 . Assignment? [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in american essay conclusion the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and limitation code Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and the use of local water resources in american dream conclusion the destinations (Ling, You, Wang, Gan, 2014 Ling, J. , You, J. Ict Coursework? J. , Wang, L. , Gan, H. ( 2014 ). Scenario analysis on water source replacement effects of the american dream essay 1st stage of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . South-to-North Water Transfers and assignment provision Water Science Technology , 12 , 16 – 20 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Dream Essay? None of these is assignment provision, concerned with the dream relations between the SNWTP and the broader development of China’s socio-environment or between the project and ongoing processes of water management. (Socio-environments are the manner of interaction of people, social groups, cities, firms, governments and the like, as well as elements of the dtp ‘produced environment’.) Relatively fewer are studies of the political and economic implications of the SNWTP, placing the project within the framework of socio-environmental relations within China (Barnett, Rogers, Webber, Finlayson, Wang, 2015 Barnett, J. American Dream? , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of assignment provision Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] , 2015 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2015 ). American Conclusion? Discourses of deflection: The politics of framing China’s South–North water transfer . Water Alternatives , 8 , 173 – 192 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . Argumentative Uniqueness? doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Crow-Miller argues that the SNWTP permits economic growth to continue on the North China Plain, helping the dream Chinese Communist Party to maintain political legitimacy. In doing this, the SNWTP is represented as an apolitical project that conceals the anthropogenic sources of assignment provision water stress on the North China Plain; this argument resurfaces later. In arguing that the SNWTP embodies a form of american authoritarian environmentalism, Moore ( 2014a Moore, S. M. Assignment Code? ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . American Dream Conclusion? Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . Merchants Of Cool Argumentative? doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 959) observes that the ‘SNWTP reflects a powerful, technocratic, and controlling central government, but one capable of employing a variety of strategies, persuasive as well as coercive, to pursue its objectives’. Barnett et al. ( 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . American Essay? Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) comment that in many respects the assignment limitation SNWTP represents an american dream essay conclusion alternative to better local management of water resources and thus contradict Berkoff ( 2003 Berkoff, J. ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified?

Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . Essays Family? [Google Scholar] ), who argues that the social disruption that would be caused if conservation measures were adopted on the North China Plain suffices to justify the american dream project. This paper develops some of dtp these political and economic arguments. It argues first that the project embodies a particular engineering-heavy approach to water management in China. This official technopolitical regime privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects, and targets shortages rather than pollution. Secondly, the paper argues that, even so, the project poses fundamental challenges to the existing regional structures of governance (by requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). Thirdly, it argues that the project both promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment.

This paper does not survey the social and dream conclusion environmental impacts of the SNWTP (examining neither the resettlement of people for ict coursework dtp, the project nor the american dream conclusion decisions about which regions should receive the water, for essay about, example); rather, it interprets some elements of the dream conclusion project in the light of concepts drawn from the study of technopolitics to wuthering heights duality, substantiate these arguments. The paper begins by considering the american dream essay conclusion theoretical status of such infrastructures. It then describes the assignment limitation code representations that are offered to justify the dream essay conclusion project over alternative forms of water management, and proceeds to explain the challenges thrown up by the SNWTP and its continuing environmental impacts. Represented as a straightforward, technical solution to quantitative imbalances between the regional demand for and supply of water in China, the project instead foregrounds the environmental, economic and political challenges posed by China’s patterns of growth. While technopolitical studies demonstrate how technical choices and political development march hand in ict coursework dtp hand, this paper reveals that huge infrastructure projects not only represent the essay conclusion state of relations between society and environment, but also – as Gandy ( 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of essays space: Water, modernity, and the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . Essay Conclusion? [Google Scholar] ) has emphasized – pose new challenges to those relations. THE TECHNOPOLITICS OF INFRASTRUCTURES.

Infrastructures are networks that enable the flow of goods, people or ideas and allow their exchange over good space (Larkin, 2013 Larkin, B. American Essay? ( 2013 ). The politics and poetics of infrastructure . Annual Review of Anthropology , 42 , 327 – 343 . Ict Coursework Dtp? doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155522 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). They have a topology and physical form that influence the speed and direction of movement, its temporalities and its vulnerability to breakdown. Infrastructures, in this sense, are technological objects. Water distribution systems are thus networks that link water in rivers, lakes and underground storages to plumbing in people’s houses, to american dream essay conclusion, irrigation pipes in farmers’ fields or to english on my family, outlets in factories, enabling that water to perform social roles. American Dream Essay? Infrastructures mediate between societies and merchants argumentative essay their environments. Water infrastructure consists of pipes, pumps and conclusion water treatment plants (machines); the links between those machines that make them into a system that delivers water; and techniques of organization – corporations, accounting, bureaucracies and the like (Molle, Mollinga, Wester, 2009 Molle, F. , Mollinga, P. , Wester, P. ( 2009 ). Hydraulic bureaucracies and the hydraulic mission: Flows of merchants argumentative essay about water, flows of power . Water Alternatives , 2 , 328 – 349 . [Google Scholar] ). Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. American Essay Conclusion? ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2012 Anand, N. ( 2012 ). Municipal disconnect: On abject water and its urban infrastructures . Ethnography , 13 , 487 – 509 . doi: 10.1177/1466138111435743 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), for example, considers the merchants about uniqueness provision of water to Mumbai in India, tracing the american essay conclusion interaction of two infrastructures. One system delivers water, through networks of pipes, engineers and bureaucracy that make up the technique of water provision; the essays family other comprises the social networks, forms of patron–clientship, and relationship-building that are also important to water delivery in Mumbai. These two infrastructures interact to produce what Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 545) calls ‘hydraulic citizenship, a form of belonging to the city enabled by social and material claims made to the city’s water infrastructure’.

The theoretical foundations for the notion that environments, social relations and technology are co-produced, each shaping and being shaped by the other, emerged in the 1980s. Various programmes, including the american essay social construction of technology, large-scale technical systems and actor–network theory, all attend to the construction of the borders between the social and the technical (Bijker Pinch, 2012 Bijker, W. E. Essays? , Pinch, T. ( 2012 ). Preface to conclusion, anniversary edition . In W. Essays Family? E. Bijker , T. P. Hughes , T. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of dream essay conclusion technology [1987] (pp. xi – xxxiv ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). They all contend that technologies are socially constructed, evolving to fill niches in good letters a world governed not only by american essay, biophysical laws but also by provision, social rules and government policies. A parallel argument contends that the environment, too, is socially and dream essay technologically constructed, depending not only on biophysical laws but also on social modifications and wuthering duality technologically mediated interfaces between people and american the environment (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 1999 Swyngedouw, E. Ict Coursework? ( 1999 ). Essay? Modernity and hybridity: Nature, regeneracionismo , and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890–1930 . Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 89 , 443 – 465 . doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00157 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2004 ). Social power and ict coursework the urbanization of american essay conclusion water: Flows of power . Duality Essays? Oxford : Oxford University Press . American? [Google Scholar] ). That environment in turn has agency over human beings and essay about societies’ technological trajectories, posing conditions that shape people and their societies (Williams, 2010 Williams, J. American Conclusion? C. ( 2010 ). Understanding the place of humans in nature . In M. Reuss S. Ict Coursework Dtp? H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. Dream? 9 – 25 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). The co-production of societies, environments and technologies is summarized in Hughes ( 2004 Hughes, T. Assignment Limitation? ( 2004 ). Human-built world: How to think about dream conclusion, technology and assignment culture . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 156): much of the dream essay conclusion world ‘consists of intersecting and overlapping natural and good for jobs human-built systems, which together constitute ecotechnological systems’. An influential application of these ideas is the concept of the hydro-social cycle (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . Conclusion? doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 2006 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2006 ). Ict Coursework? Power, water and dream money: Exploring the nexus (Occasional Paper No. 2006/14). United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report Office. [Google Scholar] ). As developed by Linton and Budds ( 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Of Cool Uniqueness? Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the hydro-social cycle incorporates the ideas that the dream essay need to manage water affects the organization of society in important ways, which in turn modify the english flow of water, and in their in turn give rise to new forms of social organization; nevertheless, the material properties of water play an active role in the cycle – water obeys its own laws. Specific applications of the concept of the hydro-social cycle include Finewood and Stroop ( 2012 Finewood, M. H. , Stroop, L. J. ( 2012 ). Fracking and the neoliberalization of the hydro-social cycle in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale . American Essay? Journal of Contemporary Water Research Education , 147 , 72 – 79 . doi: 10.1111/j.1936-704X.2012.03104.x [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), Clarke-Sather ( 2012 Clarke-Sather, A. Dtp? ( 2012 ). State development and the rescaling of agricultural hydrosocial governance in semi-arid northwest China . Water Alternatives , 5 , 98 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ), Boelens ( 2014 Boelens, R. ( 2014 ). Cultural politics and american dream the hydrosocial cycle: Water, power and identity in the Andean highlands . Geoforum , 57 , 234 – 247 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and McDonnell ( 2014 McDonnell, R. A. ( 2014 ). Limitation? Circulations and transformations of energy and water in Abu Dhabi’s hydrosocial cycle . Geoforum , 57 , 225 – 233 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.11.009 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). People, networks, institutions, water (H 2 O in Linton Budds’, 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , language) and other things, including elements of the environment, interact, producing effects, among which are particular socio-environments. This socio-environment includes human-modified climates, modified river regimes, canals, dams, delivered water and altered aquatic ecosystems.

Conventionally, some components of socio-environments are understood as society (in the traditional sense), some as environment (in the traditional sense) and some as infrastructures. However they are classified, the elements of socio-environments (things) then provide the context or framework within which people, networks, institutions, water and the like interact as preformed agents in another iteration to produce yet further effects, in a continuous evolution. One set of the elements of a socio-environment is its infrastructures. These are, on the one hand, technological systems to be understood through an dream essay conclusion analysis of networked machines, bureaucracies and the like; on code the other, they are political, used to constitute, embody or enact political goals – they embody a technopolitics (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in american essay France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Assignment Limitation Code? Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Infrastructures in this sense are hybrids of technology and politics. This does not mean that infrastructures are politics, for their material effectiveness is not simply political but also grounded in their physical being. The history of rivers cannot be fully understood without considering infrastructures such as levees, locks, dams, hydroelectric plants, aqueducts and hydro-bureaucracies. But those infrastructures cannot be understood without considering the ways of american conclusion behaving of rivers and social groups.

The choices related to those infrastructures cannot be examined without understanding the administrative apparatus of multi-jurisdictional governance peculiar to those rivers, or the policies that guide that apparatus. ‘Society’ and ‘nature’ meet in the history of a river (Cronon, 1990 Cronon, W. ( 1990 ). Modes of ict coursework dtp prophecy and production: Placing nature in american history . Ict Coursework? Journal of American History , 76 , 1122 – 1131 . doi: 10.2307/2936590 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). But infrastructures encourage path dependence. Things grow hard or stable, and fixed patterns of structure (such as bureaucracies) and behaviour emerge around them (Bijker, 2007 Bijker, W. E. ( 2007 ). Dikes and dams, thick with politics . Isis , 98 , 109 – 123 . doi: 10.1086/512835 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), sometimes persisting over changes in essay conclusion regime and travelling across cultural contexts (Sneddon, 2015 Sneddon, C. ( 2015 ). Concrete revolution: Large dams, Cold War geopolitics, and the US Bureau of Reclamation . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Grounded in these institutions, technopolitical regimes (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Good Cover Letters For Jobs? Technology, politics, and national identity in american essay France . In M. T. On My? Allen G. American Conclusion? Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) consist of linked sets of people, engineering and industrial practices, artefacts, political programmes and institutional ideologies which act together to govern technological development and pursue technopolitics. In a society at heights essays, a given time there may exist competing technopolitical regimes: in 18th-century China, Confucian and Daoist conceptions of water management (to actively direct the flow of rivers or move the population and american essay ‘let the water be’, respectively) competed for primacy (Purdue, 2010 Purdue, P. C. ( 2010 ). Is there a Chinese view of technology and assignment nature? In M. Reuss S. H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. 101 – 119 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). In post-colonial Pakistan, centralist (Punjabi-dominated) conceptions of the american dream essay ‘One Nation’ competed with regionalist imaginaries of Pakistan over the control and distribution of water from hydraulic infrastructures on the Indus River (Akhter, 2015 Akhter, M. ( 2015 ). Infrastructure nation: State space, hegemony, and hydraulic regionalism in Pakistan . Antipode , 47 , 849 – 870 . Assignment Limitation? doi: 10.1111/anti.12152 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). These studies do not, however, consider the political, social and environmental challenges that are posed by huge infrastructure projects – and that is the principal purpose of this paper.

REPRESENTING THE NEED FOR THE SOUTH–NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT. The imaginary of a water-rich south versus a water-scarce north – ????,???? ( Xinhua Net , 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). American Dream Essay? ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) – is central to all accounts of the SNWTP, which seeks to ‘balance’ the wuthering essays allocation of water at the national scale. Essay? As Xinhua Net ( 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the assignment provision ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) expressed the dream essay conclusion words of prominent Chinese geographer, Liu Changming: [China’s per capita water resources are low – only one quarter of the english family world average. American Dream? A special characteristic is uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with much agricultural land but little water in the North and little agricultural land but more water in the South. In addition, the water resources are concentrated in the summer. The South–North Water Transfer Project is needed to balance this unevenness.] This geographical imaginary is evident in assignment limitation maps of the project, and in dream conclusion the expression used to describe its overall outcome, which refers to wuthering, ‘four horizontals, three verticals’ (????): the four major rivers – Changjiang, HuaiHe, HaiHe and HuangHe – provide horizontal movement, while the three routes of the SNWTP provide vertical movement ( People’s Daily Online , 2014 People’s Daily Online . American Dream Essay Conclusion? ( 2014 ). ??????????? [Spanning more than half a century of water diversion dreams]. People’s Daily Online . Retrieved from english essays on my family http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1210/c1001-26178581.html [Google Scholar] ). This imaginary implies absolute control over the water resources within China’s territory: water no longer flows west to east as it did for centuries; it is also now flowing south to north. The maps communicate the delivery of water over dream space and the delivery of a political project to dominate hydrological landscapes that began thousands of years ago.

In light of the historical association between political legitimacy and duality the control of resources, including water (Mukerji, 2003 Mukerji, C. ( 2003 ). American Dream Essay Conclusion? Intelligent uses of engineering and the legitimacy of state power . Technology and Culture , 44 , 655 – 676 . doi: 10.1353/tech.2003.0175 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the visible forms of the SNWTP are important political symbols, signifying the authority of the state. Rather than approaching water management from a local or bioregional perspective in which hydrological units (watersheds and river basins) serve as the management unit (Thayer, 2003 Thayer, R. L. ( 2003 ). Bioregional thought and practice . Berkeley : University of dtp California Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP locates the problem of north China’s water shortage at the national scale. The threat of water shortage is a threat to the survival of the Chinese nation, according to american, former premier Wen Jiabao (quoted in Moore, 2009 Moore, S. M. ( 2009 ). Climate change, water and China’s national interest . China Security , 5 , 25 – 39 . [Google Scholar] ); former president Hu Jintao identified water as exerting an ‘evident impact on China’s economic security, ecological security and national security’ ( China Daily , 2011 China Daily . ( 2011 ). China to set up water facilities construction. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-07/11/content_12875128.htm [Google Scholar] ). Water is needed to duality, secure food supplies and energy production, vital to continuing national development and therefore the survival of the state and Party (Yong, 2006 Yong, J. ( 2006 ). China’s water policy and practice . Water International , 31 , 127 – 130 . doi: 10.1080/02508060608691922 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) (Figure 2). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of dream essay a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of a thousand years’): the english Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province.

The imaginary of the SNWTP as a solution to the water scarcity of the north through the use of abundant water from the south hides the anthropogenic drivers of american water insecurity in north China. It is true that China’s north has less water resources per unit area and per capita than the south (outside Manchuria, at least); in the Huang, Huai and Hai river basins, annual average per capita availability of water ranges between 314 and 672 m 3 , well below the levels at merchants uniqueness, which water shortages can threaten food production and economic development (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Wang Jin, 2006 Wang, X. C. Dream Essay? , Jin, P. Ict Coursework Dtp? K. ( 2006 ). Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China . Conclusion? Water Science and Technology , 53 , 35 – 44 . doi: 10.2166/wst.2006.267 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Furthermore, in one year of four, discharges in the Huai and Hai rivers fall to less than 70% of their annual average (Berkoff, 2003 Berkoff, J. Cover? ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified? Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . [Google Scholar] ). The shortfall is met by mining groundwater resources (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Varley, 2005 Varley, R. C. American Dream Conclusion? G. ( 2005 ). The World Bank and China’s environment 1993–2003 . Washington , DC : World Bank Operations Evaluation Department . 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Assignment? ( 2009 ). Addressing China’s water scarcity: Recommendations for american essay, selected water resource management issues . Assignment Limitation Code? Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ). Many people within China have pointed to these sources of water insecurity in the north. Xie ( 2009 Xie, J. ( 2009 ). Addressing China’s water scarcity: Recommendations for selected water resource management issues . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ), in a report for the World Bank, argued that to american conclusion, address China’s water scarcity there needed to be improvements to water governance, the development of essays on my water markets, increases in the price of water, new ecological compensation payments for the use of ecosystem services and controls over water pollution; the dream essay report did not even discuss the SNWTP. Xie was joining a long line of Chinese environmental scientists who had argued that water-saving measures, protection of resources from pollution and improved water management were the key means of resolving water shortages (Chinese Academy of Engineering, 2000 Chinese Academy of Engineering. ( 2000 ). Report of research on integrated water resources strategy for sustainable development in China . Engineering Science , 2 , 1 – 17 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Chinese Academy of ict coursework Sciences, 1998 Chinese Academy of Sciences. ( 1998 ). American Dream Essay? Ways out of China’s water problem . Advances in Earth Sciences , 13 , 113 – 117 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Mei Luo, 2000 Mei, X. R. , Luo, Y. P. ( 2000 ). Water shortage and China’s grain production: Problems, potentialities and ict coursework solutions . Science and Technology Review , 6 , 31 – 34 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wang, 1990 Wang, J. S. ( 1990 ). Water shortage and wastewater reuse . Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) , 2 , 67 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, 1999 Zhang, G. D. ( 1999 ). The problems of water resources facing China in the 21st century . Advances in Earth Sciences , 14 , 16 – 17 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Such views, moreover, were represented within the central government itself: the then Vice Minister of Housing and Urban–Rural Development, Qiu Baoxing (Qiu, 2014 Qiu, B. X. ( 2014 ). ???:???????????? [Qiu Baoxing: Urban water security in China and its countermeasures]. China Water Network News . American Conclusion? Retrieved from assignment code http://news.h2o-china.com/html/2014/02/125350_1.shtml [Google Scholar] ), observed that if one-third of Beijing’s buildings collected and used rainwater, that would have saved the investment in the SNWTP. At the time when the critical decisions to proceed with the project were made, all nine members of the Politburo standing committee were trained as engineers (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ); and party leaders have close personal ties to the corporations in american conclusion China’s water machine – Hu Jintao is a former employee of Sinohydro and provision Li Peng was father of the president of Huaneng.

Perhaps it is not surprising that such difficult and dream conclusion sensitive reforms to administration and governance attracted little official attention. In other words, representations of the need for the project carry two important characteristics. First, the problems of water supply are represented as national imbalances of national strategic significance rather than shortages that principally affect Beijing and Tianjin and that would be the responsibility of Beijing and ict coursework Tianjin to resolve. Secondly, they are represented as issues of dream essay conclusion quantitative shortage rather than induced by assignment, poor pollution control (as argued by World Bank SEPA, 2007 World Bank and american SEPA [State Environmental Protection Administration, People’s Republic of China]. ( 2007 ). Cost of pollution in merchants of cool argumentative uniqueness China . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ) and a national growth pattern that has seen the north’s share of agricultural production expand dramatically in dream conclusion the past 40 years (Webber et al., 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of essays Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Even though alternative diagnoses of China’s regional water shortages had been available long before the decision was made to commit to the SNWTP, the american dream essay conclusion solutions to provision, which those diagnoses pointed were ignored in a political decision that prioritized investment in technology and infrastructure over reforms to administration and dream essay governance. Cover? The infrastructure carried a political as well as a technological message. CHALLENGES TO EXISTING REGIONAL STRUCTURES. The project in this sense reflects the distribution of power in China – that the central government has greater capacity to american essay, invest billions in an infrastructure scheme than to reform water management systems in which local jurisdictions have a high degree of local autonomy and little incentive to manage water at the expense of jobs (Wang, Webber, Finlayson, Barnett, 2008 Wang, M. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. ( 2008 ). Rural industries and ict coursework dtp water pollution in China . Journal of american dream conclusion Environmental Management , 86 , 648 – 659 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.019 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The project is consistent with a model of growth in the 1990s and 2000s that was dominated by investment, including central government-led investment: according to World Bank data, gross capital formation in China exceeded 35% of assignment provision gross domestic product (GDP) in the 1980s, and since 1991 has averaged over 40%. Yet the SNWTP is throwing up challenges to China’s political order – the infrastructure is doing political work (now and into the future) as well as reflecting political work of the american essay conclusion past. The first challenge is to China’s governance regime. The governance of the SNWTP intervenes in assignment an already highly complex regime, what some have called fragmented authoritarianism (Lieberthal Oksenberg, 1988 Lieberthal, K. , Oksenberg, M. ( 1988 ). Policy making in China: Leaders, structures, and processes. Princeton : Princeton University Press . [Google Scholar] ; updated in Mertha, 2009 Mertha, A. ( 2009 ). ‘Fragmented authoritarianism 2.0’: Political pluralization in the Chinese policy process . China Quarterly , 200 , 995 – 1012 . Essay? doi: 10.1017/S0305741009990592 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The management of water in China is highly decentralized (Webber, Barnett, Finlayson, Wang, 2008b Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2008b ). Pricing China’s irrigation water . Global Environmental Change , 18 , 617 – 625 . Family? doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.014 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and characterized by inter-jurisdictional conflicts (Moore, 2014b Moore, S. M. ( 2014b ). Dream Essay Conclusion? Hydropolitics and good cover inter-jurisdictional relationships in China . American? China Quarterly , 218 , 1 – 21 . Family? [Google Scholar] ). The state is unbundled into dream essay, ill-coordinated congeries of territorial bureaucracies and on my family vertically and horizontally segmented administrative boundaries, which do not map well onto the hydrological cycle (Nickum Lee, 2006 Nickum, J. E. Dream Conclusion? , Lee, Y. S. F. ( 2006 ). Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in english essays on my family urban water in China, North and South . Environmental Politics , 15 , 231 – 247 . doi: 10.1080/09644010600562492 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of american conclusion Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 232).

It involves the MWR; for most river basin management issues, the MWR’s responsibilities are delegated in one line of merchants about command to river basin commissions and in another line to provinces, counties and townships or cities. But many other ministries have their hand in american dream essay water management, including the ministries of Environmental Protection, Housing and Urban–Rural Development, and assignment provision Agriculture. Dream? Now this ministerial separation and localization of management are being overturned for the SNWTP. The construction phase has been managed by the SNWTP Construction Committee chaired by the Vice Premier, and under the auspices of the State Council (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to north water transfer plans in China . Cover Letters For Jobs? United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). The committee includes representatives of line ministries – the ministers of dream essay conclusion Water Resources and of Environmental Protection as well as the Chair of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) – and of provincial-level administrations – the mayors of Beijing and Tianjin, and the governors of Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces (State Council General Office, 2013 State Council General Office. ( 2013 ). ??????????????????????????????? [State Council General Office notice on essays on my revision of the South–North Water Transfer Project Construction Committee]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-07/04/content_2440461.htm [Google Scholar] ). The committee directed the american SNWTP Construction Committee Office, which actually managed the construction. The institutions to manage the operations of the project are now being stitched together, though with disagreements ( Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort].

Caijing . Assignment? Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). The Ministry of Environmental Protection is responsible for american dream conclusion, pollution control (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from essays on my http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). Responsibility for deciding on the volumes to be transferred lies with the MWR and its Bureau of dream essay conclusion South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management, which should seek final approval for assignment provision, allocations from the State Council (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from american dream essay conclusion http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). These decisions are intended to heights duality essays, reflect abstractions proposed by the river basin commissions and water-use plans prepared by provincial and municipal governments. Conclusion? However, the 2014 regulations did not conclusively establish a specific management unit responsible for dtp, the operation of the project, with the american dream essay result that the MWR and the SNWTP Construction Committee Office are disputing their roles in assignment this decision-making (MWR General Office, 2012b MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012b ). ???????????????????????????? [Notification concerning the issuance of the south–north water transfer Eastern and Middle Route first phase water volume dispatch plan]. Retrieved from http://max.book118.com/html/2014/0205/5779368.shtm [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). Dream Conclusion? ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and SNWT office disagree on who will run the management].

Caijing . Provision? Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ). American Essay Conclusion? The SNWTP Construction Committee Office proposal seems to be ( Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of heights duality essays Water Resources and SNWT office disagree on american conclusion who will run the management]. Caijing . Heights Duality? Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that in accord with the requirements of a modern enterprise system each route should be managed by a limited liability company, with boards of directors composed of representatives of american investors, as the project legal person responsible for ict coursework dtp, ongoing work on the project, its operational management, loans and the value of american essay conclusion assets, and it should operate independently in accordance with the law. Such a management company would remove the administration of merchants argumentative about some water from the MWR. The second challenge is to the hierarchical distribution of power in China, which is also being reorganized through the american essay project, as the centre takes over control over land use in some regions and determines the ict coursework dtp prices of conclusion water in specific cities. The NDRC has developed an economic and social development plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and upper reaches of the Han River (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). Merchants Of Cool Argumentative? ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). Dream Essay? The plan encompasses 43 counties, cities and forestry areas in Shaanxi, Hubei and Henan provinces, mostly within the catchment area for Danjiangkou reservoir. Limitation? The plan attempts to manage water quality for the SNWTP by dividing the catchment into american essay conclusion, water-source-conservation areas where new construction is prohibited and the population resettled; ecological agricultural areas where economic restructuring will take place and assignment limitation code fertilizer and pesticide use reduced; and cluster development areas where cleaner production will be promoted (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and essay conclusion social development plan]. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). In other words, economic and social planning for these water-source areas is on my family, now being dictated by the central government in the interests of protecting water quality. The source areas are said to be sacrificing their own interests and dream development for the project ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping].

Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort]. Caijing . Retrieved from assignment limitation code http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). In addition, the State Council has approved a water pollution and soil conservation plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and its upstream areas which includes targets for water quality, chemical oxygen demand and soil conservation (MWR General Office, 2012a MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012a ). ????????????????????????‘???’??? [State council approves ‘Danjiangkou reservoir area and upstream water pollution control and soil conservation twelfth five year plan’]. Retrieved from dream essay http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/slyw/201206/t20120625_325019.html [Google Scholar] ). Around Danjiangkou reservoir new rules regulate sewage control, shipping-related pollution and fish farming ( China News , 2014 China News . ( 2014 ). ???????????????????(??) [Question and answer with head of south–north water transfer water management regulations (full text)]. China News . Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2014/02-28/5896749.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Water quality protection at Danjiangkou has become the ‘core work’ for local officials involved in english essays the SNWTP ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . American Dream Essay? ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping]. Assignment? Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ). In effect, the control of land use in a small, distant region is now a prerogative of american dream conclusion one of the most important central government agencies, the NDRC. Power over land use around the SNWTP is moving up. The pricing of water in China is provision, also highly contentious. On one side are the essay conclusion World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and a good proportion of the nation’s economists arguing that water should be priced at market rates to heights duality essays, achieve allocative efficiency.

On another side are the local water-resource bureaus, ultimately responsible to the MWR, that supply water to farmers for irrigation; they recognize, at least implicitly, that farmers are already the poorest group in society and have limited capacity to pay prices that urban users could pay. And finally there are the municipal water authorities, again ultimately responsible to the MWR, that are caught between the needs to restrain demand and to pay for improvements to water supply infrastructure, on the one side, and american essay conclusion vocal urban consumers who protest proposals to raise prices, on the other. In rural and urban water supply systems, prices are in assignment limitation code the end determined by local governments, though with pressure from above. The price of water supplied by the SNWTP, however, is going to be centrally determined. The NDRC stipulated in 2003 that water projects should involve a two-part pricing system (Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office, 2008 Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office. ( 2008 ). American Dream Essay Conclusion? What is the two-part water price system?

Retrieved from http://www.jswater.gov.cn/art/2008/11/5/art_870_25711.html [Google Scholar] ). A basic price is to be paid by local water authorities, in this case provinces. This basic price covers the capital and assignment overhead costs of the project – paying off construction loans, operational management, maintenance – and is payable no matter what volume of water is conclusion, used by that province. A calculated or metered price is to limitation code, be paid to cover running costs and allow for profit; it is charged volumetrically. The theoretical basis for this system was laid out in 2006. Figure 3 illustrates the corresponding calculated prices for the Middle Route. The NDRC’s initial determination of actual prices to be charged for conclusion, Middle Route water (Office of the SNWTP, 2014 Office of the SNWTP. ( 2014 ). ?????????????????????????????????? [PRC National Development and Reform Commission notice of Middle Route water supply price policy]. Retrieved from http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/zx/zxdt/201501/t20150107_365955.html [Google Scholar] ) is slightly lower than the basic plus calculated prices; Beijing is to merchants of cool about uniqueness, pay 2.33 and Tianjin 2.16 RMB/m 3 rather than the basic plus calculated prices of 2.96 and dream essay 3.03 RMB/m 3 , respectively (allowing for a 1% profit on the capital costs). Water supply corporations in those municipalities then process the water, for which they add a charge, and make additional charges for sewage (equal to about one-quarter of the delivered water price in Beijing). Thus, the delivered price to most Beijing consumers was raised to 5 RMB/m 3 in merchants of cool about 2014 ( China Daily , 2014 China Daily . ( 2014 ). Price full cost of water. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2014-04/04/content_17405783.htm [Google Scholar] ). Dream Essay? If provinces, municipalities or cities do not charge consumers the prices set by NDRC, then they must themselves pay the difference. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the assignment geography of China.

Figure 3. Geographical distribution of water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. Figure 3. Geographical distribution of water prices along the american conclusion Middle Route of the SNWTP. In fact, local jurisdictions face not only relatively high prices for the SNWTP’s water, but also they have to construct the infrastructure of pipes, pumping stations and treatment plants needed to deliver water to consumers. Cover Letters? These two charges, for water and its infrastructure, have apparently led some jurisdictions to decline to use the water supplied by the SNWTP (Chen, 2015 Chen, T. P. Conclusion? ( 2015 ). Cities in China’s north resist tapping water piped from argumentative essay about south . Wall Street Journal . Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/cities-in-chinas-north-resist-tapping-water-piped-from-south-1429781402 [Google Scholar] ), for essay, it is english on my family, cheaper to essay conclusion, continue to deplete local groundwater resources. Centralized pricing does have its oppositions. The SNWTP, in other words, is creating both the need for merchants essay about, and a space within which the horizontal and hierarchical distribution of power in China can be remade. Some institutions of water governance are being brought under the control of a body that reports directly to the State Council and some traditionally local policy arenas (water pricing and land use) are being determined centrally. These are only american conclusion, a few elements of the ict coursework dtp complex of bodies and environmental objects that constitute the management of water in China, but they do illustrate how an infrastructure – admittedly a big one – can require changes in the very structure of governance.

Paradoxically, the fragmentation of political authority – both vertically and conclusion horizontally – that has contributed so much to failures of earlier programmes of water conservancy and pollution control (Economy, 2004 Economy, E. C. ( 2004 ). The river runs black: The environmental challenge to heights duality essays, China’s future . Ithaca : Cornell University Press . [Google Scholar] ) is now being threatened by the very infrastructure that seemed designed to bypass that fragmentation. The work of the technopolitical system that is the SNWTP does not stop at such macro-political issues. Essay Conclusion? It is also challenging the day-to-day political work of water management in China. The discharge regimes and water quality characteristics of all manner of rivers will be profoundly affected by the movement of this water. These effects draw further interventions into China’s socio-environmental system. For example, the discharge of the Hanjiang downstream of letters for jobs Danjiangkou reservoir will be reduced by 30% (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), leading to threats of american higher pollution intensity in a river that was considered one of the cleanest in essays family China (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the american most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Good Cover For Jobs? Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ) and to problems of navigation. The response to this problem is to construct another water diversion, a 67 km canal from the essay Changjiang (Three Gorges Reservoir) to Danjiangkou (Hornby, 2014 Hornby, L. ( 2014 ). Concern mounts in provision China over Yangtze diversion project. Dream Essay? ft.com . On My Family? Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a39d9c7c-4fa2-11e4-a0a4-00144feab7de.html#axzz41BBN1rqA [Google Scholar] ). Meanwhile, Shaanxi is american dream essay, building a project to essays on my, divert water from the Hanjiang, in the Yangtze basin, to the Wei He, in dream conclusion the Yellow river basin (Pohlner, 2016 Pohlner, H. Of Cool Uniqueness? ( 2016 ). Institutional change and the political economy of dream water megaprojects: China’s South-North water transfer . Global Environmental Change , 38 , 205 – 216 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.03.015 [Crossref], [Web of merchants argumentative essay about Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), permission for which seems to have been compensation for SNWTP’s use of dream conclusion Shaanxi’s water (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Good Cover? Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . Dream Conclusion? doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of limitation Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ): in other words, the exclusion of Shaanxi from use of the SNWTP water is leading to the construction of american dream yet another diversion. The cartographic and diagrammatic accounts of the SNWTP obscure the essay uniqueness degree to which the scheme takes water from the Changjiang and dream essay conclusion may have critical effects on its flow (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Merchants About Uniqueness? Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). American? The impact of water transfers from the english essays on my lower Yangtze River on american essay water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Li et al., 2015 Li, M. , Chen, Z. , Finlayson, B. , Wei, T. , Chen, J. , Wu, X. , … Wang, M. English Essays? ( 2015 ). Water diversion and dream conclusion sea-level rise: Potential threats to freshwater supplies in the Changjiang River estuary . Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science , 156 , 52 – 60 . doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.07.007 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The visual representation of the Middle Route (Xinhua, 2008 Xinhua . ( 2008 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project Middle Route water diversion route map].

Xinhua . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2008-05/06/content_8112198.htm [Google Scholar] ) shows the water originating from ict coursework dtp Danjiangkou reservoir, and not from the american essay Hanjiang, which is wuthering, a tributary of the Changjiang (Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Essay? University of California – Los Angeles. Dtp? [Google Scholar] ). A flow chart of the water diversions for the Eastern Route (Geng, Jiang, Fu, Mao, 2012 Geng, L. H. , Jiang, B. L. , Fu, K. W. , Mao, Y. J. ( 2012 ). Dream? ?????????????????? [Risk analysis and argumentative essay about uniqueness assessment of the water conveyance system operation for the South–North Water Transfer Project’s Eastern Route] . Yellow River , 34 , 92 – 95 . [Google Scholar] ) similarly shows the diversion beginning at canals in american essay Jiangsu and flowing along the Grand Canal, whereas the source is in fact the Changjiang. The Changjiang does appear in some descriptions of the english Eastern Route, though it is american essay, said that even in extremely dry years there is merchants of cool argumentative essay about uniqueness, ‘enough water’ in the lower reaches to be pumped north (see http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/). Such representations preclude discussion of negative impacts of the diversions on the lower Changjiang, thus helping avoid claims that people and provinces may make for dream essay, compensation, or for input into the management regime. The official line is ict coursework dtp, that the project will divert only 5% of Changjiang’s annual discharge: the negative impacts will so small as to almost not exist (according to head engineer Shen Feng Sheng, as reported by Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is american dream essay conclusion, so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ). However, the Changjiang has a highly seasonal discharge regime, with discharges in winter only one-quarter those in summer (Finlayson et al., 2013 Finlayson, B. L. , Barnett, J. , Wei, T. Y. , Webber, M. , Li, M. English Essays Family? T. , Wang, M. Y. , … Chen, Z. American Dream Conclusion? Y. ( 2013 ). The drivers of risk to water security in Shanghai . Cover Letters For Jobs? Regional Environmental Change , 13 , 329 – 340 . doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0334-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). That difference is critical. Shanghai, for a variety of dream conclusion reasons associated with pollution in alternative sources and the political difficulties of negotiating access to wuthering, water intakes in neighbouring provinces (Webber et al., 2015a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. American Essay Conclusion? , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. , Chen, D. , … Xu, H. Limitation Code? ( 2015a ). Constructing water shortages on a huge river: The case of Shanghai . Geographical Research , 53 , 406 – 418 . doi: 10.1111/1745-5871.12132 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), takes an increasing proportion of american dream conclusion its water supply from the Changjiang estuary.

That estuary is provision, subject to intrusions of salt water that threaten this supply: the SNWTP together with other abstractions on american dream the river raise the likelihood of assignment intrusions that threaten Shanghai’s water supply. In 1950–2014, the number of consecutive days with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 averaged 21.34 per year; if the diversion projects had operated then according to their normal rules, that average would have been 41.20 per dream essay conclusion, year. For a randomly selected year of discharge history from 1950–2014, under normal operating rules the probability of an intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively (Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. Dtp? , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and american essay conclusion intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Shanghai’s water storages can hold just over 60 days’ supply and cannot treat water with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 to a potable standard. In other words, because of the abstractions of english on my water by the SNWTP, the conclusion likelihood is high that Shanghai is going to have to reduce its dependence on the Changjiang – by for jobs, storing and using rainfall or recycling – or it is going to dream, have to build new infrastructure to reduce the threat that saline intrusions pose to its water supply (such as barrages to prevent tidal intrusions into the estuary or desalinization plants). But not all of the cover letters for jobs newly emerging needs are for infrastructure.

The quality of water in source regions has to be protected (as at Danjiangkou) and pollution of the canals along the american dream routes has to be prevented, otherwise ‘[w]hen water comes to Beijing, there’s the danger of the water not being safe to drink’ (Dai Qing, quoted in Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. Dtp? New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ). This is an conclusion especial problem for the Eastern Route, which passes through highly industrialized coastal provinces and uses existing canals and lakes that are highly polluted (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. Wuthering Duality? ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The central government invested about US$3 billion on controlling pollution along the Eastern Route (Jiang, 2012 Jiang, Y. Essay? ( 2012 ). ????????:??????? [East Route project of the south–north water transfer: Environmental impacts and counter-measures]. Hefei, Anhui: Anhui Kexue Jishu Chubanshe [Anhui Science and Technology Press]. [Google Scholar] ), including over 400 sewage-treatment plants (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Merchants Of Cool Argumentative Essay Uniqueness? Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), between 2003 and american dream essay 2013. Accompanying this investment has been the rhetoric of limitation ‘three firsts, three laters’: ‘first conserve then transfer water; first control pollution then let the water flow; first protect the environment and then use water’ that former premier Zhu Rongji enunciated in 2000 (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to essay, north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). Figure 4 is another expression of this rhetoric. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the cover geography of China. Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on dream conclusion water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). Figure 4. Poster advertising the cover letters SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). The SNWTP is a large and complex infrastructure.

It affects the operation of all manner of american dream essay existing water management systems and in so doing it requires changes in those systems. Often in China those changes comprise the provision creation of additional infrastructural schemes – barrages, desalinization plants, new diversions. Essay? But sometimes they require changes in the ongoing management regime; since the project particularly depends on an acceptable quality of water, those changes have focused on pollution management. The political work being done by the project continues. This paper has developed a technopolitical interpretation of the SNWTP. It argued that the project embodies an wuthering official technopolitical regime that privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over american essay conclusion small-scale projects and resolves shortages rather than pollution. The SNWTP reflects a particular political regime and enacts political goals that are quite distinct from those identified for such cities as London (Gandy, 2014 Gandy, M. Assignment Limitation? ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and american dream essay the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Nevertheless, the project poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of family governance (requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). In this sense, the SNWTP requires political change, too. The project also interacts with existing hydrological conditions – the material characteristics of rivers, lakes and groundwater storages – to do environmental work: it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions.

These impacts invite similar future interventions into China’s hydrological environment. In other words, the SNWTP embodies a technopolitics in the sense of Hecht ( 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Conclusion? Technology, politics, and english on my national identity in France . In M. American Dream? T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ): it constitutes, embodies or enacts political goals. It is a hybrid of technology and politics. However, the project has political and environmental consequences that appear to have been incidental to the original planning: like the Three Gorges Dam before it (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in rural China . Code? Cheltenham : Elgar . Dream? [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP does political and hydrological work, remaking the geography of water, pollution, authority, production and people into the future rather than simply reflecting the present. Huge infrastructure projects not only of cool argumentative essay about uniqueness, represent the state of relations between society and environment, but also they require and set in motion changes in those relations. This is dream conclusion, not a Chinese way of being technopolitical; rather it is a technopolitics within the particular political and environmental contexts of China. The authors are grateful to Jon Barnett, George Lin and Sophie Webber for comments made on earlier versions of the paper. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

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Seven Common Resume Mistakes Pastors Make. With some 400,000 congregations in the United States, the way each church secures a pastor is widely varied. Some churches receive pastors through a denominational appointment system. Other congregations seek a pastor totally independent of american any hierarchy. Dtp. They seek, interview, and american dream essay conclusion, vote in a totally autonomous fashion. Wuthering Heights Duality Essays. Still other churches secure a pastor in american some combination of the two approaches. In many of these situations, the church requests resumes of prospective pastors as an initial consideration process. I have worked with countless churches helping them to secure and understand the resumes they have received. Heights Duality Essays. Indeed I have looked at thousands of resumes. Many of them are excellent. Others are, well, not.

Allow me to share with you seven of the more common resume mistakes I see. Any one of these mistakes will likely cause that particular person to be eliminated from consideration. 1. Sloppy resumes. These sloppy resumes have careless grammatical and stylistic errors. Capitalization is random and dream, spacing is unpredictable.

There is heights, no discernible pattern to how the different items on the resume are placed. Just yesterday I heard from a church that eliminated a prospective pastor from consideration because his resume was so sloppy. “If he approaches ministry with this much disregard,” the layman told me, “he certainly will not do well at this church.” 2. Unverified statistics. It is common and essay, acceptable to put such statistics as worship attendance and wuthering heights, the church budget of the pastor’s current church on the resume. Dream. Make certain that the numbers are accurate. Otherwise it will appear that the of cool about pastor is careless at best and duplicitous at worst. 3. Bad photos. Not all pastors choose to put a photo on a resume. Dream Essay. If the pastor does decide to of cool essay, use a photo, it should be one of high quality of him or of him with his family. I still am surprised to american dream essay, see how many photos are candid shots that belong on Facebook, or they are of such poor quality that facial features are hardly discernible. 4. Poor presentation of family.

The mistakes here are usually one of two extremes. Essays On My Family. Some pastors leave off their family entirely. The prospective church is american, left to wonder if the pastor’s family is a priority for him. On the other extreme, I have seen resumes that include so much detail about the of cool argumentative essay about uniqueness pastor’s spouse that it becomes muddled who is really seeking a position. 5. American Essay Conclusion. No sense of english essays on my prioritization.

Typically, church leaders receiving resumes presume that how a pastor orders different areas on his resume reflects his priorities. If education is presented first, that is his priority. If family is noted first, that then becomes the perceived priority. I have seen too many resumes that simply don’t make sense in the manner items are presented. 6. Failure to note ministry accomplishments. Those who receive prospective pastor resumes want to know more than the name and address of churches or other places of ministry and employment. They want to american dream conclusion, know what was accomplished during that tenure. Of course, pastors must be careful in limitation code how they present such information lest they appear to be bragging or failing to give God the glory. 7. Failure to american dream conclusion, explain gaps in date. Duality Essays. If a pastor has a two or three year gap on his resume, he needs to explain it.

It is better to american dream essay, provide a succinct explanation of what transpired leading toward those years than to leave the recipients wondering. What have you noticed about merchants of cool argumentative about uniqueness, pastors’ resumes? What would you add to my list? Pastor to Pastor is the Saturday blog series at ThomRainer.com. Pastors and staff, if we can help in any way, contact Steve Drake, our director of pastoral relations, at Steve.Drake@LifeWay.com . We also welcome contacts from laypersons in churches asking questions about pastors, churches, or the essay pastor search process. Jane Wilkinson says. Thank you so much for this blog. Assignment Limitation. I hope it is read widely.

I am on a pastor search committee of a nondenominational church in Illinois. Your words are incredibly on american essay target. Our committee has made numerous comments about how sloppy some of the resumes are. We have tried to overlook the mistakes on the resumes but, frankly, the candidates we seem to favor are those that took the time to do a quality resume. The sloppy resumes leave us with the impression that the candidate has a poor work ethic and merchants of cool essay about uniqueness, that he is too lazy to essay conclusion, proofread read something he writes. I encourage pastors to english essays family, get outside readers to proofread their resumes. Essay Conclusion. I hate to see an otherwise good candidate not be considered because of two or three pages of a document. Thom Rainer says. Thanks Jane. Limitation Code. Great input!

What about those of us who have completed our seminary training, but the only ministry experience that we have had outside of an pastoral internship has been the various areas of service as a layperson. Some people have said not to include it because it was not “full time paid ministry”. Some have said to american conclusion, include it. I have tried both ways and wuthering heights duality, after two years I am still searching for a full time vocational ministry opportunity. Well stated observations.

Another resource we’ve produced in Michigan is our SIMPLIFIED SEARCH TEAM TRAINING. We frequently recommend it to prospcetive pastors/staff to hear what we are recommending to search teams. A section of the training is on “how to evaluate resume’s.” Maybe it will be helpful to your readers. It is available at: http://bscm.e-quip.net/presentations/show/2974. Thom Rainer says.

The worth of a ministry is not measured by its compensation level or whether you are compensated at dream, all. I strongly encourage pastors to include ALL ministry experience, paid and non-paid. Assignment. Before I served as pastor, I asked the leadership of my church if I could give ten to twenty hours a week as a non-paid minister of essay conclusion evangelism and outreach. They were happy for me to do so and to give me the title I requested. Thom Rainer says. Steve Drake says. Thanks Dr. Rainer for engaging such an important practical issue for ministers.

If it isn’t true elsewhere, it is certainly true here: “You don’t get a second chance to make a first impression.” I have had students and friends who have said, “I’m not sending resumes. God knows where I am, if He wants me to move, He can send the committee to me.” It is provision, certainly true that God knows where we are, but if He is american dream conclusion, willing to use a donkey to get someone’s attention, I have no problem realizing He might just use a resume too. More and more in our day, I think it would be good for cover letters ministry candidates to provide video footage online on YouTube or Vimeo sites to let the searching group have an “up close and personal” look at the candidate. Recently I was called by a committee asking for a recommendation of a young man. Everything I said about the candidate was already confirmed in his mind because he had read three years of the dream candidate’s blog. That church called the english family candidate and wonderful things are happening among them. Good post Dr. American Essay. Rainer! I would also encourage folks to write a brief philosophy of ministry for good cover letters for jobs the resume. A church can learn a lot about a candidate from a brief but well worded statement describing one’s view of ministry and the church. Now, for a list of things search committees do wrong…

Robbie Perkins says. Jonathan…I agree. American Dream Essay. When I sent a resume to ict coursework, the church where I am currently serving as pastor I gave a “ministry philosophy” in the form of american a cover letter. Dr. Assignment Limitation. Rainer… you mentioned a perceived priority in the listing of info on a resume, is there an order that you might recommend? Thom Rainer says. My preference is to provide brief biographical information first, like date of birth and place of essay conclusion birth. Within the bio, I note my family members, including how long I have been married and the age of my children if they aren’t adults.

Second, I provide a brief ministry and doctrinal statement. Third, I note my education, not because of its priority but because readers expect it near the ict coursework top. Essay Conclusion. I then note my ministry experience and ict coursework dtp, then secular experience. Miscellaneous items like published works and denominational experience go near the last, followed by essay references. There is no best order, but those priorities are my preference and most common on the resumes I see. I have my resume’ in almost the same order you described here. I have also reworked my resume’ with consideration given to the advice you provided in this article. All of the about information in american dream essay question covers two pages. I also provide a third page that lists four references. I wish I could post it on essays family here to let you see it, as I have put a lot of work into organizing it.

But I am wondering if it is too long. Some have given me the american dream essay conclusion advise that pastor search committees do not really spend a lot of assignment limitation code time pouring over resumes. So I should just keep it short and sweet by providing just the nuts and bolts; just grab their attention without providing the detail I have given. Conclusion. So how do I find a happy medium here? Thom Rainer says. Most of the pastor resumes I see are 4-5 pages. The search committees tell me they do like the detail as long as it is not obvious fluff and filler. Thom Rainer says. See my blog on October 3, 2011 where I address that very issue. Essay About. Thanks.

Robbie Perkins says. Thanks Dr. Rainer. Jim Orchard says. A little off topic but related, search teams how about dream essay conclusion, a little email letting us know you have received the dtp resume and then if you have decided to drop our resume from the list let us know with a note saying thank you for your interest so we can move on with our search for a church. Thom Rainer says. Thanks. See my blog of October 3, 2011 where I address that matter to search committees. Sam Loveall says. Dr.

Rainer, here’s a tip for your readers that you didn’t include – – be sure to dream conclusion, fill in all the blanks. During a search for a new youth minister, we received a resume that began with a cover letter (that I very much wish I had kept.) The letter writer went to great lengths to explain just how God had been leading this young man to our congregation. Intense prayer, advice from others, deep soul searching – – things like that. I wish I could remember the exact words of the “climax” sentence of the letter, but it went some thing like this: “I am convinced that God has great things planned, and I look forward to speaking with you about provision, serving with (church name) as we seek His further will for…” I’m surprised to hear you say to include a family section on your resume. Coming to the ministry from the business world (where I was a hiring manager) I would never have thought to include info about family since that is one thing you most definitely would not put on dream essay conclusion a resume for a secular job. Also, I hope that when you work with churches you remind them that this is a two-way street and they are under scrutiny by potential pastors just as the wuthering heights candidates are under scrutiny by conclusion them. I’ve had churches contact me seeking a resume who failed to provide any information or very little information or sloppily presented information and the message this sends is that they think they are so wonderful that anyone would be blessed to be their pastor. Good Cover. As true as that may be, I would have no way of knowing how good they are by essay conclusion the info they make available and how they present it.

Thanks for these tips and dtp, please take it the right way when I say that I hope I never have to use them. Sometimes, it’s hard for pastors and other ministry professionals to view their calling in essay job terms. But, at least one person on english family a Search Committee is american dream conclusion, going to be a business person and are accustomed to seeing professional resumes. Wuthering Essays. They are going to assume that your resume indicates how one will run their church and lead them spiritually. Will they be able to count on you to handle things professionally, when someone confesses an american essay conclusion, addiction problem that would ruin their standing in the community? Will you professionally help families who have been in bitter disputes for years, when a loved one dies? Many churches are worried about decline and want to know if you are able to lead them toward spiritual and numeric growth. Code. Does your resume give them confidence you can?

Do you have any great online or other resources to help pastors develop a ministry resume or portfolio? Great stuff. Thanks, definitely brought clarity to a foggy situation. Steven Zeigler says. I desire to be a worship leader. I have had no paid positions. American Dream. I have only worked with two pastors and have done three years of mission work in the U.S.

God has put his hand on me to be a worship leader. Assignment Provision. I am working 36 hours a week to support my family of four and I am age 47 now. I have not gone to bible college. Dream Essay. I have had formal training for five years on essays family organ and american, I have four years of performance with my college I attended many years ago. I have helped lead worship for five years at a preivously attended church and of cool essay about uniqueness, sang on the choir, yet it has never been a paid position. I now serve on american dream essay the choir with the wuthering heights duality Church I am attending. I have attended a worship school with Steve Swanson.

Not a college. I have asked my pastor to work with him, yet he has never called me or asked to american dream conclusion, come. My pastor has said, he agrees that God has a call on merchants essay my life for american dream essay conclusion pastor of worship. Where should I start and code, what should I do to apply for this position? I do believe God has opened this door for me and I have prayed. I have called the church to ask questions about the position.

Anything above that, I am unsure what to do. Please help. Mark Carlton says. Why do Southern Baptist churches focus so little on Singles’ ministry? With the adult population in the US at more than 50% single, why do churches seem to american conclusion, disregard singles? I live in a city with over a million population and cover letters for jobs, not one Southern Baptist Church has a strong singles ministry.

Southern Baptist used to at least have a large singles conference once a year at american dream, Ridgecrest but that conference has significantly dwindled while the singles population has grown substantially. The church is cover letters, losing its influence because this segment of the population is being ignored.

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In Praise of a Liberal Arts Education. Click image for full commencement remarks. I am still basking in the afterglow of dream, another reunion weekend with the Franklin Marshall College Class of 1986. What a great group of people—each reunion I am reminded how much I enjoy reconnecting with my classmates—learning how we have grown into merchants of cool essay, ourselves, reminiscing on our shared experiences. Dream. These are ALL smart and wuthering heights essays, accomplished people who have found ways to live lives of meaning and substance. As I approached the american essay conclusion, weekend, I contemplated the value of my educational experience.

We've seen some backlash over the sky-rocketing cost of higher education, and the kind I received—at a small, elite liberal arts college—is expensive, no doubt, but I still find so much value in not just the merchants argumentative essay, classes I took, but in the nature of the institution and, in essay, particular, the ict coursework dtp, type of learning—a liberal arts degree. I'm thrilled that my oldest daughter is attending such an institution and that we are once again making the tours of similar schools for my youngest. So much ink has been spent in recent years on the way colleges prepare students for careers, it seems to miss the point that what we really need to prepare them for american essay conclusion is life. Jobs come and go—I can attest to that personally, but you only have to look at of cool argumentative essay uniqueness, national statistics to discover that the job you have today may not exist in five years. With the rate of technological change and globalization, the job you DO have in dream conclusion, five years may not even exist today. Assignment. So how do you prepare a student for that? In this recent article in The Atlantic , Yoni Applebaum writes, Students are clamoring for degrees that will help them secure jobs in american essay, a shifting economy, but to succeed in the long term, they’ll require an education that allows them to grow, adapt, and contribute as citizens—and to build successful careers.

And it’s why many schools are shaking up their curricula to ensure that undergraduate business majors receive something they may not even know they need—a rigorous liberal-arts education. Ict Coursework. This is the kind of well-rounded education that I had—instruction in conclusion, the classics, language, religion, science, literature, mathematics, history—a broad ranging curriculum that emphasizes close reading and writing and engenders critical thinking. critical thinking—the objective analysis and ict coursework dtp, evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment. As an essay conclusion, English and American Studies major, my professors helped me hone my critical thinking and communication skills—especially my writing. They encouraged discussion and careful thought, and, along with my classmates, improved my vocabulary. Because when you are careful about the words you choose, you raise the level of discourse, because a thoughtful approach leads to deeper conversations. We seem to limitation, be faced with a backlash against this kind of intellectual discourse, a tendency to dismiss it as elitist. Yet we should admire individuals who read great works of literature or study ancient philosophies and history, who strive for essay excellence in scientific experiments and essays, the arts, attempting to apply the vast accumulated knowledge in american, the world to limitation, solving problems and to understanding the complex nature of human experience. Our national discourse is missing much of this context—we can be and are better than the sound bites we see on TV. We no longer seem to require that our political leaders be able to dream, clearly articulate their policies. In some ways we have fallen victim to celebrating mediocrity as Mr.

Incredible says to for jobs, Elasta Girl. Catering to the lowest common denominator, rather than challenging ourselves to be better. The courses I took in college were varied—most were good, one or two were terrible, and several were truly remarkable learning experiences. But taken as an entirety, they merely scratched the surface, the bedrock for the continued learning to american essay, come. Yet they prepared me for a broad-ranging career. Essays Family. In college, I found the beginnings of my voice. I learned to articulate a position by finding or creating the data to support it; I learned to read closely and to write; as one of the american essay conclusion, first classes to ict coursework dtp, have Macs on campus, I learned to american essay conclusion, embrace technology to enhance my learning experience; I learned how to research a subject using primary and assignment provision, secondary sources; I learned how to take that research and develop a compelling thesis; and, as a four-year athlete, I learned the value of teamwork. I celebrate my college experience for its depth and american dream essay, breadth. For giving me a foundation that I continue to wuthering heights duality essays, build upon in conclusion, fits and assignment, starts. For giving me confidence when faced with professional and personal challenge.

For bringing me into contact with truly remarkable teachers, a few whose advice I continue to american dream essay conclusion, seek out to this day. And for introducing me to the class of 1986. We are smart and accomplished, committed and caring. Fun-loving, wickedly funny, more and more daring as we get older. I learned not just from heights my professors, but from my classmates. American Dream Essay Conclusion. And that is the very essence of a liberal arts education. My best friends were college classmates—that's the other value I put on my college experience. I rounded out my education by gaining the love and friendship of smart people who I admire and who have challenged me to continue to provision, strive to be worthy of their friendship. Midlife has its difficulties, most particularly the realization that some doors have closed, if not certainly, then realistically.

David will never be a fighter pilot, I'll never wear a bikini again. But it has also become a time, for me and many of my friends, of american dream essay, incredible self-awareness and actualization. A time of becoming who we were meant to be and being comfortable with and nurturing that person. My friends in midlife care less about what other people think and more about how they live. Worry less about their own achievements and more about their childrens'. Spend more time with parents and friends, less doing things that don't nurture themselves. We have become both more and less tolerant. More accepting and forgiving of the faults of good friends and limitation, family, reluctant to waste time on american dream essay activities and individuals that are no longer positive.

We choose to outgrow things and to grow into wuthering essays, experiences. When we try new things, we know ourselves well enough to american dream, say yes or no or maybe. We are less rudderless, partly because we are moored more securely to our places. And we have become more appreciative and accepting of ourselves—we are finding our path the best way we know how. English Essays Family. I recently spoke with a friend about the importance of putting ourselves first— be sure to american essay, put on your own oxygen mask before helping others. It's often hard to do—we have many demands on our time and there's always another crisis around the corner, but there is the benefit of the growing wisdom that we seem to assignment limitation, know when enough is enough. The things we do for ourselves are some of the best things we do for the people in our lives because they allow us to step up when it's needed.

To be heroic . I look around me and dream, I see people whose everyday lives are simple and ordinary, but happy. People whose momentary actions raise the ict coursework, spirits of friends and family. I've been fortunate in the last year to be the american dream essay conclusion, recipient of assignment code, those actions—meals and care from my mother, support and love from american conclusion my father, phone calls and good letters, texts from my siblings, kindness and thoughtfulness from friends and strangers—a new colleague at work, Ally's school counselor, a college classmate reaching out. These people were heroes to us, offering us something, some little thing , that made a difference at a difficult moment. The power of those deeds was immeasurable, yet most of essay conclusion, them did it by wuthering heights essays course, by rote, by habit.

The thoughtfulness came naturally. As I look back on those gifts, I continue to be overwhelmed with gratitude. In an age where so many of the individuals we might look up to have feet of clay, I've been fortunate to discover that the real heroes in my life are the one who show up and offer kindness and comfort in a crisis, or who offer words and dream essay, actions of support, or who believed in me, even when my own self-confidence wavered. They are my heroes. They have inspired me to ict coursework dtp, reciprocate and pay it forward—we are all struggling with something, so being kind to american dream essay, yourself and then others is another act of tenacity against the everyday forces that conspire to duality essays, diminish our spirits. They have inspired me to work harder to be the american dream essay, hero of my own story, no matter how ordinary it may seem. It is extraordinary because it is mine.

February 14, 2016. When I considered writing this post, I imagined a piece testifying gratitude to all of the people this past year who traveled the path towards my new job, a year-long journey that lead to a position at an organization whose work and foundation inspires and impresses me. I started a new job on Monday, February 1. I thought I would be writing about the joy of being back at good letters for jobs, work, contributing and, of course, that gratitude. American Dream. How our lives can change in a week. February started off with my exceptional good fortune in starting a new job at ACTS Retirement-Life Communities. After nine months of deliberation and exploration, I entered January with the full intent to build to my own consulting business. A timely call from a hiring manager and merchants of cool argumentative essay, I was happily employed full time again. Monday was great--new colleagues, new computer, new office–it had that feel of the american essay conclusion, first day of provision, school–lots of papers, meeting new people, learning the lay of the land. Tuesday was a bit more of the american, same. Except I got a call from Ally who was home from school, sick.

Daddy wanted me to call and let you know he doesn't feel great. He's talking to Pop right now. I wasn't too alarmed. On January 2, David fell down a full flight of dtp, stairs with the dog in his arms. The dog was fine, but David sustained a cracked rib and the indignity of being taken out of the house on a stretcher and loaded into essay, an ambulance. It could have been far worse. But the broken rib made it impossible to sleep on either side, so he had been sleeping on assignment his back all month.

He complained that it had led to american dream essay, a resurgence of his reflux. So on merchants argumentative uniqueness the second day of my job my mom drove him to the doctor for an EKG, which was normal. Then his doctor decided to send him to get blood work done to american conclusion, measure his enzymes. Assignment Limitation Code. A slight elevation in his troponin had our family doctor calling the ER and insisting that David head over there. He waited for me to come home and we went right in, still thinking this might be related to his past GERD.

Turns out he was having angina. not indigestion. Dream. After several hours he was admitted to letters for jobs, the hospital to await a cardiac catheterization to determine if he had any blockages. David is a healthy guy. Active in that he is constantly in motion, never sits, not even on the beach! He loves digging in dream essay conclusion, the garden, raking leaves, shoveling snow. But his dad had heart disease.

So on Wednesday afternoon he headed in for the procedure. I got word about 40 minutes later that they had found some blockages. I was greeted by the doctor who informed me of three blockages, one that was 99%. Good Cover For Jobs. They put a stent in for that one and planned on going in the next day for the other two. We were understandably emotional–David's close call and dream, a sense that fate had cast a beneficent wind to ict coursework, blow in our direction–instead of a massive heart attack with damage to his heart, he had a stent and conclusion, great heart function. I have been through enough of these medical scenarios to know that there comes a time when the crisis is argumentative about uniqueness past, hospital care becomes a little routine again and dream, it's OK to let go of your vigilance–the procedure is over, we know what we're dealing with, the patient is settled down and merchants, needs rest and essay, you need to take a shower. I anticipated this would be the case that evening after the catheterization. Provision. though we didn't get great news, the medical professionals had a plan and a method that would help. But David didn't seem settled.

A bout of nausea dogged him almost immediately after the procedure and wouldn't let up, even with anti-nausea medication. He grew more agitated and disoriented. I spoke with a nurse about american dream conclusion, it, she felt it could be the medication making him sleepy. But he didn't seem sleepy to limitation, me and shortly after that he tried to get out of bed. I went to help, was disconcerted by his response, Hold on, Ally! I'm not ready. Then, Ally, I need you to help, in a exasperated tone. Again, I spoke to the nurse, this time she impatiently told me that I needed to wait until the medication kicked in–I drafted a frustrated text to my friend Bonnie, I knew something was wrong. When the nurse finally came in, she saw that, too, and said, Is he always like this? I said, No!

That's exactly what I've been saying! She started a neurological test. I watched as he struggled to american essay, name the pictures, to find words, to speak coherently. Argumentative About Uniqueness. From that moment the pace and american essay conclusion, tenor of the care we received accelerated dramatically. Vaguely I heard, Rapid Response, room 610. I watched as the essays on my family, room filled with medical personnel, a sea of dark blue and conclusion, white, machines rolled in, electrodes and needles, quiet discussion, sharp orders. English Essays On My Family. As I stood in the corner I heard the american, word stroke and sank down in my seat. David's eyes met mine. I saw my own fear reflected in them and his own bewilderment.

I stood up and went to the end of the family, bed, speaking softly while looking him in the eye, It's ok, they're here to help. You're going to be alright. We'll take care of you. And then we were rushed into american dream conclusion, the CT scan, the doctor who admitted him the assignment limitation, evening before arriving to be alarmed at his state. I had called my parents on american dream essay conclusion the way down and told them, they think he might be having a stroke.

I can't do this by myself. My dad, whose daily routines include an early bedtime, told me he'd be right down. Assignment. it was 10:30. When I approached the american essay, stretcher in the hallway I heard David murmuring, Megan, Ally, Beth; Megan, Ally, Beth. as if the of cool argumentative uniqueness, names of the people he loved best were a totem, a blessing, a protective spell against whatever insidious creature had taken hold of his mind. The news from the CT scan was positive, no active bleeding, no stroke visible. But they didn't know what was causing Davids issues–which I now had a name for–verbal aphasia. As we got David settled in ICU and he drifted into sleep, I sent my dad home and found my way to the family sleep room. I woke throughout the night, checked on him periodically. held his hand, but he was exhausted and dozing. American Dream Essay. His nurses kept a diligent watch over him, waking him every hour to check his responses. The uncertainty of the night dawned to the news that his condition had not worsened, but he was still confused and actually referred to me as his mom in the early hours. The planned cardiac catheterization was still arranged and I was prepared to provision, protest if they moved forward with the procedure before we understood the implications of the neurological event.

Fortunately, we were given a reprieve. Conclusion. The neurologist and the cardiologist agreed. By 10 am David was rebounding, expressing himself well, even cracking jokes with the medical staff. By the assignment limitation, time Ally came with my parents to visit, he was mostly back to himself, though the dark cloud of the essay conclusion, night before was a blooming bruise on his psyche. We each will carry that flashbulb memory of the dread on each other's face in those daunting first minutes. As we spoke of it several days later, he told me he couldn't think in those early moments.

He knew something was wrong, was trying to form his words, but couldn't make his brain work. English Essays Family. As the room became crowded with nurses and doctors, he looked around anxiously and identified my face as the one he knew. He didn't know who I was, but he recognized me. In the moment our eyes locked, I knew his dismay. It is essay conclusion that moment we won't easily forget. Assignment Code. We learned the next day that David had a mini stroke. the neurologist showed us the tiny pinprick on the MRI that represented the dead synapses in essay, David's brain.

He has no apparent deficits from the argumentative uniqueness, stroke, but both the cardiologist and american dream essay, the neurologist understand that it was a result of the procedure on his heart–an errant blood clot or piece of plaque dislodged by the catheter and cover letters for jobs, sent into american dream essay conclusion, his brain. So what to do for the other two blockages? Life turns on ict coursework dtp a dime. weeks like this past remind us that this moment is all we own, tomorrow is american dream essay conclusion not guaranteed for any of us, so we'd best get on assignment limitation code with the things we always meant to do. I wrote about this experience in this post earlier. Dream Essay. Again, we are in merchants argumentative uniqueness, limbo, awaiting results of a planned stress test in dream conclusion, a week.

It will tell us how we proceed. But we know it will not ever be life as usual again, you can't re-cork the good letters, bottle. In then meantime, we are surrounded by the love of friends and family whose care and concern sustain us. American Dream Essay. Our gratitude to the medical professionals who had a hand in his care is immeasurable–they were kind and gentle, immensely sympathetic and incredibly professional, answering our numerous questions with patience as we struggled to understand this event in our lives. We are still stunned and processing this, but we keep coming back to ict coursework dtp, this sense of american dream conclusion, gratitude.

And a sense that when we chose each other, we chose wisely. We are reminded again of the value of a loving and supportive partner–how a crisis reminds us that what is really important is that we have each other. The day after David returned home from the hospital, I found this quote by Elizabeth Gilbert. It exactly captures our awe at assignment provision, the generosity of so many people who have been supportive. It turns out this post is about gratitude. December 30, 2015. And to american dream essay, make and end is to make a beginning. The end is where we start from. #148; T.S. Merchants Uniqueness. Elliot. Dream Essay. Late December always brings a tendency toward reflection. The year is nearly past, magazines and news shows are offering retrospectives, even social media gets into the game with year-end round ups.

Some years are full of ict coursework dtp, landmark moments–births and weddings, new jobs and renovations. Other years just glance off your memory like shopping lists. For the american essay conclusion, Careys 2015 was a year of good for jobs, endings and beginnings, it was a yin and yang of events. Happy milestones and american dream essay conclusion, challenging adversity. A balance of letters for jobs, what was and what will be. December 22, 2015.

On the drive to school today, Ally commented, “I wish I could go back to believing in Santa Claus, Christmas was so much fun then.” She still loves the holiday, but nothing compares to that sense of anticipation. American Essay Conclusion. I told her it all comes back and is even better when you’re a parent. Assignment Limitation Code. Which is true… Parenting provides some strange challenges. David and american essay conclusion, I were the worst tooth fairy ever. We routinely forgot (often several nights in a row). And Megan still talks about the letters, morning she came in complaining that the tooth fairy didn’t come—again—and David went in and pretended to search in the pillows and dropped a coin. That’s when she figured it out.

I can say with certainty that one thing David and I got right was Santa–we took Santa to a whole new level… Not only did Santa always eat the cookies and drink the milk and american essay, the reindeer also ate the carrots and the oats, but they ALWAYS left a huge mess. Carrots and oats on the roof, muddy boot prints on dtp the hearth, logs in the fireplace displaced, cookies left half-eaten with crumbs all over dream, the coffee table. Merchants Of Cool. David staged Christmas morning like he was a realtor trying to flip a property. So the girls believed and essay, that was the magic—their faces on Christmas morning were precious and I still smile in memory of their reactions to their bounty. Both of them believed through elementary school, despite their friends’ loss of innocence. All I can say is thank god there were no elves on the shelves for ict coursework them or we might have gone nuts.

One night of these shenanigans is enough. So, in a spirit of sharing, here are David and Beth’s thoughts for keeping the heart of Santa alive. American Dream Essay Conclusion. It worked for us. English Essays On My Family. Good luck with your own capers. 1. Santa has different wrapping paper for each child and different from the wrapping for american all the other gifts.

That way you avoid having to write a name in your own handwriting on a gift tag that would totally give you away. Of course, you then need to make sure that Santa’s paper is safely hidden from the kids (and your husband when he’s looking to wrap his gifts on Christmas morning…) And either use it all year after year or stash it away so that the kids don’t find it in July…good luck. 2. The gas fireplace needs to be turned off well before bedtime and english on my family, don't even think about american dream essay conclusion, having a real fire on Christmas Eve. Santa may be magical, but he’s not fireproof. 3. Bedtime is strictly enforced on Christmas Eve (this was a fairly easy to accomplish—the sooner they got to bed the sooner the heights essays, big man could come and make his deliveries). 4. Be sure you have your extension ladder available…you’ll understand why.

5. Have a boot and some water handy. 6. American Dream. Food for ict coursework dtp Santa is left on the table and american dream essay, must be eaten or returned to the cookie jar. For this reason Santa should not get “special” cookies unless you plan on eating them—kids are smart enough to assignment, recognize the cookie that they carefully decorated for SC when you’re eating it Christmas day for desert. “Hey, that looks like the cookie I set out for Santa…” 7. The reindeer get oats and carrots. That’s it. None of that sparkle stuff that kids bring home from the school party. American Dream Essay. Sparkles are not good for reindeer (or the rug).

Carrots need to be chewed a little but oats can be returned to limitation, the can after you’ve scattered a few for effect on the ROOF. Yes this is where the ladder comes in—at 2 AM you need to climb onto your roof (preferably in your slippers) to scatter oats and carrots. Because the reindeer don't come inside, but they really need their snack… 8. Dream Essay Conclusion. Presents must be artfully arranged and ict coursework, stockings carefully stuffed. The dog should be in bed with the kids because he REALLY likes wrapping paper. American Essay Conclusion. 9. Assignment. Create some mud with the water and dirt from your garden. Put the boot in it a leave a muddy print on the hearth.

It doesn’t matter that it hasn't rained in weeks and that the american essay conclusion, ground is frozen solid. Assignment Provision. 10. While one of you is gallivanting on the roof, the other should be carefully drafting a letter from Santa that highlights the kids’ accomplishments and lets them know they were good…then you need to copy it in red or green pen in indistinguishable handwriting (this is often where the spirit of joy wears thin, because Santa’s handwriting starts to look like Daddy’s…and it’s nearly 2 AM) 11. Be sure that you have cameras ready, Christmas music in the CD player, and coffee set up before you head up to bed. 12. David’s family had a tradition of having Santa put a ribbon across the stairs so that no one goes down before mom and dad are up (after three hours’ sleep). This is the last thing to do before you crawl into bed, because if the kids wake up and there’s a ribbon across the american, stairs then they know Santa was here already. DO NOT GET CAUGHT AT THIS POINT or all will be for assignment limitation nothing. 13. Go to american essay conclusion, bed.

Wake up 15 minutes later on ict coursework dtp Christmas morning. Enjoy the american conclusion, delight of your children. Heights Duality. 14. Before any child can go downstairs, an american dream essay, adult HAS go down and push the button to get the coffee brewing—don’t miss this step. We still put the assignment code, ribbon up, we are still up late, but now we don’t live in fear of ruining the girls’ childhood fantasies. It’s still a joy to come down on dream essay Christmas morning, to bake coffee cake and drink coffee, to give and receive gifts with special meaning, and to know that each Christmas creates its own gift of memory. Belief is at the heart of all of these things. whether you put your faith in a higher power or nature or the good will of those around you, this is a time of year when many people reveal their better selves through gifts of time and assignment code, energy, thought and deed. It is at american dream essay conclusion, the heart of what this season represents, faith in things unseen, belief that better times will come. December 1, 2015.

Sometimes the season’s change feels imperceptible, until you realize that it is suddenly here. It is that moment when you look out the window and see green buds on english essays on my the trees where there were only dream bare branches or a carpet of fallen leaves where there once was grass. It happens for me each year as we move from autumn into winter and I see the goldfinches in the backyard displaced by juncos. I love the ict coursework, late summer antics of the goldfinches—their erratic flight through the garden, perching on the spent remains of dream essay conclusion, our coneflower and black-eyed susans, their sudden burst of flight as I enter the back gate, a flash of bright yellow against the dark greens and russets of our September garden. Then, at some point in ict coursework, late October I recognize a change in the music of the dream essay, garden, look out the window and see not yellow, but grey–the juncos have taken over the yard.

These little birds are the tenacious harbingers of winter. Assignment Limitation. Their rugged nature keeps them in my yard all winter, roosting in the rhododendron, puffed up against the cold. They seem to survive through an act of will and instinct and brighten our winter days with their jaunty faces. There are other winter birds—the flashy cardinal, the american essay conclusion, noisy chickadee, solitary nuthatches—but like the goldfinches in the summer, the assignment limitation, juncos are my favorite winter bird. Goldfinches are summer’s bright exclamation marks, juncos are winter’s grey period. I admire them for their hardy resilience, their pleasant appearance, their steadfastness. I guess that vitality and perseverance are innate to american dream, these birds and that’s what I admire in assignment, them. I’ve written much this year about hardship, overcoming it, facing it. It has been a tough year, no doubt about it.

Especially for Ally, who has been directly burdened with much of our misfortune—pneumonia in February, hair loss in April (from the stress of the american, pneumonia), concussion from the accident in July and the subsequent loss of her field hockey season to that injury, and the sudden, heartbreaking death of a classmate and friend from her nursery-school days in November. Limitation. What a year… And yet she remains optimistic, well-balanced, good-humored. Her resilience in the face of all of this reminds me of my favorite juncos. As we move through fall and into winter, she is in high anticipation of her favorite holiday. If we allowed it, Ally would play Christmas music year-round. Conclusion. She knows all of the tunes—modern renditions, traditional carols, and vintage standards—she loves them, sings them, infects all of us with her spirit and enjoyment. Her enthusiasm is indicative of her nature, her charm. Though she is concerned with issues of justice and integrity, she is wickedly funny and droll—poking fun at herself as much as the rest of us.

Though she is often anxious, she is the first to remark on our considerable good fortune, often admonishing us, “choose your attitude.” A good friend, sister, cousin, daughter who doesn’t shy away from dtp telling the truth, but always offers support and loyalty—a trusted confidant, thoughtful and caring. She smiled and joked through hospitalization and hair loss and concussion, graciously thanking the many people along the way who made her troubles a little easier. Just as the juncos, I think it is essay her nature to be cheerful and resilient. How lucky for her and for us? As for the coming holiday, Ally enjoys the anticipation as much as anything, so my wish for wuthering duality essays her is american dream conclusion a long countdown filled with all of her favorite songs.

October 29, 2015. The best part about my walk is getting out into the world and witnessing all this beauty. I am even more fortunate in having a walking partner who values the scenery and waits patiently while I take out my iPhone for these photos. This always serves as a reminder that sometimes it really is all about the assignment limitation, view along the essay, way and dtp, not the destination. Walking this same route through the seasons reminds me that there are small gifts waiting every day—the dew-filled grass, a frost covered flower, a hawk flying overhead, a patchwork of essay, leaves at my feet.

Today was no exception—there is beauty all around us, pause and take in the view. September 29, 2015. September is ict coursework dtp Suicide Prevention Month. I know this because I've seen it posted on several friends' Facebook pages. It's likely your family has been touched by this insidious killer–it's the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S.–I know mine has.

Stigma keeps many people from talking about it, but it is past time we stopped avoiding uncomfortable conversations which could offer support and solace to families and to their loved ones dealing with depression, anxiety, and other forms of mental illness. Nearly 15 years ago we lost my sister-in-law, Christine. American Dream Essay. A caring and generous soul, Chris made her living as a geriatric nurse, working with patients with Alzheimer's and dementia. She was kind, thoughtful, empathetic soul and loved her family, especially David, with great fervor. She traveled the world, often on her own, observing places with her own unique eye. She returned from those trips to merchants uniqueness, Portugal or Belize or New Orleans with memories and dream essay, photos and artwork, filling her home with the souvenirs from these trips.

She was smart, confident, and strong. Until she wasn't. We'll never know for sure what happened, but three years before she took her life, something changed dramatically and Chris became paranoid and frightened, developing irrational and impossible fears. David spent a great deal of time with her, convincing her that these fears were not real, coaching her, restoring her to wuthering, her former self-assurance, only to find to she had regressed the next week or day. Essay. We sought medical help, support from family and friends, read articles and books, but nothing provided the english essays on my family, relief she sought. She was hospitalized several times, provided therapy and pharmaceuticals, but her fears, anxiety, and paranoia lead to a deep and intractable depression. Still she had moments–she loved our girls and enjoyed time with them, allowing Megan to dump the contents of her purse and explore them, holding baby Ally in her arms, joining us for quiet dinners and family celebrations. And opening her home to us, inviting the american essay, girls into her quiet back yard to explore and play. It was clear that she knew she was loved and cover, that she truly loved us.

But something was broken and she couldn't see a future where it was repaired. For months leading up to her death we were visited by an ominous premonition that had us lying awake at night, concerned for dream conclusion her life. On a cold night in early November David drove the mile and a half to Chris' home to check on her–it was a Monday night and we hadn't heard from english family her all weekend. I asked him to call if he was going to dream essay conclusion, stay as he often spent hours with her bolstering her mood. Nothing prepared me for the raw, violent pain in his voice over the phone, She's dead, oh God, she's dead.

And then we were survivors. for David, again. His family has been scarred by suicide four times. aunt, cousin, mother, now sister. If there are miracles in this world, one is that this man has created a happy life out of the wreckage wrought by others. Chris' death was no different. In its wake he lost the limitation code, company and care of his remaining siblings–it's hard to define why, but a family fraught with mental illness creates its own defenses and survivors find their own way through the darkness. American Dream. There are always questions, there are rarely answers. A friend recently spoke about assignment limitation, her own dark time with anxiety, telling me she no longer saw suicide as a selfish act, that in the throes of a deep depression you could not see another way out. I don't know what momentary or menacing process lead Chris to take her life, or what would have kept her from doing so–that is the biggest challenge to friends and family. what could we have done?

I do know that limiting health care benefits exacerbates an already challenging circumstance. Essay. In an age when we still know so very little about how our brains operate, it is confounding that insurance companies can still limit access to good therapies that work, given time. And often, that is what ultimately offers solace and cure–time, patience, acceptance. So suicide prevention is really about better mental health care. But is is also speaking openly about the wreckage that comes in ict coursework, the wake of suicide–scars and questions, blame and abandonment. These are hard conversations to have, but an important part of prevention and critical to healing for survivors. It is a long road to forgiveness, finding mercy and absolution for ourselves and dream essay conclusion, Chris. The knowledge that we did what we could and were there for her, listening and provision, supporting, helps. American Essay. As is our certainty in of cool uniqueness, her love for our family. Though I do believe rationally that suicide is preventable, I worry about the message we send to families of victims when we make that statement. We still question, could we have done more?

If we had called on Friday or Saturday, would she still be with us? Suicide attempts, while not purely an impulse, are transient. One out of every twenty-five attempts are successful, so it can be an issue of american dream essay conclusion, timing. We will never know. And we remain immutably transformed by her loss. and I remember another day. not quite a year earlier. It is how I track time. Limitation Code. A day the world took notice, and the day 10 months earlier when our private universe collapsed.

They are linked for me, a way of marking anniversaries, how long has it been? 15 years nearly. years filled with unattended birthdays, anniversaries, graduations, a hundred missed celebrations. more marking of time. I see you, head bent over a baby, a child (not your own, but so adored) I catch glimpses, there you are in the supermarket or walking on the street or sitting on that bench. moments glance off my memory, your voice, a slight smile, my ears strain to american, hear your laugh. anxious for that sweet melody, crowded out by pain, uncertainty. I cannot hear it, though I know it, imagine it, your voice is silent. You are not here.

Too soon to see that baby grown tall and elegant, to see that child strike off on her own. Your choice and yet somehow not. Assignment. Forgiveness is dream essay conclusion absolution, pain has a short reach but a long memory. Regret and gratitude walk hand in essays family, hand. Though you are not here, you are present.

Your spirit in the home you made for us. It is not enough. #148; I have been considering the nature of luck lately. Dream. By many measures, the Carey family has hit a run of bad luck in 2015—Ally was hospitalized with pneumonia and assignment code, complications twice, our elderly cars are feeling their mortality, I lost my job in February, and last week the Subaru was dealt a fatal blow when it was rear-ended, sending Ally to the doctor with a concussion. We've faced numerous setbacks and difficulties, but the first six months of 2015 have presented unusual challenges. So, I've been thinking about good fortune, the caprice of the universe, serendipity. I wouldn't say that I'm particularly superstitious, but I do have a few quirks. One of them is lucky pennies. I can't resist picking up a copper on american the sidewalk or street—shiny or dull, heads up or down. I love the feeling that somehow fate is smiling down on me—that singular moment of ict coursework dtp, gratification when I discover a coin and pocket it.

It lightens my mood and my outlook for american the day, regardless of assignment limitation, whether the notion of luck holds true, it is still found money, though tiny increments. Those increments add up over time—we have a container full of american conclusion, found coins (mostly pennies) from the last 5 years—it is nearly full, heavy with promise and fortune. A lucky find amortized over the years. A small offering in the vast expanse of the universe. Much of nature tends toward balance and assignment, symmetry—from butterflies to snowflakes, spiderwebs to galaxies, the universe seems to american conclusion, favor order over chaos.

Those who believe in assignment code, karma would speculate over american essay conclusion, our past actions, karma being a law of moral causation, what might we have done to be faced with our state? I choose to believe that our current run of heights, luck is nature’s method of ensuring our growth and development, a nudge in the direction of our future prosperity and happiness. This natural alignment leads me back to conclusion, our string of bad luck—and wondering if luck is really just how you perceive your current circumstances—an exercise in practicing affirmation for what we have, measuring our situation with a hopeful attitude. It’s not always easy, but I daily remind myself of our good fortune in argumentative essay about uniqueness, supportive and american dream, generous family and friends who have offered us encouragement and endorsement, assurance and blessing. So I attempt to assignment provision, view this in a positive light. I lost a job that had no long-term future, that, after nearly 10 years offered little by way of personal and professional growth. Not having a job over the past few months has offered opportunities that I wouldn’t otherwise enjoy—rare days with my family, attending all of the events that were the last hurrah of Megan’s senior year, time spent on long walks with friends without concern for dream being elsewhere.

One forgets the boon of free time in the chaos of work obligations. Losing my job allowed me to spend a full two weeks with my parents, siblings, and our children in on my family, Avalon, NJ—a yearly gathering that I have squeezed into weekends for the past ten years—I cannot place a value on the time spent under one roof again enjoying the company of the people I love the best. Change comes daily—slowly or suddenly—all we can do is respond to it with our best efforts, understanding that, as John Lennon wrote, “Life is what happens when you’re busy making plans.” And yes, though the world loves symmetry, it devolves into chaos pretty regularly—the regular intervals of ocean waves break on the shore to the circulating grains of sand, the Fibonacci sphere of a dandelion casts its seeds to the wind, the dramatic circulation of a tornado leads to devastation. Chance, luck, fortune—whatever you wish to dream essay conclusion, call it—comes in waves, less regularly than the ocean and without its constance. It’s a good exercise to acknowledge both our impotence in controlling events and our attitude in how they shape us. When Louis Pasteur wrote, “Chance favors the prepared mind,” he was speaking of scientific observation, but I have always felt that he believed that luck is partly attitude. If fate is merchants argumentative about a whimsy of the american essay conclusion, cosmos, good luck lies mostly in duality, our perspective and openness to change. I choose to view this year’s luck as a reminder that fate has mostly cast its favor on the Carey family and to try practice gratitude for our blessings.

I am not always successful, but I shall keep trying. And I’ll keep picking up those pennies. I am privileged to share my life with two exceptional fathers—one who raised me and one who is helping me raise our children. They are very different parents, but their parenting is conclusion founded in unconditional love. David chose to stay home with our girls—it is one of the most consequential decisions we've ever made. It defined the provision, quality of our daughters' childhood, and continues to shape them in ways that are beyond our comprehension. For David, fatherhood is a full contact experience—he took it on dream essay with his typical energetic enthusiasm. I love being a mother, but David thrives on fatherhood—it is his defining achievement and merchants argumentative about uniqueness, his most proud accomplishment. 18 years ago, stay at conclusion, home dads were not nearly as prevalent as they are today and he faced confusion and misjudgment on occasion, often having to explain himself. No, he wasn't taking the day off to be with his kids; no, he wasn't unemployed, this was his job; etc.

And he routinely reported a level of dtp, prejudice as he took the american conclusion, girls out—a disconcerting wariness amongst the (mostly) women he encountered at playgrounds and parks. He took this all in stride and created a magical (albeit unusual) childhood experience for our girls. A typical week would take them to the zoo or museums or one the merchants of cool argumentative about, many local playgrounds. Or to more unusual spots. A favorite outing included watching the planes land at conclusion, the Philadelphia airport, enjoying the thrill as 747s bore down on them, just above the treetops, the compressed air from the engines swirling the of cool about uniqueness, leaves of the trees.

It's a breathtaking experience to stand under a plane as it powers overhead—one that the girls still love. David loves a good game and his joy in play was evident to the girls—he was Megan’s first playmate, Ally’s favorite buddy—a constant source of fun and laughter as they were little, a cause of smiles and eye-rolling as they got older, but always delighted to participate. He is a pied piper in dream essay conclusion, a room full of kids—they seem to know that he is the source of the fun. His made-up games were simple in good cover for jobs, execution, complex in imagination, and provided hours of amusement. He was always creating opportunities for them, from digging holes at the beach to creating snow mountains in our yard for them to sled down to building bonfires on american essay conclusion the rocky coast. Ict Coursework. And he was far more lenient with them than I would have been— allowing the american dream essay conclusion, girls to letters for jobs, play in puddles and mud, to throw the folded laundry around and american dream, jump on the sofa, to create strange concoctions out of flour and assignment provision, cereal and essay, dried pasta and water, to paint on the kitchen floor. Wuthering. And he acquiesced to them bringing home all kinds of creatures—from tadpoles to dream essay, parakeets—we have had more pets than I would ever have allowed: 3 hamsters, 3 parakeets, 5 hermit crabs, 7 guppies (one who lived nearly 6 years), a bunny and, of course, our beloved Schoodic the of cool argumentative essay about uniqueness, Dog. This doesn't include the fish and tadpoles in the garden pond. From those pets they learned about life and loss, a little bit of responsibility, the virtue of taking care of something helpless, the joy and sweetness of unconditional love.

From their dad they learned the power of showing up and american essay conclusion, participating, the joy of duality, a simple walk in the woods, to savor play and fun. They learned to create art and music. Essay. They both understand the value of hard work and a good deal. He taught them to listen to soundtracks—both the natural soundtrack around us and the ones in assignment provision, the movies. He cultivated in american dream essay, them an appreciation of photography, both as artwork and as an ict coursework, expression of love—their favorite childhood moments are captured on film, for even as he was engaged with them, he was recording every minute, both in stills and on video, creating enduring gifts to his family. American Dream Essay. A treasure of sharing and assignment, absolute love. I don’t know how these things will continue to shape the girls. As they’ve gotten older, they tend to turn to me more—a natural progression, I think. I know David sometimes feels irrelevant, maybe that feeling’s natural, too. But I know it’s not true. I see daily his influence on them and I know how his guidance has shaped them into strong, smart, savvy, talented, caring young women who love music and photographs, the rocky Maine coast, and dream essay conclusion, the way the light plays across the assignment provision, water.

I know they are passionately sentimental and american, will bear those memories into whatever future they make for limitation code themselves. And, though they love and appreciate him now, I know that only american dream essay conclusion when they become parents will they fully realize how very lucky they are. I remember a trip I took with my dad. Ict Coursework. It was our last summer in Vermont and dream essay conclusion, my mom was retiring from directing the Merestead Field Hockey and Lacrosse Camp. I was a junior in high school and my dad and assignment provision, I spent the day in rare accord. Motivated to american dream essay conclusion, make the on my, most of our last day off, he was inspired to revisit our previous camp locations—Camp Songadeewin in american conclusion, Barton, VT and Camp Dunmore in Salisbury, VT—all in ict coursework dtp, one day. I went along for the ride. We departed at the crack of dawn, heading up to Lake Willoughby and essay, memories of of cool essay about, Fox Hall, granite outcroppings, cold crystal-clear lake water, rides with Uncle Lenny in the trash truck, the american essay, red barn, Mt. Piscah—all of my favorite childhood memories in about, one spot. I remember this place viscerally, with every cell in american dream essay, my being. Cover For Jobs. I can recall the smell of pine in the woods, the scent of the hot granite after a summer shower, the cool, cool feel of the lake, the shape of the dream essay, downhill curve in the road that took us to dtp, the beach and the wide open vista framed by essay the two mountains there.

I can feel the for jobs, draw of gravity down that hill to the beach, the slapping of my sneaker-clad feet against the asphalt, have the view tattooed into my consciousness, and would recognize the shape of those mountains anywhere. Essay Conclusion. Dad and I wandered around the camp, boarded up and vacant, but still pulsing with the heartbeat of merchants of cool uniqueness, so many memories, vivid in our minds. We didn’t talk much, but explored separately, each of us reveling in our own remembrances. We took a few pictures, spoke with the camp’s owner, stopped at the foot of the hill to take in that awsome view, recalled the story of my friend Heather’s falling out of the car at the turn in the road, along with her blistering anger at being tossed—she was fine, even her orange Fanta survived the fall… We drove along back roads across the state to Camp Dunmore where I explored memories of american dream essay conclusion, camp pranks, thunderstorms that swept across the heights duality essays, lake, dropping an unbaited hook off the dock and catching and american dream conclusion, releasing what seemed like hundreds of sunfish (my mom questioned whether maybe it was just the essays, same one with a very sore lip), visits to dream, the fish hatchery, to AW and Calvi’s for ice cream in limitation, Middlebury. This is where I discovered of my own athleticism; learned the american essay conclusion, skills of cradling and dribbling, catching, throwing, and hitting; started to appreciate the value of teamwork and coaching. It is where I lay on a cot listening to the radio with other teenagers—tunes that still recall that time to me and often draw me back to that place. As we drove back to Castleton, we stopped in a country store and in a generous gesture, Dad bought me a small painted wooden box that I admired. I still have that box. I value it as a simple token, but also as a powerful reminder of a day with my dad—a unique and harmonious day in our tumultuous relationship.

We spent 7 hours in cover letters for jobs, the car that day, drove over 300 miles, on one tank in his diesel VW Rabbit, spoke sparingly—caught in our separate memories of a state we both love. 35 years later, we both remember the day for its audacity and for its peace—a long drive and a short detente during my provoking teenaged years. Dream Essay Conclusion. I loved this day for the rare shared experience, but I love it more in retrospect for the powerful memory that it holds, for the affinity I still feel with my dad because of it; for the tenacity and of cool argumentative uniqueness, yearning of that memory, wrapped in the sight and smell and taste of places we loved, shared with a person I love. If high school was a concerto, I imagine senior year would be scored allegro vivo or even allegro agitato . Picking up on a powerful melody developed during junior year it is a fast-paced whirlwind—a modern composition full of discord and flourishes in american dream, a minor key that ultimately resolves into a beautiful and melancholic largo . Such has been our year. The stresses of letters for jobs, academic performance, participation in numerous activities, testing, researching, applying—finally—the disappointments and successes, the anxiety of waiting, and american, the triumph of a decision, leading to a final resolution and ict coursework, a little sense of calm (before the storm of dream essay conclusion, heading off to college.) It’s never easy to witness your child under stress, nor is it easy to be the parent who pushes.

In this blog entry on the college application process, Pete Van Buskirk writes: “…it isn’t easy to good for jobs, give up control and expect an 18-year-old, with little-to-no experience, to make the right decisions in managing a process of this complexity when the stakes are so high…As a parent, you have done your job in that you have brought her to conclusion, the point where she can begin speaking for herself. Duality. Now, it’s her turn.” Powerful in theory, sometimes not as smooth in practice as it’s incredibly hard to not manage or even micro-manage this process. American Conclusion. In retrospect, I would have relaxed a little more during the application process…hindsight always offers clarity. In any case, we are facing the dtp, final few weeks with the knowledge that she is going to a school that she chose for all of the reasons she thought were important. And we hope…. We hope that she takes this phenomenal opportunity and her unique talents and reaps a fabulous harvest from the american dream, seeds that we’ve sown together over the years. That she meets people whose companionship and friendship will take her through the experience and beyond and that, in 30 years’ time, she still turns to those people in of cool argumentative, times of joy and sadness. That she grows into dream, herself, continuing to mature as the cover, confident, smart, talented, happy child she was into dream essay, the remarkable young woman we see emerging.

That she risks new experiences. That she grows in worldliness and sophistication, but never loses her appreciation for essays family simple things like a walk on the beach, a quiet rainy morning, the companionship of a good friend. American. That she discovers something which she is of cool uniqueness passionate about, moving her to cultivate and nurture that passion. That she is fulfilled. And happy.

And safe. This has been a year of endings—a final soccer game, a last concert, prom, awards banquets—all leading to essay, graduation. But it is a launching also, an assignment, opportunity to review and appreciate what was accomplished and to discard the trivial and cherish the best and move on to a future that promises wonderment and vitality, growth and adventure. American. And as we listen to the score for this year, our hearts swell and our eyes fill, bereft at the thought of her absence, proud in assignment, her accomplishments, overjoyed in her possibilities. The music slows to that largo and we revel in essay conclusion, our gratitude. Assignment Limitation Code. *Italian music terms: allegro vivo—fast, lively. American Dream Essay Conclusion. allegro agitato—fast, agitated; restless. largo—rather slow; stately. I recently read this piece online extolling the virtues of long walks and chronicling the variety of smart people who use walking as a means to channel their creativity—it cites the likes of Steve Jobs, Beethoven, Goethe, and Charles Dickens. And, of course, Thoreau took walking to a whole new realm. As exercise, I can attest what walking lacks in sweat equity, it makes up for in cerebral agility.

Most of english essays on my family, my creative writing germinates during my solo walks, an american dream essay conclusion, opportunity to turn things over in my mind. There is also the therapeutic effect of assignment provision, walking with a friend. I find such an enormous benefit as I go though my own angst-ridden days, in sharing some of that burden with another person, especially someone who isn’t intimately involved with the main characters. American Essay. A walking conversation has the same benefit that talking to my kids in the car does—you know, those intimate conversations that don’t take place face to merchants essay about uniqueness, face at the dinner table because everyone’s watching you. Conclusion. My walking talks with friends range from raising our young adults and teens to finding fulfilling work to caring for aging parents and spouses to discussing and diagnosing our weird ailments (which all fall into the category of menopause) to worrying about relationships with our kids, our husbands, our siblings, our parents to griping about our jobs and bosses, our thickening waistlines, the increasing difficulty in finding really good fitting bras/shoes/jeans. It’s eclectic and mundane and ever so helpful in family, maintaining a balance. There is a powerful comfort in knowing that I’m not alone in this journey, that I have friends who are travelling the same path.

These discussions provide moments of communion. They are revealing and expressive, honest and conclusion, forthright—a sharing of essays family, experience and empathy. American. I’m lucky to have friends far and ict coursework dtp, near with whom the camaraderie of a shared walk is integral to our relationship. I enjoy walking with these women for the perspective on life they can bring to our talks. Our walks provide an exceptional time for undistracted conversation. I have traveled with friends through our shared experiences with job searches, family illness, depression, anxiety, and hope. For there is always the promise of tomorrow’s walk to get us out of bed the next morning. American Dream. And yet it is my solo walks that offer me equilibrium, that give me the family, time and space to contemplate.

No fancy equipment required—all I need is a pair of sneakers and stretch of road and american essay, I’m on my way. My friend Bonnie once told me that women at a certain age experience a compelling desire to be grounded and heights, that walking is the ideal exercise for that, feet striking the pavement, one foot in front of the other—a no-nonsense undertaking. For me, it is both ballast and sail. A time for problem-solving and fancy-flight alike…an unfettered stream of consciousness birthing poetry and stories and american conclusion, shopping lists. It brings clarity to my often-tangled thoughts, providing an hour’s worth of straightforward movement in my chronically chaotic life. “An early morning walk is a blessing for the whole day.” — Henry David Thoreau. Provision. Friends know I like to tell that story of my mom's forgetting to dream essay conclusion, pick me up after choir practice at ict coursework dtp, the church when I was a kid.

It wasn't a random forgetful moment, but a regular occurrence that eventually turned into a ritual of my getting rides home with the choir director, arriving just as dinner was being placed on the table and my mom's Oh, Beth, when did you get home? To which I disdainfully replied, It's Thursday. you forgot me at choir. again. I recalled this experience to a dear friend and colleague, Dottie, who knew my mom professionally, to which she replied, I'm sure that never happened, your mom is american conclusion so organized! Which is true. at the time we were speaking, she was teaching a time management course to essays on my family, the undergraduate students at Bryn Mawr College. I smiled at my friend as we waited for mom to pick me up after work (we both worked at Bryn Mawr and car-pooled.) After about 15 minutes, I turned to Dottie and said, I bet she forgot me. She replied, She'd never forget you.

She just got held up. Several minutes later Mom arrived and Dottie related my comment. Mom's reply? I got almost to Rosemont before I remembered her! It's a story of being a third child.

By the time my parents had me they were parenting alumni, what I brought in challenges, they seemed to overcome with experience and a typically 1970s laissez faire parenting style that would dismay my own children. For example, by the time I was in dream, high school the rule was you miss the bus, you get yourself to school—walk, ride a bike, take the train—they'd write a note, but wouldn't provide transportation. I learned my senior year how quickly damp hair freezes in cold weather when you run for the bus. My girls would be appalled. Ict Coursework Dtp. And yet, in these cases, I never felt neglected, unloved, or dismissed. Nor did I truly ever appreciate my mother, having only recently come to a point in my life where I am in utter amazement at all that she did. At a time when many of my friends' moms were homemakers, Mom worked part-time as a physical educator at Immaculata College, co-owned and american dream essay, directed several field hockey and lacrosse camps, served as chair of the township Park and Rec Board, sang in the church choir, had an of cool, active social life playing tennis and skiing with friends, AND had a home cooked meal on the table every night. E-V-E-R-Y night. Then she cleaned up after dinner, typed my last minute papers for school, and relaxed in front of the TV, setting her hair to Johnny Carson. The dinner on the table every night has me in awe as the Carey family routinely has dinner on essay your own or make do meals, sometimes out of necessity of timing, many times out of sheer fatigue.

And that big mahogany dinner table literally expanded as needed. Limitation Code. Besides the five Shillingfords, we were joined daily by my grandmother and Uncle Willie, who both lived with us. American Dream Essay Conclusion. And myriad others dropped in—neighborhood kids and friends who happened to be there at serving time, an occasional colleague or student of Mom's. But there in provision, the center of it all was Mom—svelte and poised, always ready to make an american essay, eloquent speech or to offer advice, be a friend or a mother, whatever was needed in the moment. She's still there, now chief champion and defender of the clan, with my dad, attending every concert, award ceremony, performance, meet, or game for her grandchildren and still mothering the three of dtp, us through our various struggles and cheering on our triumphs. Conclusion. Parenting doesn't shape children in provision, the way any parent expects it to—children are shaped incrementally by breaths and moments crystallized in time and tattooed on their psyche.

I don't know if my mother forgot me at choir because I was an independent child, whom she could confidently assume would find her way home or if I became an independent woman because my mother allowed me to find my own way. It doesn't matter. I am ever grateful for the lesson. And my knowledge of her belief in me. Life has so many seasonal rituals, times when you know where you should be and what you should be doing­­–buying school supplies at the end of August, carving pumpkins in October–they become ingrained in your psyche. There are other, more personal rituals. American Dream Conclusion. I never enter autumn without missing the heft and weight of a field hockey stick in assignment limitation code, my hands and the smell of linseed oil in my nose. Late June for me means camp. I was a camp counselor during my summers in american essay conclusion, college and in that brief time I was stamped with a love of musty cabins, pine scented woods, sweet tasting lake water, and wuthering heights, the most stunningly blue sky you can imagine. I have never gotten over it, I pine for it mid-June when I should be driving north to Vermont to partake in the ritual of pre-camp–a week of daily physical labor and evening gatherings. I still cannot imagine a better job, even though I earned a total of $400 dollars that summer for 9 weeks of work.

I loved being in familiar surroundings, in a state that I loved, on a lake at the base of a mountain in the summer. I know that there were things about it that I disliked–the food was marginal and the shower house was a strange, mildewy place infested with all kinds of creepy crawlies. But still, add to the stunning scenery and pure physical beauty of the place the american dream conclusion, sweet decadence of summer love and there is nothing to compare. It wasn't work–it was. English Essays On My. camp. I was never a camper–was not one of those children who spent 4 or 8 weeks of the summer away from home, only to come back 3 inches taller and independent with friends and experiences beyond the confines of american dream essay, my hometown. Yet I knew during my freshman year in college that I wanted to be a camp counselor. I inquired of a family friend who owned a camp whether she knew how I might get a job as a counselor and she hired me right then on the phone.

Job accepted I headed north for what I will always consider one of the most transformational summers of my life. Camp is the reason I still make the trip north every summer–to lakes and rocky Maine beaches. It is the dtp, reason I feel compelled to give my girls the sensual experience of dream, sliding into a summer lake, of dangling their feet off of a dock while the fish nibble at their toes, of sitting by a campfire while the wuthering heights, night sky offers up a concert of meteors, of climbing to the top of a mountain on dream essay a clear day to view the patchwork of merchants of cool argumentative essay about uniqueness, scenery below. It is the reason I look for american essay conclusion more miracles in nature than in merchants of cool uniqueness, church and the reason I relish in those simple beauties. You see it latched onto me, camp did. It was achingly beautiful on a summer morning to come out of my bunk and see the mist rising off the dream, lake, the dew still on the grass, girls holding my hand on the way to breakfast.

Children being tucked in at limitation code, night and telling me they loved me–the adoring worship a 12-year-old girl has for her 18-year-old counselor. American Essay. Camp for me that summer was love–the love of kids, the delicious love of a handsome boy, and an overwhelming love of a place I had known since childhood. Limitation. It was like coming home, finding the place that fit and never wanting to leave. I did leave and returned only one more summer, but I have never stopped searching for a substitute–how do you make a real living as a camp counselor? How do you capture the essence of camp–that carefree, transient joy of pure play and essay, fun? Or the silliness of camp pranks? Or the unfettered freedom of good cover letters for jobs, being on your own?

Or the sublime anticipation of american dream conclusion, meeting a boy and lying under the merchants of cool argumentative essay uniqueness, stars? Or the sweet melancholy of a dying campfire? Or the awesome beauty of the Milky Way laid out above you on a crystal clear night? I often find myself trying to conclusion, capture the essence of that summer. I sign up to join the three-day elementary school trip to camp or volunteer as a girl-scout leader. There are moments of joy, but there is a difference. Nothing comes close to being 18, in dtp, love­–with a place, and a boy, and an experience–it has a life of its own, an existence all to itself and it lives on in brief sparks of remembrance. It lives on dream in the smell of the pine woods, the taste of a spring-fed lake, the lingering warmth of a dock after the assignment, sun has set, or the smoky tang of dream essay, a campfire. And I am transported back in time. Assignment Limitation. On August 5, I was diagnosed with a small aneurysm in my left carotid artery, which my primary care physician dismissed initially, but sent me to a neurologist, which lead to a neurosurgeon, which lead to discussions of the location of the aneurysm (inside or outside the brain), required me to detail a long family history of aneurysm, and lead me to trying not to freak out over the remote possibility of brain surgery. ultimately leading to an angiogram last week that revealed that the aneurysm was nothing more than a misshapen artery. A happy ending after weeks of anxiety.

I have been spending a good deal of time and effort lately trying to live in the moment. an exercise in trying not to american conclusion, worry about the future before I have all the information needed to make decisions. It is ict coursework dtp amazingly hard to do, especially when parenting teenagers—even though they live remarkably well in american dream essay conclusion, the present—their very existence is good cover for jobs forward-directed. there is nothing but time ahead of them and as a parent, I am constantly thinking about who they are, who they will become, how can I help them get there? So this exercise in existential living has given me a glimpse back to a time when I was able to lay my head on the pillow at night with the comfort of a home and family, food that I didn't have to cook, the anticipation of time spent with friends, thinking barely further than the next day's events. I lost the ability to live in the moment as I became a responsible adult. it's a somewhat necessary loss—jobs, bills, managing family and work, providing the future for my children that will allow them to fulfill their dreams—all requires planning, thinking about goals, money, schools, classes, homework. And helping them develop their interests through sports or music or art contributes to the complexity of planning. So, it's no wonder that it gets harder to dream, be in the moment—even if I can manage it briefly, life comes back at me with more--just more. More obligations, events, details to take care of, doctor appointments and tests to assignment, schedule, teachers to meet, deadlines to make, and american essay, those ever-present money details—forward thinking in assignment provision, themselves—saving for college, retirement, next year's vacation. Dream Essay Conclusion. And yet, I have come to believe that the most valuable currency we have is time, it comes to us in a limited quantity and we can never make gains on it, we can only spend it. English On My Family. So the challenge is conclusion how to spend it well.

So what is time well-spent? Standing on the sidelines watching my child excel in a sport she loves so much she laughs and smiles while playing—feeling proud and happy and successful that she has found such joy in sport; listening to my daughter sing while she does her homework, chores, showers, pretty much anything—thrilled to know that no matter what life throws at her, she has developed a coping mechanism that will assist her in assignment, dealing its those struggles; sitting next to my husband in american essay conclusion, a hospital knowing there is family no one I would rather have with me at that moment—whether I get good news or bad; hearing the concern and love in american dream essay, a friend's voice—acknowledging that there are people in the world who want the best for me. Being tuned in to the world—able to recognize the beauty in moments—geese flying overhead, v-ing across the sky, the russets and oranges of fall leaves crunching while I walk, the warmth of a dog's head on assignment code my feet as I work, an amazement of stars overhead, an abundance of blooms in my garden. This attempt at living in american dream conclusion, the moment, while difficult at times, has proven to wuthering heights, be a good reminder of all the dream conclusion, instances that I typically pass through on assignment a given day without remark. a welcome demonstration of american essay conclusion, all the wonders that are the sum of my own happiness, if only dtp I take the moment to heed them. A friend I spoke with yesterday told me how great it was that my girls got to see me as someone other than a mother, wife, daughter on our recent trip with my friend Bonnie. It made me start thinking about the value of long friendships—the ones that start before you are fully formed—for many of american essay, us college relationships--and how valuable they become in mid-life. I have double-edged benefit of living in the same town I grew up in—it is great for so many reasons—my family is right down the road and not 1500 miles away as they are for provision so many of my friends, my girls go to dream, the same schools I went to, have had some of the letters for jobs, same teachers, walk to town on the same streets, have friends whose parents went to elementary school with me. The downside is essay that in so many ways my few years away from here allowed me to develop a self that felt comfortable and provision, right to me, but as long as I am in my hometown, there is always a me that people assume they know—but she is not the only me. There is another self that developed while I was away at college—an evolving person. I liked that not quite fully-formed girl I was in college.

She was a little wild, introspective, fun, competitive, sensual, sassy, funny, conflicted, smart, and far less certain of the world than she let on. She is still in my heart. She is, in fact, the person my husband fell in american dream essay conclusion, love with. Assignment Limitation Code. Being with the people that knew me then is like putting on a well-worn shirt or comfortable pair of shoes—not only do they fit, but they feel good and my world becomes balanced. As the complexities of dream, life catch up to me, it is sometimes hard to maintain a sense of individuality—experiences are mostly based upon my relationships with the family, people around me. In my everyday world I am mother, wife, daughter, sister, co-worker, coach, and american conclusion, Mrs. Carey to those around me. Often parenthood, especially, feels like a slow erosion of self—a gradual wearing down of self. Not just the drip of essays, responsibility but the ticking away of time.

This feels especially true since the girls hit adolescence. Look at a given week during the school year and you will see soccer games, flute lessons, homework projects, school meetings, and a hundred other small things that focus on the girls, life really has become mostly about them and I am sometimes so pressed for time that I give up the few things that I do for myself—a long walk, writing, gardening—just to get things done for them. And yet there is dream nothing in this world I would rather be than Megan and Ally’s mom. It is the best thing David and I have done in dtp, life—raising these two curious, smart, talented, funny, happy girls. And I will continue to sacrifice my time to see that they succeed.

I remember very distinctly the point when their successes became more important than my own achievements—it is a turning point in dream, parenthood, that juncture when your ambition for yourself becomes secondary to your desire for your children’s happiness and ict coursework, success. American Conclusion. For me it was the dtp, moment in second grade when Megan’s teacher said “I can’t wait to see what she becomes…” I know that my heart has opened to new experiences because of motherhood—it makes many of my friendships that much richer and american dream essay conclusion, more profound. That is why being with a friend who knows this me and remembers the merchants of cool argumentative essay about, not quite formed me and all the others in between is such a joy—it is american a relief to not have to explain myself, to feel the history that flows between us in a thousand remembered experiences, to have the language that friends share—all the private jokes and small secrets—to be with someone who knows all the people in my past and most of those in my present, and who encourages me to ict coursework dtp, be the person I like to be—that is a gift that only friendship can give. And it means that I can be that unrestrained smart-ass that I like and she celebrates that person. She also recognizes that I am still not so sure about the world and american dream essay, helps me work through my own sense of uncertainty.

I am so grateful for that. And for the girl she allows me to be… My daughters got to see that girl, too. Duality Essays. Enjoyed seeing their mom totally relaxed and laughing, poking fun at them and essay conclusion, the world, having a blast. I will remember that girl when the long lazy days of summer give way to the whirlwind of autumn and assignment code, life becomes busy once more. And I will celebrate her. A few weeks ago when I picked up my walking regime (winter snows and my own complacency had all but eliminated it), I realized after a few long walks that my iPod selections needed a complete makeover….what was fine for the melancholy days of autumn was downright depressing in essay conclusion, late February. Wuthering Heights. I found myself being dragged down by the soulful renditions of american dream essay, Nora Jones, Sarah McLachlan, Carly Simon—all personal favorites, but my song choices were of the seriously introspective type. About a week ago, Megan was on iTunes loading her iPod in preparation for assignment code a slumber party when I asked her to update my shuffle selections.

I gave her free-reign in her choices, with the american dream, one caveat that I wanted the ict coursework, songs to enliven my walks. Inviting a 14-year-old to share her music has potential dangers, especially when the music they listen to on the radio includes the likes of Katy Perry, Justin Bieber, and Lady Gaga. I have been walking to Megan’s music selections for the past week and am enjoying a unique view into my daughter’s psyche. I know these are songs that she chose for me, knowing I wanted to be inspired while exercising, but they are, at american dream conclusion, essence, her choices. There are many proud moments in parenthood—your child is wuthering heights essays singled out by dream a teacher for fine work, friends and family comment on a sweet nature or nice manners, children score goals or make saves in sports, they perform on stage alone or in a group—these moments are the cover letters, highlights of parenthood. Dream Conclusion. David likes to call them dividends on merchants argumentative essay uniqueness our investment. But as your child becomes a teenager and exerts her will on you and conclusion, the world, these moments become tempered by the flashes of parental frustration, bewilderment, and, yes, anger.

You start to feel as if you are losing a long war of english essays, attrition, giving over a little influence with each confrontation. Spending time with friends starts to outweigh spending time with family. And the whole time you KNOW, this is normal and you tell yourself that you are lucky because this child really is, at essence, a good soul. But there are times when you love them, you just don’t LIKE them. My glimpse at essay, Megan through the good, lens of her music selections has given me faith that we’ll come through adolescence somehow understanding each other—I like her music choices for me. They are instilled with the essential existential nature of teendom—celebratory, momentary, happy. As I am navigating my own anxiety-ridden stage of life, it helps to be reminded that all we own is the moment and these songs do just that through driving beats, buoyant lyrics, and tuneful melodies. American Dream Essay. This music has allowed me to feel hopeful about the heights duality, adult Megan will become—they show an dream essay, appreciation for language and melody, they are high-spirited but fortified with deep emotion, and, if they are representative of how she views the world, David and I can rest easy. In this moment…. I am happy to report that there is heights duality essays no Katy Perry or Lady Gaga on dream conclusion the list and cover letters, only one Justin Bieber…maybe when this list runs its course I will invite Ally to load my iPod with her selections to see where they take me. American Dream Essay. Good Riddance (Time of Your Life), Green Day.

Ordinary Miracle, Sarah McLachlan. Haven't Met You Yet, Michael Buble. Your Smiling Face, James Taylor. Dark Blue, Jack's Mannequin. Duality Essays. Make You Feel My Love, Adele. Life Less Ordinary, Carbon Leaf. Bad Day, Daniel Powter. The Country Life, Peter Cincotti. Come On Get Higher, Matt Nathanson.

Bubbly, Colbie Caillat. 1,2,3,4, Plain White T's. Get It Right, Glee Cast. Dream Essay. King of Anything, Sara Bareilles. Up On The Roof, James Taylor. Raise Your Glass, P!nk. Up On The Roof, Carole King James Taylor. Yaicha, Pousette-Dart Band. Assignment. The Best Day, Taylor Swift. Viva La Vida, Coldplay.

Fix You, Straight No Chaser. Unwritten, Natasha Bedingfield. I'm Yours/Somewhere Over The Rainbow, Straight No Chaser.

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In Conclusion | The American Dream in The Great Gatsby

chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of essay, chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in the United States. The annual production of bread alone is good cover for jobs, estimated to involve the addition of about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of bakers throughout the country.

During the six-year period since the end of the war, at least 700 to essay conclusion 800 chemicals have been discovered for use in American food products. These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and pesticides to substitutes for english essays on my organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. American Dream Conclusion! There are some foods on assignment the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the dream essay chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an extent that these foods no longer contain the organic contents from which they were originally derived. This is the ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by either the manufacturer or food technologist. The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition.

The use of chemicals in assignment code food has, in fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of american dream essay, acute toxic effects have already approached the point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by merchants of cool argumentative essay uniqueness governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight. Dream! Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to this type of problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the provision Food and Drug Administration. American Dream Conclusion! The government is usually required to show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in food production.

Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by code an agency that is understaffed and has access to limited funds. Dream Essay! Moreover, scientific standards of good for jobs, toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Dream Essay Conclusion! Agene, for example, was used for decades in bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of 80 per cent. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the assignment provision browning of certain sliced fruits. American Dream Essay! As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Limitation Code! Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the dream formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of thyroid adenomata and tumours of the liver. Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid.

This acid was first described in a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by infants#146;. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Merchants Essay! Franklin C. American Conclusion! Bing, an eminent authority on nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is merchants argumentative about, perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;. Dr.

Bing recounts the story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to american dream conclusion submit a product for consideration by our council [American Medical Association]. Cover Letters For Jobs! He had a little monochloracetic acid in his product as a preservative, and my duty as secretary of the council was to ask him what evidence he had as to american conclusion its harmlessness, and he brought that in, and essays on my family I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and dream essay conclusion the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of wuthering heights duality essays, telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the last decade, chemicals without an american, immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health.

For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and wuthering woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in mind. Proper control, in american essay such instances, cannot end with tests on merchants essay individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at considerable financial expense. More must be learned of animal physiology than is to-day even faintly suspected by the most eminent biologists in the United States. American Conclusion! #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the essays on my term somewhat glibly, but in american essay the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the merchants argumentative essay about things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only slightly in chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is not found to a fair extent in foods, is dream essay, open to of cool about uniqueness some suspicion when you take it into american conclusion the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for wuthering duality essays the most part, only for acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the technical magazines which come to dream the attention of the chemists in the food industries, and find some little advertisement in them about wuthering new emulsifying agents, or something that is american essay, a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them.

That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by it. And it seems that just as human beings like to limitation take a pill to relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of a man in american dream essay the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps. So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of assignment provision, chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and consumer. Dream Essay! It beings in agriculture and cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon merchants argumentative essay life and nature is scarcely a basis for knowing how several of these chemicals will react together.

For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in american dream essay manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. On My Family! How the soil, as well as the public, is affected is little known. If, as often happens, the same area of land is treated with chemical fertilizers and sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. The dangers inherent in this problem cannot be overestimated. Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to american dream conclusion only certain kinds of uniqueness, food.

It is american dream, often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and good cover soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the dream American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in provision destroying valuable forest lands and wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of many natural enemies of american dream essay, insect life. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the provision United States. At the same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into dream essay the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops.

An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the historical shift from small- to large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the argumentative uniqueness threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families. Dream Essay Conclusion! The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to agriculture. The care of crops usually fell within the horizon of an wuthering, individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. Much attention, interest and american conclusion concern were involved in earlier agricultural practices, and dtp the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Fairs, local markets, contests, and finally a real sense of american dream conclusion, responsibility to good cover letters the surrounding community often induced the farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in many respects for thousands of years. Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat.

But the farmer had the satisfaction of knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the dream essay conclusion result of man-made difficulties. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. Cover For Jobs! The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of american dream essay conclusion, ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. Wuthering Heights Duality! The advances made in soil chemistry and crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on organic and natural resources. Charles Townshend, for example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of american dream conclusion, wheat, turnip, barley and clover. Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the wuthering heights essays selection and breeding of cattle.

There is no better description of the agricultural advances of the eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. The rule-of-thumb researches of the american dream conclusion period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the letters for jobs forces of nature. The #145;conquest of american dream, nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces. Food cultivation by man, which must be regarded as a form of botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. Of Cool Argumentative Uniqueness! For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is american dream, likely to assignment code find. He must understand not only gross variations in soil, but particularly his own soul as it is essay conclusion, affected by the local vegetation, insect and animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and argumentative understanding.

The farmer must bring not only insight to the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of american dream essay, agriculture changed from the quality to the quantity of food cultivation. This meant that the land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and heights duality one-sided manner. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Dream Conclusion! Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to be created. To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to limitation compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to standardize the size of crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the results of variations in climate. Dream! The most elementary lessons of essays, man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by essay conclusion #145;chemistry#146;.

But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the wuthering heights duality farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the intimate problems of crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest. The division of labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Dream Conclusion! Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an merchants argumentative about, over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of #145;average#146; farming. As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks.

Management is often supplied #150; at least in dream essay conclusion motivation #150; from remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the soil. Demands imposed upon the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by assignment provision the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. All the gaps in the picture #150; from the variations of the land to the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of very important principles are involved. Under natural conditions, the fertilization of land by organic materials is a process in the course of which complex substances are broken down into american simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Good Cover Letters For Jobs! Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen.

Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to dream essay further the cultivation of food, and the human body, in turn, consumes the proteins of provision, cattle that once eventually reached the soil. But other means exist.

Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and american dream essay conclusion alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil. Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the acidulation technique has a wide variety of wuthering heights duality, uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of chemicals that are not always necessary for dream agriculture. The added chemicals often play no role whatever in heights duality essays soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the american dream essay acidulation technique itself, or at best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over of cool argumentative the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture.

Do these new accretions harm the soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is american conclusion, enough known of the effect of assignment, chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems. During the hearings of the Select House Committee, for example, Mr. J. I. American Essay! Rodale of the #145;Soil and Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. In other cases they are too soluble.

It is as if an individual were forced to eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. The one element that they need to good cover letters feed the plant in order to make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is there practically only for that purpose. #145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to american dream conclusion feed the plant phosphate. Good Cover Letters! But is it mixed with sulphuric acid to dream essay give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of phosphate but very little of the sulphur.

When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. Limitation Code! As they work they have to feed. Conclusion! It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on a very important soil organism, which is needed to break down organic matter. Limitation! Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the american essay conclusion farmer needs to break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the acidulation technique, reaches even further back. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. Dtp! If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the food in time for the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in the United States. It was opposed at the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances.

Although the #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to work and permeable to water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to supplying the land with enough organic materials for agriculture. American Essay! #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the argumentative essay about specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of what they call the american essay conclusion #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to the soil of all the elements which the crop removes from english family, it. Such a system is essay, feasible in merchants of cool essay a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the dream essay entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by organic substances. In fact he found organic fertilizers of cover letters, very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is generally available for use on soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to give the best growth of essay conclusion, crops on most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for merchants of cool essay about uniqueness later discussion. Dream! But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises.

Dr. A. Good Cover! F. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Dream Essay Conclusion! Thus, in the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is duality, universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to american conclusion the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the organisms from english essays on my family, which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to american dream criticize the efficacy or proportions of limitation, organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day.

To the average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by american essay manures, which are admittedly a limited source of soil fertility. Even if we include the ict coursework dtp best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of american conclusion, potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil. Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for wuthering heights duality this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into american essay conclusion new and better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to of cool argumentative essay uniqueness show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere.

His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the #145;experts#146;, a number of soil scientists and practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the quality of american essay conclusion, crops. The discussion is still being cast in a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of chemicals. It is widely accepted that the contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. But, as Dr. K. C. Family! Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in american essay some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the percentage of duality, calcium in the greens in twenty-four to thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in american dream a reduction of vitamin C in plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by all the #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the duality yield of practically all crops on all but our most fertile soils. Dream Essay Conclusion! This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;.

Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on assignment provision poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to the soil can increase the size of crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances. Dr. William A. Albrecht of the University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in the soil is merely a help to take all the american essay conclusion other things out limitation, faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and dream grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of assignment limitation, that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146;

But is that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. American Dream Conclusion! #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is merchants of cool argumentative essay uniqueness, very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. We had the same thing with limestone. The moment we build up the one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and then we are in trouble. . . . Lime is a necessity but like alone is not enough. Conclusion! Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is limitation, very true: #147;Lime and lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to american dream essay conclusion the hydrogen serves to push the other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the assignment lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and dream essay conclusion balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to disaster, more must be known of the factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and finally of plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little.

The soil, as Dr. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and water#146;. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in terms of the nutrition of man or animals. Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality. All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and ict coursework there are no adequate methods for american quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Dtp! Therefore, no measurement of the american dream over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;.

In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is provision, unnecessary for plant growth (but which is american dream conclusion, derived from the consumption of plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in cattle and sheep. Other of ict coursework, these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood. The point is essay, that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and crudely manipulate the agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in technique. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and the #145;Human Bug#146; If the assignment provision rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on american essay the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to human health.

Perhaps the merchants argumentative essay most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and pesticides. The problem that these substances presents is very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by american dream essay physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of Paris Green for the control of the Colorado potato beetle. Afterwards, a number of extremely toxic chemicals came into use. Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. It is still used to-day, although it has been regarded by code many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of insecticides has now grown to incredible dimensions. With the passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and essay Rodenticide Act of 1947, about 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. Heights Duality Essays! These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the recent advance in dream conclusion insecticides, in the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr.

Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and valuable insecticides have been developed on english family which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is absorbed into the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on grains and cereal foods, is described by a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on american the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.

These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by merchants about the Food and Drug Administration. It is american conclusion, maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from english on my, simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from american dream essay conclusion, directly affecting the public. This, however, is by wuthering duality no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by american essay the crops. According to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. It has been known for limitation many years that exposure to arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the skin. More recent evidence is that inhalation of arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung. American Essay! It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of arsenicals. It is suspected that the arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and essay about uniqueness food should be prohibited#146;.

Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. American Essay Conclusion! Experimental study by the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. When as little as three parts of selenium (in the form of selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant. Minute amounts of it (at least in english essays animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the earliest of which are symptomless and essay pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the dtp Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and studies to ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from american, oranges, and the degree to which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to essay about the Select Committee. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of unsprayed groves, and the flesh of conclusion, oranges grown on the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of wuthering heights, insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced.

Perhaps one of the gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the organic insecticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of sprayed fowl and cattle. No limit has been agreed upon by the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for dream essay conclusion use in agriculture, for example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT.

Afterwards, the wuthering heights essays belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the safest of all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the members of the Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for american conclusion household use. If we are to accept the opinion of Dr. Lehman of the Food and ict coursework dtp Drug Administration, however, the truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is essay, one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of dtp, it is used as a household spray, the essay potential hazard to good cover living in these houses is dream conclusion, quite great because of the ability of provision, chlordane to american conclusion penetrate the skin and because of the volatility of the insecticide and the possibility of limitation code, poisoning by inhalation.

More to the point is that it is very toxic to the liver and kidneys of an individual. American Dream! As an over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. Provision! When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of this writer, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Lehman believes that this insecticide is american essay conclusion, #145;quite safe for use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is a liquid.

It penetrates the skin. It is very poisonous. Ict Coursework Dtp! Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and Drug Administration. But some biochemists and american conclusion health workers who are not obliged to maintain an wuthering heights essays, acute sensitivity to the pressure of industry allow themselves less restrained opinions. Dr.

Franklin C. Bing, in conclusion conjunction with a committee on food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is duality, poisonous to one form of life is very apt to be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of DDT, an insecticide which for american dream years was heralded as completely harmless to man and extremely effective against insects. Ict Coursework! A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is so free of any hazards to essay conclusion human beings that is may be sprayed directly on heights essays the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of recent research led to a very lively controversy before the essay Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of this widely used insecticide.

It is interesting to assignment provision note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is essay conclusion, completely harmless; the assignment provision dispute actually centred for the most part, on whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and dream essay physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to extensive research into the pathological symptoms of DDT poisoning. According to english essays on my Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for uncontrolled general use by the public of the american dream essay conclusion insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of assignment, even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Beyond question, no other substance known to essay conclusion man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over argumentative essay so large a portion of the earth in so short a time. American Dream Essay! This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in repeated small doses as in larger single doses. In low-grade chronic poisoning in animals, growth is impaired, and the implication of this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration.

In rats, tumours in the liver have been produced by low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in the body fat and is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of humans, too. Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in site and degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to death do not seem at wuthering duality essays all alarming. Fortunately in american dream essay my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and english on my intensive nutritional therapy to help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Dream! Benzene hexachloride changes the assignment provision chromosomes of american essay, plants and probably, too, those of animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the dtp heredity of human beings must be taken into american consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. All these substances and the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of certain plants, and compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the merchants essay about uniqueness soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146;

In the dream essay conclusion course of his testimony, Dr. Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. Essays On My Family! He cites the case (an example among many) of american essay conclusion, a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. After repeated examinations and tests for two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to merchants of cool essay uniqueness Dr. Biskind for treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to feel vibration in conclusion his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to assignment give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the liver damage and essay put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week.

Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT. Within half-an-hour the english on my family entire syndrome returned and required more than a week to subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity.

Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an individual rather than a public reaction is at american essay conclusion stake. This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers. Of Cool! The public, mass hazards of essay, DDT are now being seriously considered because of family, new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of information of DDT has been supplied by the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. According to Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by the Division for american conclusion evidence of insecticides) were found to be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. The degree of contamination ranged from 3.10 parts per million of DDT in provision lean meat to 68.55 parts per million in fat meat. In milk the american dream conclusion contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of merchants argumentative about, DDT per million in 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.

Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of absorption was found to be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of dream, absorption in corn ranged from zero parts per million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per million after two sprayings with insecticide. Contamination of the sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to english essays family 3.72 parts of insecticide per dream essay million after one spraying and 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Assignment Provision! Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by the corn.

The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in american dream essay the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Smith, and H. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in for jobs test animals. We know, too, that DDT is conclusion, absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Good! Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of american essay, DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Ict Coursework Dtp! Dendy points out that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the investigators in the field.

Even though the intake is small, the fatty accumulation in the tissues as the essay result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per million in the fat#146;. It is interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the adequacy of the tests which either support the harmfulness or the harmlessness of heights essays, DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to essay the indoctrination of DDT. As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for assignment limitation everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals. Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on the human being to american essay my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet.

Someone has to authorize, delegate and assignment limitation code carry on such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is going in the wrong direction. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. We know it has an american essay, effect on test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Dendy, but this is the same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the insecticide to wuthering heights duality the public. In the meantime, DDT is ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the american greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to of cool uniqueness be checked against those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the insecticide from american essay conclusion, their normal environment.

Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in the reports of Dr. Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the dtp following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. American Dream Conclusion! They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Radioactive isotopes produced as the Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the liver and the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is merchants of cool about, a hazardous contaminant of animal and human foodstuffs.

Though in themselves the residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of dream essay, a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the cumulative absorption of DDT residues.#146; Actually, the coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Dtp! Atomic bombs have proved to be very effective in dream essay snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to accept a number of merchants argumentative uniqueness, very remarkable facts brought out before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of dream essay conclusion, new pests.

It is ironic but apparently true that the use of many insecticides leads to the development of resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and dtp red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the american essay conclusion crop was threatened only because prior use of DDT had killed off the normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the remedy for too much poison is english essays, still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by essay conclusion leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Palm of wuthering, Cornell University. #145;As far as the same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on american fruit. It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the essays codling moth, it was no particular problem to the commercial fruit grower. But there is the possibility that DDT has reduced the parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to american contend with because we still have to control the codling moth with DDT.

We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of essays on my family, codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for #145;experts#146; to juggle the american dream effectiveness of an insecticide against good for jobs, the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to dream conclusion suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and assignment provision none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. of the pests, but at the same time eliminates its natural enemies.

Perhaps this is american dream essay conclusion, where the future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of assignment, biology#146;. The entire meaning of insect control by american dream conclusion insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Pickett of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for some specific purpose, such as the ict coursework control of a fungus disease, it may increase the conclusion survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the spray was applied. An example of this is the dtp increase in essay conclusion population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the essay about uniqueness bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in american dream essay conclusion some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the dose of an insecticide as the pest grows more and merchants essay uniqueness more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to american complete the destruction of assignment, natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to conclusion man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of crops a year. The problem of limitation code, controlling them, as Dr. Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past.

The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by american dream essay conclusion improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Dtp! Yet it is an american dream essay, area of investigation that some of the assignment limitation code most interesting facts and results have been brought to light. During the Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by dream essay insects and diseases upon our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the steady deterioration of soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and the increasing unavailability of the english on my family natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and american dream essay conclusion content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to disease and insect attack. In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in many cases disappears altogether. The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is closely related to the increasing attack of disease and ict coursework dtp insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and american dream sprays later consumed by humans.#146; Falling back on his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on land that has been in use for 1,200 years, for seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. English Family! It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146;

According to Mr. Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the attack of chinch bugs on corn. They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to essay conclusion the attack of the green bug on wheat#146; in Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the dtp of the field and work his way across. They always go to american dream essay conclusion work on the yellowish spot in the field and ict coursework dtp they work out in a circle. This yellowish spot is where there is a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only introduced into the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on american essay an ever-increasing scale into cattle and fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by assignment provision Dr. Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol.

Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of american dream, feed and increase profits. English Family! When these chickens are slaughtered the american dream essay necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in cover letters for jobs breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the person who consumes the chicken. #145;The same type of problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from each pound of feed. Does enough of the dream essay compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to wuthering be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and dream essay especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health.

According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. Assignment Code! The supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the conclusion drug is used in medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless. They point out the argumentative essay fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of a physician. American Dream Essay! Yet the literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and assignment code injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and Nature). These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only american dream conclusion, does the clinical evidence point to such a conclusion, but now, with the lapse of time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is it is on my, discarded with the head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on humans. American Essay! Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the english essays on my market are far from the same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the american dream essay conclusion drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on the open market.

An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. English On My Family! Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. Dream Conclusion! This means that in dtp 16 per cent. of the chickens sold the site of implantation was in dream essay such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the chemical which is not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to use animal charcoal to mix with the pellet to mark the site of the injection may be due to the fact that the site of injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146; Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Assignment Limitation Code! Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is american dream, of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the (experimental) animal.

Now while two one-hundredths of provision, a milligram given over a period of a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of time to an animal of the same weight will not kill him. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and the skin would not come back, there were scales around the external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the american dream few survivors were the heights essays most miserable animals I have ever seen for animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of essay conclusion, stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in chickens and cause changes in the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and english on my resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to american dream experimenters and the physician.#146; Dr. Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in merchants argumentative essay about uniqueness endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out some of Dr.

Enders#146; opinions before the dream essay conclusion Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. #145;When the ovaries or the essay about uniqueness tests are removed, the physiological effect is profound in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the ovary or the testes. We have to dream essay think of the body as a whole, and when you have an excess of one hormone over another you get effects which reverberate with the essays entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of essay conclusion, them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into the cosmetics and homes of millions of women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for example, estrogen causes profound changes in wuthering heights essays the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in conclusion three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the chicken likewise the blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is reported that the Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the use of this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr.

Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of wuthering heights duality essays, a poultry laboratory that manufactures and american essay conclusion distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of poultry meat with an increasing demand for this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic. Ict Coursework! This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in 1950; in fact, the hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. In the first ten months of 1950 they have gone from dream essay conclusion, a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in January to 25.77 per cent. in October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the reaction of Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to argumentative essay about uniqueness the report of Dr. Enders: #145;Dr.

Miller. I read your paper last night and I had to take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for a while. It was disturbing to think what it may do to american dream the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the ict coursework vegetarians may inherit the earth.#146; Dr. American Dream Essay! Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to fatten poultry is an economic fraud. Chicken feed is assignment, not saved; it is merely turned into fat instead of protein. Fat is abundant in the American diet so more is undesirable.

Protein is what one wants from poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in appearance and increase in american essay fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the drug. This fat is of very doubtful value and is in no way the dietary equal to the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. Assignment Limitation! The truth is that even more is involved. The use of hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over conclusion animal reproduction. Dr. Letters For Jobs! Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. Essay Conclusion! In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is only 60 per cent. of that delivered by of cool argumentative essay about uniqueness the sow in the litters of american, pigs at cover letters their birth. Essay! Dairy calves at ict coursework weaning time are only american dream essay, 60 per good letters for jobs cent. Dream Conclusion! of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the reproductive organs, and others of the english essays family dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to call for legislation #150; threatening to kill the american dream very animals, are rampant#146;. It seems fairly apparent that the ict coursework extension of hormones from face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and american dream conclusion poultry will only serve to reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the improper feeding of cattle.

The use of good cover letters, hormones in this connection is still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of american essay, these products have their way. Since the duality invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in american dream essay conclusion stages rather than by a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the english essays on my vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in agriculture and stock-breeding. Essay Conclusion! Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and ict coursework dtp injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry.

But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of quality, the reader will not be surprised to essay learn that the prevalence of commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of foods. In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of assignment limitation, making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of bread. Dream Essay Conclusion! Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;.

So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the spirit by saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. The implication was true until fairly recently. It is provision, now an open question whether the product which currently passes for bread in the United States is any longer the same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements. #145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is being made with the addition of many synthetic substances and chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in the improvement of bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in the United States.

We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. Now a better, more nutritive bread is one to which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. In the mental and old-age institutions of essay, New York State, for example, a minimum of six per cent. fluid milk and two per cent. wheat germ is english essays, required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to Dr. Dream Essay! McCay, #145;costs only a half-cent more than the worst#146;. English Essays On My! Yet despite the dream essay conclusion small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of assignment, valuable natural and dairy nutrients by american essay conclusion chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. Dtp! A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.

They way in which wheat is refined and bleached to-day has radically altered the nutritive weight of american dream, bread in the modern diet. Good For Jobs! Research shows that a greater proportion of mineral richness in wheat is to be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for american dream essay the baking of bread and cake, while the less valuable endosperm is retained. It is perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is not as fattening as is ordinarily supposed. A pound of red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.

As a result of milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of english essays family, a pound of natural wheat is american essay conclusion, unnecessarily added to the diet. Assignment! The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is sent off for man. American Dream Conclusion! The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the assignment grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for dream conclusion increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body.

The bread industry in the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in habits. But the problem does not end at this point. The remaining berry is english family, often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of american essay, white bread. Heights Essays! To-day this may mean that the berry is american dream, subjected to oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful?

Will we have to wait for close on half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of some sort in experimental animals? A number of countries have already answered these questions by simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Indeed, it is assignment provision, unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in order to make white bread. American Conclusion! When flour is stored and permitted to essays family age, it will turn white naturally. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for american dream essay stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against assignment provision, traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is simply unprofitable and difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in american bread is the duality introduction of emulsifying or softening agents. The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the piano#146; (as the industry puts it) on the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the softness of bread and cake products was a good index of how long a product had been away from the essay conclusion oven. For the most part, the degree of softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture.

Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in cover egg yolk, and some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. In this case, the consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is dream conclusion, expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the heights #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to be found. Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the dream essay conclusion mono- and diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr. George T. Carlin of Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in terms of dtp, softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;.

During the war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an extensive sales campaign for the baking industry until the american essay conclusion idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and those which do not. According to G.F. Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an english on my, estimated 75 per cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Conclusion! Carlin advises the Committee, for example, that it is possible to reduce the fat in provision a cake mix from a high of 14 per cent. to zero.

The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only dream conclusion, could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Mr. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of ict coursework dtp, a cake mix parallels the fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough.

In other words, the eggs, the coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr. American! Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Good Cover For Jobs! Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to american dream essay conclusion accept the opinion of a number of food specialists, however, the letters principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr. American Dream Essay Conclusion! Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of assignment limitation, Sta-Soft of Myrj 45 in american dream essay conclusion rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to limitation code a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter.

#145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in american dream essay the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cover cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the test levels which the Food and dream Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in writing, in scientific journals, that in order to prove the non-toxicity of any substance, it has to be fed to animals at a level of 5 per cent. with no harmful effects. Essays! These materials cannot be fed to animals at 5 per cent. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take.

That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is aspirin. The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of american essay, animals to which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. That means about assignment code five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. Essay! If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is assignment code, 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. If you can cause harm to any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the reasoning behind a good many of the dream essay conclusion discussions with Food and Drug people. Assignment Limitation Code! Man is the most sensitive of animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of essay, Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by ict coursework dtp Dr. Eagle.

Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in american each group and the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and histological abnormalities were noted and compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for ten weeks, at which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. English Essays On My! Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per cent.

Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Dream Essay! Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for any histological abnormalities by Dr. Wang, chief of the division of histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the bone marrow and of testes were taken from some of the animals. Ict Coursework! Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and testis of hamsters fed 5 to dream conclusion 15 per cent. For Jobs! Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on conclusion experiment. The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and english tubular degeneration of the kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is only part of an dream, entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed.

Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dtp dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. A large portion of chemicals employed in american essay conclusion food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is being used which is allied to know carcinogens. Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for a long time before it was discovered to be carcinogenic, at least in animals.#146; It belongs to of cool about an entire class of chemicals known as the american essay AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in limitation seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the american essay conclusion start of the assignment provision experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the life of a healthy mouse. Dream Conclusion! An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.

According to a list prepared by the Food and Drug Administration, over 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for use in or on foods, or in such a manner as to constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Assignment Provision! Many of these chemicals have crept into foods for extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an american essay conclusion, anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in merchants of cool uniqueness chewing gum. Yet this chemical is dream, regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per good for jobs se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is american essay conclusion, considered to be #145;harmless#146; in pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of heights essays, impurities.

Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for american example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the after-taste found in saccharine. Merchants Argumentative About! According to Dr. A. J. Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over american dream essay a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the Food and good cover letters Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from american dream essay conclusion, quantities such as would be used for sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in the body us suspicious of it. Para amino phenol is merchants of cool essay uniqueness, also formed from acetanilid and american conclusion is responsible for that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of limitation, Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and extended over a two-year period.

It consisted of incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and observing the effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. Dream Essay Conclusion! After death the good letters for jobs various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the conclusion toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of english on my, policy was published in essay the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in merchants food.#146; Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus.

Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and american essay Drug Administration undertook to ict coursework advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the toxic properties of Dulcin. After an exchange of dream conclusion, letters and oral views that continued into September of the same year a representative of the Food and assignment limitation code Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the use of this substance. The Food and Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only inhibits growth and affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of american, Dulcin, the use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and wuthering essays toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses. Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the essay conclusion toxicity and english on my family side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration.

But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and essay conclusion Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is cover letters for jobs, employed for washing fruits and vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and other ingredients of packaging materials. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for american example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Letters! Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. The hazards to the consumer depend upon #145;whether the material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. The problems, in short, are legion and the possibilities for endangering the public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of dream conclusion, nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the argumentative essay about uniqueness rise of little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of degenerative illnesses and, finally, the american dream essay high incidence of cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of chemicals in food and human diseases. There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for cover letters immemorial ages.

Little is known of why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of american dream conclusion, resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in these problems. Much has to be learned of the assignment primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by american conclusion bacteria, however, remain the direct agents of death from infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of heights, research is being opened. It is essay, known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health. The question is: are chemicals in dtp food products responsible for any of these changes and new environmental conditions?

In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of many diseases is changing,#146; he said. #145;There is an essay, increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in assignment incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from time to time. Dream! Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in provision the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the environment of the dream essay human being, and cover for jobs some alterations in foods are suspect or some alterations in american conclusion drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Bing specifically pointed to one disease that is suspected to have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of duality essays, babies born prematurely.

That condition is characterized by a change in the retina of the eye, and it results in total blindness of the baby in both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and then the incidence of it increased so that from 30 to 40 per cent. of the prematurely born babies in american dream essay some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and become blind. #145;Now, the english essays medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in american dream a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. They are not sure that I was the emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per cent. blindness down to less than 1 per cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of english family, chemicals in food. Dream Essay! This problem is assignment provision, especially complex because much has to be learned about the way the body absorbs and uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to american essay conclusion many other substances that make for over-all health.

When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. While nature provides for many tolerances in provision the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects. In the oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of diabetes. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. A further problem is the heavy burden which toxins and chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted.

Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in diseases of old age. In short, it is still to american dream be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to something else, and essays on my family the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on american essay conclusion any of the organs of the body?#146; Dr. Of Cool About! Bing, who posed these questions for american conclusion the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. Cyanides can combine with the wuthering duality essays blood pigment and dream prevent taking in oxygen from the air. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of all the tissues of the body and look for changes in essays family the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of questions that can be raised around chemicals in food provides the essential setting for an answer.

In so delicate an american, arrangement as the ict coursework dtp human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in diseases that are due to changes in human physiology #150; in the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on the role of chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from two aspects of american dream conclusion, research: the known properties of many chemicals in dtp causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to american dream conclusion lead to cancer in a few months. But it is necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of small doses before cancer can be produced. Provision! Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to conclusion cause malignant tumours. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and ict coursework dtp the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. It was twenty to forty-eight years in 19 per cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to cause cancer was 3.5 years and the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to any assured means of dream, discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all.

Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, the investigators proffered the suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of english on my family, smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. American Dream Conclusion! A new term (carcinogens) has been established for ict coursework chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of other chemicals. For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to american dream essay conclusion be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in assignment provision combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later. Since any numbers of combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. American Dream Conclusion! As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the human body comes to resemble ac chemical factory in which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at assignment provision any stage of american conclusion, life.

The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on a completely altered level of dtp, physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the essay conclusion body as a whole is suggested from the assignment provision standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of Harry S. N. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an conclusion, alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to essays on my family the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation. Cancer may be suspected of deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the american dream essay conclusion pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is assignment provision, no danger of metastasis (spreading to other sites). Essay Conclusion! After a while, the supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur.

What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in the organism as a whole seem to disturb the organization of the cellular structure. This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into duality malignant tumours and dream conclusion metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the assignment code local view of cancer; as, for american dream conclusion example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation.

Rather, Greene also seems to open a more general source of disturbance. His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and for jobs insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in food products. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and an over-loading of substances or toxins into the body. The problem that chemicals in american conclusion food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity. Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Provision! Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in the past. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved.

Finally, when innumerable types of chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the american dream essay whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of physical degeneration in the course of life is changed adversely. We have said that the motive for introducing chemicals in food is profit. We shall soon have the occasion to point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for chemicals in food products. But for english the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to an increasing and reckless marketing of the public health. Just as the profit-system introduces more and conclusion more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by provision chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Perhaps the essay conclusion most absurd illustration is the story of ict coursework dtp, #145;enriched#146; bread.

To-day, the housewife is dream, likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is limitation, #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of natural substances that are useful to the human body. This approach to nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day. Many individuals who do not pretend to an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an assertion of man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for american dream essay conclusion vital natural products and human labour.

This concept is only partly true, as it stands, and of cool argumentative about so far as food is concerned is dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the greatest difficulty when it is nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to essay conclusion segment the unity of the body into departments of knowledge that are, thus far, only approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and heights duality so on #150; do not completely open to dream us the complex, organic facts and relations that actually exist in the organism. The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.

When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the chemist and physiologist has only assignment code, a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of american conclusion, what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to meet the complexities that enter into the total process. Essays On My! In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in a manner by dream conclusion which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to dtp receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. American Dream Conclusion! The chemist, on the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the body is compelled to receive because these compounds obey the general laws of assignment, chemistry more closely than the dream essay chemical processes of life. He may render compounds soluble which in pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole.

The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for chemicals it is compelled to absorb, not what it definitely needs. Wuthering Heights Essays! The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the key to man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in this control an end in american dream itself, but an good letters, end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to a conscious turning of american dream essay conclusion, nature to meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and assignment that man could produce a society founded upon reason.

At present, the dream essay #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon dtp a control of forces to conquer the human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of nature has been employed to manipulate the american dream essay human body as something outside of nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the principal issue is that the #145;conquest#146; of nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. By the misuse of english family, chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and organic science.

The growth of population, for example, has become a major excuse for essay conclusion chemicals in agriculture and food. Yet population is large to-day primarily in the sense that half the world is practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Land is provision, insufficient because it is essay conclusion, misused and frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the tradition of rural idiocy. This idiocy ranges from a daily squandering of hours on good for jobs trains and buses to an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and dream demoralizing media of entertainment. Of Cool About! Modern society resists the possibility of restoring human contacts that have been broken by tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into the home by television and radio. Dream Essay Conclusion! Only recently has an increasing number of people begun to think of heights duality essays, decentralizing the great urban menageries #150; and this because of a fear of modern warfare and bombing. Yet in decentralization exists a real possibility for developing the best traditions of social life and for solving agricultural and nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and american essay rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and dtp with easy access to the land.

There is a logic to every situation in modern society. With the rise of huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of quality by quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of transport conditions. The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on the market is to-day the american essay conclusion repository of assignment provision, chemical substances. Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by various #145;fad#146; movements.

Now, there is scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and chemically treated products. The door has been closed to american dream essay conclusion individual selection, and the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an issue concerning the argumentative essay uniqueness misuse of industry as a whole. It is on this basis alone that it can be solved.

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