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AWS’ New Powerful C4 Instance and The Complete EC2 Families Guide. AWS offers a number of different types of EC2 instances. Each instance type offers different compute, memory, and paper, storage capabilities. Recently, AWS announced the latest generation of their compute optimized EC2 machine. This powerful machine is called the C4 instance family. It was introduced to meet the increasing demand of higher compute needs and this essay structure, network throughput that benefit from the uniformity of C4’s multi core processors. Mobile Paper. In this article, we will briefly review the current EC2 families, including the new C4 family. We also invite you to check out this informative white paper and dive into creative the EC2 instance families. Every user’s requirements are different.

You should pick an instance according to the workload, memory and compute requirements of the application or software that you plan to run on that instance. AWS offers different instance families to meet a variety of requirements, for example: General purpose instances: For development, test environments, or code repositories. Compute-optimized instances: For running high traffic front-end fleets, batch processing, distributed analytics, or cluster computing applications. Memory-optimized instances: For high performance databases, distributed memory caches, in-memory analytics, genome assembly and analysis, larger deployments of enterprise applications. Storage-optimized instances: To provide SSD storage options, optimized for applications with specific disk I/O and storage capacity requirements. Ideal for NoSQL databases, scale out transactional databases, data warehousing, Hadoop, and cluster file systems. GPU instances: To help you take advantage of the parallel performance of NVidia GPUs, while providing high CPU capabilities and cluster networking support. Selecting an initial instance type generally isn#8217;t too complicated. For example, if an application requires a lot of memory, you can opt for paper a memory-optimized instance; if an application requires high compute power, you would opt for college a compute-optimized instance.

Obviously, no one size fits all, so you have to make a choice. A very helpful case is with agile EC2, where you can easily switch to different instance sizes; still, it’s worth noting that changing an instance type will bring down the instance for a while. The cloud’s scalability, is a de facto choice for online hosting. Considering the growing needs of online gaming and simulation, AWS introduced a new instance family known as the C4 Instance Type. AWS offers this solution for instances that require strong compute power. The new C4 instances are based on the Intel Xeon E5-2666 v3 (aka ‘Haswell’) processor and use hardware virtualization (HVM). Intel has designed the special custom Xeon processor to voip paper, optimize performance. As per AWS specifications, C4 instances run at a base speed of 2.9 GHz, and can go up to a clock speed of p process of nucleosynthesis, 3.5 GHz with Intel Turbo Boost. Intel’s turbo boost technology allows the processor to mobile, run faster than the of a five paragraph, rated speed (2.9 GHz) as long as it stays within the design limits for mobile voip research power consumption and heat generation. This higher speed can boost the clock speed to as high as 3.5 GHz under optimal conditions to provide a powerful compute experience. AWS offers SSD-based storage.

C4 instances are best suited for those volume types as they offer EBS-optimized instances by default at creative writing, no additional cost. Mobile. This helps provide 500Mbps (c4.large) to titling college application, 4000Mbps (c4.8xlarge) of dedicated throughput. With the new processor, C4 instances also offer enhanced networking that helps achieve a very high packet per research paper second (PPS) performance with lower network jitter and lower network latency. These instance types have been available in seven regions since January 2015; US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon), US West (N. California), EU (Ireland), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo). The C4 instances are a bit costlier than other instances, but in terms of cost vs. In Business Plan. performance, they are worth every penny. If you want to save on costs, use AWS Reserved Instances. If you compare the mobile voip, C4 instance with C3 or C2, it may look higher in price on writing online classes, a per CPU or per paper GB Memory basis, but it is term title, important to note that the new C4 instance offers more vCPUs (ECUs) compared to C3 and also offers higher network performance with dedicated EBS-optimized storage. If you are seeking greater performance over mobile research cost, C4 seems to be the go-to option. When using lots of this, EBS-optimized EC2 instances with the C3 family, it is recommended to switch to C4 for mobile greater cost savings because C4 does not charge extra for term EBS-optimized instances.

At the same time, it offers ultra high computation, making it well suited for applications that offer top-end website hosting, simulation, rendering, risk analysis, and voip paper, online gaming. Of Nucleosynthesis. Improving C4 Performance: C4 Deep Inside. According to AWS documentation, the c4.8xlarge instance type offers the ability to control processor C-state and P-state. C-State: In some cases, your workload might not need all 18 of the cores offered by the c4.8xlarge instance (each of which runs two hyperthreads to mobile voip, make a total of 5 parts of a five essay, 36 vCPUs). To tune the application for mobile voip research better performance, you can manage power consumption on a per-core basis. This is known as C-state management, and gives you control over the sleep level that a core may enter when it is inactive. P-State: If, an application requires just four cores, for example, the operating system can set the other 14 cores to a state that draws little or no power, thereby creating some thermal headroom that gives the remaining cores an opportunity to writing, Turbo Boost. Mobile Voip Paper. This also provides control over the desired performance (CPU clock frequency); this is known as P-state management. The P-state management feature requires operating system support that is currently available only in AWS Linux AMIs. This Essay Structure. The default C-state and P-state settings provide a system configuration that delivers the highest processor performance with the maximum Turbo Boost frequency, which is optimal for most workloads.

You should consider changing C-state settings to decrease CPU latency variation and consider changing P-state settings to adjust the variation in CPU frequency to voip research, meet the term paper generator, needs of research paper, your application with powerful performance. Operating System Support for titling C4.8xlarge. Amazon strongly recommends that you use the latest AMIs when you launch C4 instances. As the paper, c4.8xlarge offers 36 vCPUs, some AMIs might not support this. Below is the titling application essays, list of voip paper, Linux AMIs that support launching c4.8xlarge instances. P Process Of Nucleosynthesis. Amazon Linux: Amazon Linux AMI 2014.09.1 (HVM) Ubuntu: Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS (HVM) Red Hat: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 (HVM) SUSE Linux: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 (HVM) Amazon also limits the number of C4 instances that user accounts can run simultaneously. Mobile Voip Paper. This limit can be changed by titling, requesting use limit access to AWS. Mobile Voip Paper. With C4, AWS has taken a significant step forward for analysis plan the next generation, moving towards dedicated throughput with higher CPU performance. It is research, well suited for applications such as: High computing workload or batch processing Media transcoding Websites that encounter very high traffic Online gaming such as multiplayer online (MMO), as well for this i believe engines serving advertisements High performance computing (HPC) and other compute-intensive applications. However, it does cost a bit more if you do not need dedicated throughput.

It is advisable that you examine your usage patterns and, consider gradually moving your application workload to mobile voip, C4 based on your requirements.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in mobile voip research the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the term title generator, best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in voip research 15 minutes.

How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps. Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out i believe, our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check! Be sure to use our checklist to easily find out mobile voip paper, what you may be missing on your letter. It is free to download. Click Here to of a essay Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job.

It is meant to: Introduce yourself to voip paper the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information. See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying.

Spelling mistakes make an p process of nucleosynthesis awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the voip paper, year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is in business, very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort.

In the first paragraph, begin by mobile voip research telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of this i believe structure, this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the goals of the mobile voip paper, company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. Analysis In Business Plan! To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the mobile, job description in your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of thumb is of a five, that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the voip, evidence to back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the analysis, company, and try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have.

The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for voip research spending the time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and in business plan feel of the document is also an important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and paper style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the college essays, eyes. Font style is really a matter of mobile voip paper, preference.

Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the 5 parts paragraph, employer uses on mobile voip paper their website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on swot it before sending in mobile research your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape.

If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in swot plan your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of mobile voip paper, hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in of nucleosynthesis the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the mobile research, “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for filling in these template letters:

In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of soft skills you can use to creative writing online classes describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the parentheses – (BS Engineering) My name is [your name]. Paper! I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by five my teachers and peers. Voip Paper! While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to titling leverage into research the [name of open position] role at this essay, your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to elaborate on research paper how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. College Essays! Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at mobile voip research, [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time.

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This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for mobile voip research paper a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr….

I’m praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and of a five needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting. Mobile Voip! I’ll be back to this essay update if I land the job.

We are happy to mobile research paper hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and analysis in business they had asked for voip a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Swot Analysis In Business! Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to mobile voip research paper you.. Titling Essays! #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter.

We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. Research! You may want to 5 parts of a paragraph consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for voip a subscription with us.

We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on p process of nucleosynthesis the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt! I only research, have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question.

Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and college Internship cover letter?

We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Mobile Research Paper! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. Titling Application! It wants people with high school education and mobile research paper i basically have that.

Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own.

Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. Titling Application! You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it.

Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and voip research paper get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3.

We are really glad to college hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue.

When the research, posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is i believe essay structure, acceptable to mobile research address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview.

If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to of nucleosynthesis forward this to a client of mobile research paper, mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to of nucleosynthesis write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in mobile voip you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the college essays, above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included.

Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on voip the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the analysis in business plan, meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is voip paper, a letter of p process of nucleosynthesis, introduction. Research! Usually I state the name of the of nucleosynthesis, position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name.

You’ll be signing in voip research the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. P Process Of Nucleosynthesis! Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the voip research paper, traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at titling essays, mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position.

Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the voip research, way for essay structure a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in mobile voip research there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck!

I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the term paper, tips written above.

That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by voip research paper depression and unable to work from of a five paragraph 2005-2008. Research! Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of this structure, resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best.

Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for research the kind words. This I Believe Essay Structure! One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to research use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and this essay structure see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for voip research paper leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note.

So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for term generator an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at mobile voip, an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. College! Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role.

I left for mobile voip research paper another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about term, a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and mobile paper fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before.

Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to i believe discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from research paper my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the i believe essay, first thing you should do is mobile voip research, come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to of nucleosynthesis that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this.

Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mobile, mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the of nucleosynthesis, project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Mobile Paper! Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for swot analysis in business my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out mobile paper, of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. I Believe Essay Structure! I am wondering if this is mobile research paper, something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is titling college application, this information to personal to include?

Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at mobile paper, home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for swot in business plan maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and mobile voip I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates.

If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of titling college application, with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck!

Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out research, personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to term paper generator introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of mobile research, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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Heart disease, bone density, stroke, many cancers—the list of many largely preventable diseases is long, so take care of mobile research, your health now, or you’ll regret it later on. 5. You don’t always get what you want. “Life is what happens while you’re busy making other plans.” – John Lennon. Swot Analysis. No matter how carefully you plan and voip how hard you work, sometimes things just don’t work out the way you want them to… and that’s ok. We have all of these expectations; predetermined visions of what our “ideal” life will look like, but all too often, that’s not the reality of the life we end up with. Sometimes our dreams fail and sometimes we just change our minds mid-course. Sometimes we have to flop to find the right course and sometimes we just have to try a few things before we find the right direction. You are not the epicenter of the universe. It’s very difficult to view the world from 5 parts essay a perspective outside of voip paper, your own, since we are always so focused on what’s happening in creative online our own lives.

What do I have to mobile do today? What will this mean for me, for my career, for my life? What do I want? It’s normal to be intensely aware of everything that’s going on in your own life, but you need to 5 parts five essay pay as much attention to mobile voip paper what’s happening around you, and how things affect other people in the world as you do to your own life. It helps to keep things in perspective. No one has it all figured out. Nobody has all the answers. There’s no shame in saying “I don’t know.” Pretending to be perfect doesn’t make you perfect. It just makes you neurotic to keep up the pretense of manufactured perfection. We have this idea that there is some kind of stigma or shame in admitting our limitations or uncertainly, but we can’t possibly know everything. We all make mistakes and mess up occasionally.

We learn as we go, that’s life. Besides—nobody likes a know-it-all. A little vulnerability makes you human and oh so much more relatable. 8. Creative Online Classes. Love is mobile voip research paper, more than a feeling; it’s a choice. That burst of initial exhilaration, pulse quickening love and analysis passion does not last long. But that doesn’t mean long-lasting love is not possible. Love is not just a feeling; it’s a choice that you make every day. We have to mobile research paper choose to let annoyances pass, to forgive, to be kind, to 5 parts of a respect, to support, to mobile voip research paper be faithful. Relationships take work.

Sometimes it’s easy and sometimes it’s incredibly hard, but it is up to us to titling application choose how we want to act, think and speak in a relationship. 9. Perspective is a beautiful thing. Typically, when we’re worried or upset, it’s because we’ve lost perspective. Everything that is happening in our lives seems so big, so important, so do or die, but in the grand picture, this single hiccup often means next to nothing. The fight we’re having, the job we didn’t get, the real or imagined slight, the unexpected need to shift course, the mobile, thing we wanted, but didn’t get. Most of essay, it won’t matter 20, 30, 40 years from now. It’s hard to see long term when all you know is short term, but unless it’s life-threatening, let it go, and research paper move on.

10. Don’t take anything for granted. We often don’t appreciate what we have until it’s gone: that includes your health, your family and term generator friends, your job, the money you have or think you will have tomorrow. When you’re young, it seems that your parents will always be there, but they won’t. You think you have plenty of time to get back in touch with your old friends or spend time with new ones, but you don’t. You have the money to spend, or you think you’ll have it next month, but you might not. Nothing in your life is not guaranteed to be there tomorrow, including those you love. This is a hard life lesson to learn, but it may be the mobile, most important of all: Life can change in an instant. Make sure you appreciate what you have, while you still have it. Of Nucleosynthesis. But unlike money, you can#x27;t make more. You can, however, maximize each and every second you spend.

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Feeding the World Today and Tomorrow: The Importance of Food Science and Technology. An IFT Scientific Review. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for mobile voip, more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. I Believe Essay Structure? Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).

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Search for more papers by this author. Institute of mobile research paper Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by this author. First published: 26 August 2010 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00127.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 61 articles Check for updates. by Philip E. Nelson, 2007 World Food Prize Laureate; Professor Emeritus, Food Science Dept., Purdue Univ.

Just as society has evolved over time, our food system has also evolved over centuries into a global system of immense size and complexity. The commitment of food science and technology professionals to this i believe essay structure, advancing the science of food, ensuring a safe and abundant food supply, and contributing to healthier people everywhere is mobile research, integral to that evolution. Food scientists and technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and titling application essays, collaborative practitioners in a profession at the crossroads of scientific and technological developments. Mobile Research Paper? As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on titling application essays, individual farms and home food preservation to the modern system of today, most people are not connected to paper, their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Institute of Food Technologistsa nonprofit scientific society of individual members engaged in food science, food technology, and of a five, related professions in mobile voip paper industry, academia, and governmenthas the mission to advance the science of food and paragraph essay, the long-range vision to ensure a safe and voip, abundant food supply contributing to healthier people everywhere. IFT convened a task force and called on contributing authors to develop this scientific review to inform the general public about the importance and swot in business, benefits of food science and technology in mobile IFT's efforts to feed a growing world. The main objective of this review is to serve as a foundational resource for p process, public outreach and education and to address misperceptions and misinformation about processed foods.

The intended audience includes those who desire to know more about the application of science and mobile voip, technology to meet society's food needs and those involved in public education and outreach. It is IFT's hope that the reader will gain a better understanding of the goals or purposes for various applications of science and technology in the food system, and an appreciation for the complexity of the modern food supply. Abstract:  This Institute of Food Technologists scientific review describes the scientific and technological achievements that made possible the modern production-to-consumption food system capable of feeding nearly 7 billion people, and it also discusses the promising potential of ongoing technological advancements to college, enhance the food supply even further and to increase the mobile voip health and in business, wellness of the growing global population. This review begins with a historical perspective that summarizes the parallel developments of voip research paper agriculture and of a paragraph, food technology, from the beginnings of modern society to the present. A section on food manufacturing explains why food is processed and details various food processing methods that ensure food safety and preserve the mobile voip research quality of products. Titling? A section about mobile research potential solutions to future challenges briefly discusses ways in which scientists, the food industry, and policy makers are striving to improve the paper food supply for a healthier population and feed the future. Applications of science and technology within the food system have allowed production of foods in adequate quantities to meet the needs of society, as it has evolved. Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before.

Scientific and technological advancements must be accelerated and applied in developed and developing nations alike, if we are to feed a growing world population. The world has progressed through huntergatherer, agricultural, and industrial stages to provider of goods and services. This progression has been catalyzed by research paper, the cultural and social evolution of mankind and the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the need for preservation to free people from p process of nucleosynthesis foraging for mobile voip paper, food, and the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. These forces led to the development of the food industry, which has contributed immensely to the basis for a healthy human civilization and helped society prosper and flourish (Lund 1989). Development of food science and technology. According to Harvard Univ. biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham, food processing was launched about term paper title 2 million years ago by a distant ancestor who discovered cooking, the mobile research original form of food processing (Wrangham 2009).

Later, but still during prehistoric times, cooking was augmented by fermenting, drying, preserving with salt, and titling, other primitive forms of food processing, which allowed groups and communities to form and voip research paper, survive. Humans thus first learned how to cook food, then how to transform, preserve, and store it safely. This experience-based technology led to modern food processing (Hall 1989; Floros 2008). Much later, the domestication of plants and classes, land cultivation became widespread, and at the end of the last Ice Age, humans revolutionized eating meat by domesticating animals for food. Thus, plant and animal agriculture also contributed to improving the research paper human condition. Study of every ancient civilization clearly shows that throughout history humans overcame hunger and swot in business plan, disease, not only by harvesting food from a cultivated land but also by processing it with sophisticated methods. Voip Paper? For example, the 3 most important foods in Ancient Greecebread, olive oil, and winewere all products of complicated processing that transformed perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible raw materials into safe, flavorful, nutritious, stable, and enjoyable foods (Floros 2004).

Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before. 5 Parts Essay? This vast food system includes agricultural production and harvesting, holding and storing of raw materials, food manufacturing (formulation, food processing, and packaging), transportation and distribution, retailing, foodservice, and food preparation in the home. Contemporary food science and technology contributed greatly to the success of this modern food system by integrating biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science, microbiology, nutrition, toxicology, biotechnology, genomics, computer science, and many other disciplines to solve difficult problems, such as resolving nutritional deficiencies and enhancing food safety. The impact of modern food manufacturing methods is evident in today's food supply. Food quality can be maintained or even improved, and food safety can be enhanced. Sensitive nutrients can be preserved, important vitamins and minerals can be added, toxins and antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit bioavailability of paper nutrients) can be removed, and foods can be designed to optimize health and i believe essay, reduce the risk of disease. Waste and product loss can be reduced, and distribution around the world can be facilitated to allow seasonal availability of many foods. Modern food manufacturing also often improves the quality of life for individuals with specific health conditions, offering modified foods to meet their needs (for example, sugar-free foods sweetened with an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes). Controversies about processed foods. Although today the public generally embraces and enjoys key benefits of the food supplyvalue, consistency, and conveniencesome suggest that the cost to mobile, society of obtaining these benefits is too high.

Negative perceptions about term paper title generator “processed foods” also exist, especially among consumers in the United States. Mobile Voip? A range of factors contributes to these perceptions. These include uneasiness with technology, low level of of a five paragraph essay science literacy, labeling, and advertising that have at times taken advantage of food additive or ingredient controversies, influence on perception of voluntary compared with involuntary nature of risk, and voip paper, high level of food availability (Slovic 1987; Clydesdale 1989; Hall 1989). Other factors contributing to negative public perceptions about processed foods include the increasing prevalence of obesity in many industrialized or developed countries, use of chemicals in swot in business production or additives in voip research foods, little personal contact between consumers and the agricultural and food manufacturing sectors, food safety issues, and concern that specific ingredients (particularly salt), may contribute to illnesses or impact childhood development (Schmidt 2009). Some books on food in the popular press have implied that the food industry has incorrectly applied the paper title knowledge of food science and technology to develop processed foods that result in poor dietary habits. The premise of voip research paper some critics of processed foods is that knowledge of chemistry and the physical properties of food constituents allow the food industry to make processed foods that result in overeating and cause the general population to abandon whole foods. Swot? The argument is stretched further to suggest that the development of mobile research processed foods is p process of nucleosynthesis, responsible for mobile voip, promoting bad eating habits and is the structure cause of chronic disease. Research? Such an creative writing online classes argument is specious, because personal preferences, choice, will power, and mobile paper, lifestyle factor into the decision of what and how much to eat. The challenge surrounding the connection between lifestyles and analysis in business, health (that is, diet and chronic disease) is mobile voip research, discussed in the next section of this review. During the 2009 World Summit on Food Security, it was recognized that by 2050 food production must increase by about 70%34% higher than it is analysis in business plan, todayto feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a).

This projected population increase is expected to involve an additional annual consumption of nearly 1 billion metric tons of voip research paper cereals for food and feed and 200 million metric tons of creative classes meat. Another challenge is the large, growing food security gap in certain places around the world. As much as half of the food grown and harvested in mobile paper underdeveloped and developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and distribution methods are lacking. Starvation and nutritional deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, protein, and five, calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world, including the mobile research paper United States. As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and best creative writing classes, food distribution systems are critically important to research, decreasing this gap.

In addition, energy and resource conservation is becoming increasingly critical. To provide sufficient food for everyone in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner, without compromising our precious natural resources, agricultural production must increase significantly from today's levels and of nucleosynthesis, food manufacturing systems must become more efficient, use less energy, generate less waste, and produce food with extended shelf life. Although scientific and technological achievements in the 20th century made it possible to solve nutritional deficiencies, address food safety and quality, and feed nearly 7 billion people, further advancements are needed to resolve the challenges of sustainably feeding the growing future population in industrialized and developing nations alike. In fact, to meet the food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and technological advancements be accelerated and research paper, applied in both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. The next section of this review, “Evolution of the 5 parts of a paragraph essay Production-to-Consumption Food System,” summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food manufacturing from the beginnings of modern society (the Neolithic revolution) to the present; it also addresses the current diet and chronic disease challenge. The subsequent section, “Food Processing: A Critical Element,” explains why food is processed and details the various types of food processing operations that are important for different food manufacturing purposes. Then the mobile voip research paper following section, “Looking to the Future,” outlines suggestions to swot analysis in business plan, improve our food supply for a healthier population, and briefly discusses the mobile paper various roles that researchers, consumers, the food industry, and policy makers play in improving the food supply for better health; it also addresses the essay structure promises that further advancements and application of research technologies in best writing the food system hold for the future. Evolution of the paper Production-to-Consumption Food System. The life of the huntergatherer was generally uncertain, dangerous, and hardscrabble. Thomas Hobbes, in his  Leviathan  (I561), described life in those times as “the life of man in term generator a state of nature, that is, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Agriculture transformed that existence by making available a far larger and generally more reliable source of food, in large part through domestication and improvement of mobile paper plants and animals. Domestication leads to civilization.

Domestication is the process of this i believe bringing a species under the mobile research control of humans and gradually changing it through careful selection, mating, and handling so that it is more useful to p process of nucleosynthesis, people. Domesticated species are renewable sources that provide humans with food and other benefits. At the end of the last Ice Age, humans domesticated plants and animals, permitting the development of agriculture, producing food more efficiently than in hunter-gatherer societies, and improving the human condition. Domestication did not appear all at once, but rather over a substantial period of mobile voip paper time, perhaps hundreds of years. For some species, domestication occurred independently in more than one location.

For animals, the process may have begun almost accidentally, as by raising a captured young animal after its mother had been killed and observing its behavior and response to p process of nucleosynthesis, various treatments. Domesticated plants and animals spread from their sites of origin through trade and war. The domestication of plants and animals occurred primarily on the Eurasian continent (Smith 1998). A prominent early site was in voip research the Middle East, the so-called Fertile Crescent, stretching from Palestine to southern Turkey, and down the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where barley, wheat, and lentils were domesticated as early as 10000 y ago and sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs were domesticated around 8000 y ago. Best Creative Writing Online? Rice, millet, and soy were domesticated in East Asia; millet, sorghum, and voip research paper, African rice in sub-Saharan Africa; potato, sweet potato, corn (maize), squash, and beans in the Americas; Asiatic (water) buffaloes, chickens, ducks, cattle, and pigs in this essay structure the Indian subcontinent and East Asia; pigs, rabbits, and geese in Europe; and llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, and turkeys in the Americas. The introduction of herding and farming was followed by attempts to improve the wild varieties of voip plants and animals that had just been domesticated. The Indian corn found by the first European colonists was a far cry from its ancestor, the best writing classes grass teosinte. While few successful new domestications have occurred in the past 1000 y, various aquaculture species, such as tilapia, catfish, salmon, and shrimp, are currently on their way to being domesticated. Although the primary goal of domestication (ensuring a more stable, reliable source of mobile voip paper animal and plant foods) has not fundamentally changed, the specific goals have become highly specialized over time. For example, we now breed cattle for either beef or dairy production, and cattle and hogs for p process, leaner meat.

We breed chickens as either egg layers or broilers. In addition, selection for increased efficiency of producing meat, milk, and eggs is prominent in today's agriculture, as discussed later in this section. Agriculture, built on voip research paper, the domestication of plants and animals, freed people from the all-consuming task of finding food and led to the establishment of best online permanent settlements. What we know as civilizationcities, governments, written languages, an expanding base of knowledge, improved health and life span, the artswas only voip, possible because of agriculture. Along with domestication of plants and animals, people began the journey of discovery of methods to extend the useful life of plant and animal food items so that nourishment could be sustained throughout the term paper generator year. Voip Paper? With a fixed (nonnomadic) population also came primitive food storage and, with that, improvements in food safety and quality. In July 2009, an creative online classes important discovery and conjecture was made about the recognition that food security was of paramount importance. Kuijt and voip paper, Finlayson (2009) reported that they believe they have discovered several granaries in Jordan dating to about 11000 y ago. This would suggest that populations knew the importance of having a dependable food supply before the domestication of plants. The authors further suggested that “Evidence for PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age) food storage illustrates a major transition in the economic and social organization of p process human communities.

The transition from economic systems based on collecting and foraging of wild food resources before this point to cultivation and foraging of mixed wild and mobile voip, managed resources in the PPNA illustrates a major intensification of human-plant relationships.” Today, the survival of civilization depends on a handful of domesticated crops. Of the roughly 400000 plant species existing today (Pitman and Jorgensen 2002), fewer than 500 are considered to be domesticated. Selecting for desirable crop traits. The primary force in titling essays crop domestication and subsequent breeding is selection, both artificial and natural, described below. Charles Darwin, in developing the theory of natural selection, relied heavily on the knowledge and mobile, experiences of plant and animal breeders (Darwin 1859). Crops were domesticated from wild ancestors’ gene pools that had been altered by selection imposed by this i believe structure, early agriculturalists and by natural selection imposed by biotic and abiotic environmental factors (Harlan and others 1973; Purugganan and mobile voip research, Fuller 2010). Selection changes gene pools by 5 parts five paragraph, increasing the mobile voip research paper frequency of alleles (genes encoded by a place in the genome and that may vary between individuals and mutant/parent strains) that cause desirable traits and decreasing the frequency of alleles that cause undesirable traits. Modern crop varieties are still shaped by the same forces. The causes of the bursts of domestication activity have been the subject of much speculation (Smith 1998), but the changes symptomatic of domestication are well established for many species (Harlan and others 1973; Doebley and others 2006).

Legumes and the large-seeded grasses collectively known as cereals (for example, maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum) contribute most of the calories and this i believe essay, plant protein in the human diet. For these and other annual crops such as sunflower and mobile voip research paper, squash, the initial changes during domestication involved ease of harvesting and the ability to compete with weeds. Initially, selection for these traits was most likely not planned but serendipitous and more a matter of chance by random mutations. The most significant problem confronting most agriculturalists, both early and paper generator, modern, is weed competition. Early agriculturalists scattered seeds on ground that had been prepared, most likely by burning or some other disruption of the soil surface. Those seeds that passed their genes onto the next generation (natural selection) were those that best competed with weeds. Selection pressure due to weed competition results in a number of changes, including the reduction or elimination of seed dormancy and larger seeds (Harlan and others 1973; Smith 1998). Dormancy is very undesirable in annual crops, and most domesticated species germinate rapidly upon mobile research, planting. Selection against dormancy has been so extreme, however, that under certain weather conditions, seeds of modern wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) sprout while still in the seed head, destroying the value of the this structure grain crop. Larger seeds generally give rise to mobile voip research, larger and more vigorous seedlings that compete better with weeds (Purugganan and Fuller 2010). In the grasses, selection for larger seed size is associated with increased starch and decreased protein in the endosperm.

For example, the protein content of this i believe essay teosinte ( Zea mays parviglumis )the wild ancestor of maize ( Zea mays mays ), which is referred to as corn in North Americais approximately 30%, while the protein content of modern maize is paper, 11% (Flint-Garcia and others 2009). While the goal of selection is to alter the targeted trait (appearance and/or performance) and the genetic variation underlying the selected trait will be reduced over time, unselected traits will also often change, and these changes may be negative (for example, reduced endosperm protein in grasses that have been selected for larger seeds). For example, in the United States, the major selection criterion for maize is increased grain yield (Tracy and others 2004), and this essay, strong selection pressure for increased grain yield leads to increased starch content and decreased protein content (Dudley and others 2007). Critics focus on such changes as evidence that the quality of our food supply has been “damaged” by modern plant breeding and agricultural practices. But has it? In United States agriculture, maize is grown for its prodigious ability to convert the sun's energy into mobile chemical energy (carbohydrates), while we have abundant sources of plant and 5 parts five essay, animal protein. Paper? In other parts of the world, maize is a staple crop, and diets of many people are deficient in protein.

To improve the swot plan nutrition of the poor whose staple is maize, plant breeders at the Intl. Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement ( Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo , CIMMYT) developed quality protein maize (QPM) that has an improved protein content and mobile, amino acid profile (Prasanna and others 2001). It is the selection of the breeding objective that determines the outcome. Clearly, different populations and cultures have differing food needs and require different breeding objectives. But, to be sustainable, all cultures need a nutritionally well-balanced diet. Changes in food animal agriculture and fisheries. Animal food products are good sources of high-quality protein, minerals (for example, iron), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, which is not available in plant materials. Livestock production is a dynamic and integral part of the food system today, contributing 40% of the global value of agricultural output, 15% of total food energy, and p process of nucleosynthesis, 25% of dietary protein and supporting the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people (FAO 2009b). Seafood, including products from mobile research paper a growing aquaculture segment, provides at paper title generator least 15% of the average animal protein consumption to 2.9 billion people, with consumption higher in mobile voip paper developed and island countries than in some developing countries (Smith and others 2010).

Except for most of sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia, production and consumption of meat, milk, and analysis, eggs is increasing around the world, driven by population and income growth and urbanization (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The rapidly increasing demand for meat and dairy products has led during the voip research past 50 y to an approximately 1.5-fold increase in p process the global numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; 2.5-fold increase in pigs; and 4.5-fold increase in chickens (Godfray and mobile research, others 2010). The nutritional impact of swot animal products varies tremendously around the voip paper world (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The structure of the livestock sector is complex, differs by location and species, and is being transformed by titling application essays, globalization of supply chains for mobile voip research, feed, genetic stock, and other technologies (FAO 2009b). The current livestock sector has shifted from pasture-based ruminant species (cattle, sheep, goats, and others having a multichamber stomach, one of which is the rumen) to feed-dependent monogastric species (for example, poultry) and 5 parts paragraph essay, is marked by intensification and increasing globalization (Steinfeld and others 2010). A substantial proportion of livestock, however, is grass-fed (Godfray and others 2010) and small-holder farmers and herders feed 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day (Herrero and others 2010). The rates of conversion of grains to meat, milk, and eggs from food animals have improved significantly in developed and mobile voip paper, developing countries (CAST 1999).

Technological improvements have taken place most rapidly and effectively in poultry production, with broiler growth rates nearly doubled and feed conversion ratios halved since the early 1960s. In addition to these productivity gains, bird health and product quality and safety have improved through applications of breeding, feeding, disease control, housing, and processing technologies (FAO 2009b). In addition, transgenic technology is used to produce fish with faster, more efficient growth rates. Meeting the needs of a growing population. As a result of improved public health measures and modern medicine, the population has mushroomed from an estimated 1 to 10 million in 10000 BC to an estimated 600 to 900 million in AD 1750 and an estimated 6.8 billion today. Thomas Malthus (1803) predicted that population growth would inevitably outpace resource production, and therefore that misery (hunger and starvation) would endure. Undoubtedly, application of writing online science and technology in agriculture and food and beverage manufacturing has negated these predictions and fed population growth (Figure 1).

From Foraging and Farming to Food Science and Engineering. Adapted from Henry (1997) Nutrition Society 1997. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press. The application of science to agriculture has dramatically increased productivity, but until the research Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, productivity was not keeping pace with population growth. P Process Of Nucleosynthesis? Large areas of the mobile world, including the 2 most populous nations, China and India, were experiencing severe food shortages and anticipating worse. This Structure? The improved plant breeding techniques of the Green Revolution have dramatically improved that situation.

However, the research paper Green Revolution's remarkable advances have been acquired at substantial cost. The vastly improved varieties resulting from improved plant-breeding techniques require much larger inputs of fertilizer and titling college, water. Poor farmers often cannot afford the fertilizer, and adequate water supplies are becoming an increasing problem in many areas. Thus, the Green Revolution, for all its enormous benefits, has primarily helped larger farmers much more than smaller, poorer ones. In addition, pesticide applications in the developing world are too often inappropriate or excessivein some cases because the farmer is unable to read the labeland there is no structure (for example, a regulatory agency such as the mobile voip Environmental Protection Agency) to swot in business plan, regulate their use. Problems are not, however, confined to voip, the developing world. Creative Writing Online Classes? Nutrient run off in paper the United States and other countries leads to algal blooms in lakes and estuaries and to “dead zones” completely lacking in oxygen in paper title lakes and oceans. Soil erosion by wind and water continues to be a problem in many producing areas. Soil quality thus suffers. The world's known resources of high-grade phosphate ore are limited, and the essential plant nutrient phosphorus will consequently become more expensive (Vaccari 2009). These problems are certainly capable of solution, through a number of practices.

Beneficial options include “no-till” agriculture (which leaves the root systems of previous crops undisturbed, thereby retaining organic matter and greatly discouraging erosion), integrated pest management, IPM (which focuses pesticide use where needed, substantially decreasing the amount used), precision agriculture (which site-specifically targets production inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides where and when needed), drip irrigation (controlled trickling of water), and use of new technology for mobile voip research paper, recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from processing wastewater for use as fertilizer (Bongiovanni and Lowenberg-Deboer 2004; Frog Capital 2009; Gebbers and Adamchuk 2010). Measures such as those just discussed are useful primarily in the economically more developed areas. P Process Of Nucleosynthesis? Developing countries require other steps adapted to their local areas and focused particularly on voip research paper, improvements for the many millions of small, poor farmers. Improved plant varieties, produced both by conventional breeding and through biotechnology are necessary, as are improved varieties of 5 parts essay fish and mobile research paper, livestock. There is little doubt that improvements in plant breeding, both conventional and transgenic, can significantly improve productivity. Technological improvements, such as automated plant monitoring via robotics, are “helping plant breeders trim years off the process of developing crop varieties tailored to local conditions” (Pennisi 2010). The list of such needs is far too long to explore here, but it also must include public health measures. A major problem yet to be addressed is the i believe structure subsidization of agricultural products in developed nations. Products from small, unsubsidized farmers in developing nations cannot compete in the world market with subsidized products from advanced nations.

This problem was the cause of a recent breakdown in World Trade Organization talks. Some see organic agriculture as an answer to these problems. Organic farming has some clear merits, particularly those practices, such as crop rotation and the use of green or natural biocontrol agents and animal manure, which have been used by farmers for millennia (King 1949). The use of degraded plant and animal residues increases the friability (tendency to mobile voip, crumble, as opposed to caking) and water-holding capacity of titling essays soil, and nutrients from mobile voip decaying plants and animal manure are more slowly available than those from most commercial fertilizers. Both of these factorsfriability and slow nutrient availabilitydiminish nutrient runoff. While organic agriculture continues to grow in response to consumer preferences in i believe essay structure the developed world, there are limitations to widespread use of organic practices. Organic agriculture requires substantially more land and labor than conventional practices to produce food, and the resulting yields are not great enough and too expensive to address the needs of the growing population. Voip Research Paper? The supply of composted animal manure is limited and of nucleosynthesis, relatively expensive compared to commercial fertilizers.

Organic agriculture excludes the use of synthetic pesticides, and the few “natural” ones that are permitted are seldom used (Lotter 2003). Herbicides are not permitted in organic agriculture, even though some, such as glyphosate, are rapidly degraded in the soil. These exclusions require more manual labor for weed and pest control. All of these factors result in higher costs and voip, higher prices for p process, organic foods. Reports on productivity vary widely, but some credible sources place organic food production as low as 50% of that of conventional agriculture (Bichel Committee 1999). Mobile Research? Yield differences may be attributable to a number of factors such as agro-ecological zone (for example, temperate and essay, irrigated compared with humid and perhumid), crop type, high-input compared with low-input level of comparable conventional crop, and management experience (Zundel and Kilcher 2007). Mobile Voip? In addition, current organic methods exclude the use of the products of paper title modern biotechnologyrecombinant DNA technologyessential to future increases in agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, the more useful practices of organic agriculture must be part of the agriculture of the future.

Although poverty and malnutrition exist in all countries, by far the most severe problems in achieving availability, safety, and research, nutritive value of title generator food and beverages occur in the developing world (IFPRI 2009). Water shortages and contaminated water, poor soil, destruction of forest for fuel, use of animal manure for fuel, the spread of plant and animal diseases, and mobile, the complete lack of a sound food safety infrastructure are among the p process of nucleosynthesis most vexing problems. Continued food scarcity invites chaos, disease, and mobile research, terrorism (Brown 2009). The gap between developing and developed nations is not only in economics but also in science, governance, and public information. Thus, to address these issues, the food system must be considered in its totality. Eighty percent of agricultural land is used for grain fed to meat animals and yields only term title, 15% of our calorie intake. Many have suggested that world food shortages could be greatly alleviated by consuming less meat and using the grain supplies now consumed by voip, animals more directly. Reduction in meat intake, particularly red meats, would confer some health benefits, but the potential effects on essay structure, world food supplies are less clear and quite possibly much less than many presume. If developed nations consume much less meat, the price of meat will fall and mobile voip research, poorer nations will consume more.

If more grain is consumed, grain prices will rise, to the detriment of term paper generator populations that already rely heavily on grain. The global food system is extremely complex, and any single change causes many others, often in unexpected ways (Stokstad 2010). Clearly, the solution to the challenge of meeting the food demands of our future world population lies in these principal thrusts: •  Increased agricultural productivity everywhere, but particularly among poor farmers, of whom there are hundreds of millions. •  Increased economic development and education, both for their own merits and mobile voip paper, because they will promote infrastructure gains in transportation and water management. •  Much-increased efforts in environmental and water conservation and improvement. •  Continued improvements in food and beverage processing and packaging to deliver safe, nutritious, and affordable food. •  Reduction of postharvest losses, particularly in creative developing countries. We must achieve all of these goals. To maintain, as some do, that we cannot have both vastly increased productivity and good environmental practices is a “false choice” (Gates 2009). Voip Paper? Meeting these goals will require the effective use of scienceboth the science now within reach and that still to be developed. Postharvest losses occur between harvest and consumption as a result of of nucleosynthesis spoilage of raw agricultural commodities, primarily during storage and transportation, before they can be stabilized for longer-term storage. The granaries mentioned earlier were the first crude efforts to voip paper, attack this problem, but it still persists. Postharvest losses due to rodents, insects, and microbial spoilage in some areas amount to 30% or more of the harvested crop. This results in term wasted seed, water, fertilizer, and labor.

Postharvest losses must be attacked with locally appropriate improvements in available technology (Normile 2010). It is not enough merely to increase and conserve the research supply of best creative writing raw food; it must be conserved against further loss by processing and be packaged, distributed to where it is needed, and guaranteed in mobile paper its safety, nutritional value, and cultural relevance. Paper Title Generator? That is the role of science and technology and engineering applied to voip, the processing of foods and beverages. A widely understood and accepted definition of titling college essays food processing does not exist, and perceptions of “processed foods” vary widely. From the broadest perspective, food processing may be considered to include any deliberate change in a food occurring between the point of origin and availability for consumption. The change could be as simple as rinsing and research paper, packaging by a food manufacturer to ensure that the food is not damaged before consumer accessibility, or as complex as formulating the product with specific additives for controlling microorganisms, maintaining desired quality attributes, or providing a specific health benefit, followed by packaging that may itself play a role in microbial control or quality preservation.

Some people process their own foods in the home, by canning produce from a garden, microwave cooking, or dehydrating food, for example. Following recipes to bake cakes, cookies, and casseroles or to make chili are examples of formulating foods in the home (Shewfelt 2009). In general, food processing is applied for one or more of the following reasons: preservation, extending the harvest in a safe and stable form; safety; quality; availability; convenience; innovation; health and wellness; and sustainability. Although the private sector carries out these processes and delivers the final product to of nucleosynthesis, the consumer, public investment in voip research paper generating the science and engineering base necessary to continue the creativity and ultimate application of term title new technologies is clearly warranted. Many writings from antiquity refer to food and its preservation and preparation. Major advances in food preservation accelerated with the development of mobile canning, which proceeded from the investigations of Nicolas Appert in France and the subsequent activities of Peter Durand in England in the early 19th century. Appert used corked glass bottles to preserve food, and Durand introduced the concept of metal cans. This led to increased emphasis from scientists on the quantity and quality of food, although the reason for canning's effectiveness for food preservation was not discovered until nearly 50 y later. Louis Pasteur reported to of nucleosynthesis, the French Academy of voip research paper Sciences in 1864 on the lethal effect of heat on microorganisms. W. Russel of the Univ. of i believe essay Wisconsin and Samuel Cate Prescott and mobile voip research, William Lyman Underwood of the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology described in 1895 to 1896 the need for time and temperature control (Labuza and Sloan 1981). No period of time has seen such rapid advances in food and beverage processing as the i believe essay structure 20th century (Welch and Mitchell 2000).

Modern food science and technology has extended, expanded, and voip research, refined these traditional methods and plan, added new ones. Simple cooking, though still the most common process, evolved into canning. Dehydration, once restricted to less sanitary sun drying, now is usually a highly mechanized and voip paper, sanitized process. Refrigeration has evolved from cool storage to sophisticated refrigerators and freezers, and the industrial techniques of blast freezing and individual quick freezing (IQF) are less detrimental to nutritional quality and sensory quality (for example, taste, texture). All of these developments contributed to increased nutritional quality, safety, variety, acceptability, and paper, availability of foods and beverages. Many of these techniques are now combined into more effective preservation technologies through the concept of “hurdle technology,” combining techniques to create conditions that bacteria cannot overcome, such as combining drying with chemical preservatives and packaging, or mild heat treatment followed by packaging and refrigerated storage (Leistner and Gould 2002). Still another notable evolution is the long history of the use of food additivessubstances added in small quantities to produce a desired effect.

Of the 32 “technical effects” (functional purposes) listed by the Food and Drug Administration in the  Code of mobile voip research Federal Regulations , 24 can be recognized in the few cookbooks and recipe compilations that have survived from more than 150 y ago. Among the additives that were once used to produce these technical effects (Hall 1978) are. •  Pearl ash (from wood ashes) and term, vinegar as leavening agents. •  Sodium silicate (water glass) for dipping eggs to preserve them. Voip Research Paper? •  Lye for hulling corn. •  Sulfur dioxide from burning sulfur as a fumigant and preservative. •  Unlined copper utensils for making pickles greener. •  Saltpeter and roach alum as curing and pickling agents. •  Grass, marigold flowers, and indigo stone (copper sulfate) as sources of green, yellow, and blue colors. Before the days of widespread industrial production of food and before the advent of modern chemistry and toxicology, these and many other crude additives were used confidently within the family without any knowledge of the risks they presented. In the 20th century, the development of the science of toxicology permitted the careful evaluation of the of nucleosynthesis safety of substances added to food. The advent of modern chemistry permitted the detection of intentional adulteration of foods by purveyors using deceitful practices, and mobile, led to of a paragraph, the passage and enforcement of modern food laws. Frederick Accum's “Treatise on the Adulteration of Food,” published in 1820, marked the mobile research beginning of this effort. In the United States, the college application essays Pure Food and voip research paper, Drugs Act of 1906 prohibited adulteration and misbranding of food, issues that continued to titling college application essays, be addressed in the United States via federal statutes.

Prior to 1958, the burden of proving that a substance posed an unacceptable risk rested with the government. Mobile Voip Research? In that year, the Food Additives Amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act changed that by advancing the concept of analysis in business “adulteration” and imposing on mobile research paper, food manufacturers the task of proving prior to marketing that an additive is safe under the conditions of its intended use. The change in the use of food additives in the past 100 y has been dramatic. We have moved from the use of crude, unidentified, often hazardous substances to p process, purified, publicly identified food ingredients that are well evaluated for safety. Now high standards and margins of safety are applied to food additives (ACS 1968; NAS 1973; Hall 1977). Today, because of voip paper modern means of detection, intentional food adulteration in industrialized countries is considered uncommon, occurring more often in foods imported from countries without effective food safety infrastructure.

Except for rare cases of individual sensitivity, human harm from approved food additives in the United States is virtually unknown. Advances in 5 parts of a paragraph food science and technology. Drying, canning, chemical preservation, refrigeration (including chilling and freezing), and nutrient conservation and mobile paper, fortification were the significant advances of the 19th and online, 20th centuries and permitted population growth in more developed countries. Such population growth could only occur if there was sufficient food. Voip Research? The industrial revolution could not have occurred without a food delivery system that allowed people to leave the farms, migrate to the cities, and engage in useful production of goods and p process, services for research, society. Among the important developments during the early part of the 20th century were the discovery of vitamins and the realization of the importance of other micronutrients such as iodine, iron, and calcium. Those with memories of that earlier period recall the bowed legs associated with rickets (from vitamin D deficiency) and the swollen thyroids related to goiter (from iodine deficiency). With the introduction of the draft just before World War II, the army discovered widespread malnutrition among young American males. This led to the foundation of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Inst. of Medicine of the Natl. Academies and also the development in swot analysis plan 1941 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential nutrients.

The difficulty of achieving these RDAs from available foods, especially among the poor, led manufacturers to fortify common foods with vitamins and other micronutrients, beginning with iodized salt in 1924. Today, fortified foods, defined by federal Standards of research paper Identity, include such staples as pasta, milk, butter, salt, and flour. Technological innovations in term food preservation were dependent on advances in voip research paper the sciences, especially chemistry and microbiology. Of Nucleosynthesis? How these sciences and voip research paper, technologies are applied within each society depends on the economic, biological, cultural, and political contexts for each society. For example, vegetarian groups require certain technologies, but not others; rice-eating societies may reject, sometimes strongly, foods based on other grains; and slaughtering procedures vary with religious backgrounds. Advances in p process of nucleosynthesis agriculture and food science and technology have led to reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; a generally safe food supply with consistent high quality available independent of seasons; food choices that do not require preparation time; a wide range of delicious foods; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; convenience foods requiring much less preparation time than before, a benefit for mobile paper, working families; and efficient global food distribution that can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Food is central to human health, not only in terms of swot analysis plan quantity, but also quality as well. The past few decades have seen alarming rates of voip increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and generator, cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and autism. A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and basic research shows that food and diet are important factors involved in the etiology of research paper these and other chronic diseases, and that dietary patterns have a profound effect on the risk for chronic diseases. Anand and others (2008), for example, describe the college substantial role of environment lifestyle risk factors (such as sun exposure, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) for paper, cancer and provide evidence that cancer could be preventable for some people but that this would require major lifestyle changes.

Hence, whether it is food safety and best, security, or nutrient deficiency and paper, disease prevention, food is intricately connected to human health and well-being. Dietary guidelines are produced to paper title, provide advice on good dietary habits that will promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. Voip Research Paper? The 2005  Dietary Guidelines for best, Americans  includes recommendations to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat milk, and to limit consumption of  trans  fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and research paper, sodium. Many food companies have responded to these recommendations. For example, more bread and cereal products are now available that are made from whole grains and have higher fiber contents. The introduction of application essays baby carrots doubled intake of carrots. Introducing milk packaging that appeals to mobile, teens has increased milk consumption in that population group. Product reformulation has greatly reduced the  trans  fat content of many foods, and several companies have made commitments to reduce the sodium content of food products. In Business Plan? Convenient and voip, innovative toddler foods made from a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy are now available.

To help control portion size, limited-calorie packaging has entered the market for 5 parts five, a variety of categories. Overweight and obesity have become the dominant health problem in the United States and many developed countries. In children, the prevalence has almost tripled in the past 3 decades (Ogden and others 2000). This is of particular concern because overweight children have a high likelihood of becoming overweight adults, with all the associated diseases such as metabolic syndrome and voip, diabetes. Recent research suggests that childhood obesity is determined by age 2 (Harrington and others 2010), which supports the earlier set-point theory that body weight is regulated at a predetermined or preferred level by a feedback-control mechanism (Harris 1990).

The obesity issue is a scientifically complex issue of behavior and of nucleosynthesis, may be economically driven; some of the lowest priced foods are the more calorie-dense and voip research, palatable products (Drewnowski 2004; MacAulay and Newsome 2004). Diabetes mellitus is expected to skyrocket to epidemic proportions in the next quarter-century (Bonow and Gheorghiade 2004). Lifestyle interventions are the term generator 1st step in the management of research paper diabetes and metabolic syndrome (Stone 2008). Even in the midst of an abundance of energy from food, however, many people do not meet their nutrient requirements, sometimes because of the types of foods available to them, other times because of the kinds of foods they select. The report of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC 2010) recommended focus on achieving energy balance through the this i believe structure current nutrition and physical activity guidelines.

Food Processing: A Critical Element. As indicated above, food processing has evolved from merely a need to voip paper, preserve foods from the time and location of best classes harvest or assembly until the product reaches the mobile voip consumer, to possibly complex activities that may include sourcing raw materials and ingredients from different parts of the world that can improve nutritional and creative writing online classes, other desirable qualities for better overall health and wellness of consumers. Food processing frequently serves multiple objectives. For example, freezing or cooking and freezing both preserve and provide convenience. Heating or fermentation of soy is necessary both to achieve edibility and to paper, remove the hemagglutinens that would be mildly toxic. Essay? Processing operations are conducted under controlled conditions to ensure that the process is completed in the most effective and efficient manner. The resulting products include ingredients delivered to food manufacturers to mobile voip research, be used in producing foods for consumers, as well as ingredients (for example, flour) for consumers to term paper title generator, use in mobile research paper food preparation.

The development and titling college essays, implementation of mobile paper new technologies enhances food quality and safety. New and innovative products, some with unique product attributes, have been developed through the use of new processing technologies. The formulation, processing, and packaging of a food or beverage is accomplished for several clearly definable purposes, with numerous benefits to the consumer and society: •  Preservation. This is the oldest and perhaps still the most common purpose, and the one most familiar to consumers. The purpose of preservation is to extend the shelf life of a food or beverage. •  Safety. The processing of food is designed to best creative, remove health hazards associated with microbial pathogens.

Processing operations dealing with raw food materials or ingredients carrying pathogens have significant controls and mobile research paper, regulations to detect and inactivate food-borne microorganisms that can cause illness. Pasteurization of milk is just one of many examples of processes that eliminate a health hazard for term paper generator, the consumer and extend the life of the product. Managing food safety, however, goes beyond microbiological risks. Good agricultural and manufacturing practices and other principles address chemical and physical hazards as well. In addition, plant breeding has contributed to reduction of voip some of the toxicants that occur naturally in foods in small amounts (ACS 1968; Hall 1977) and have been the source of common and sometimes widespread human illness and occasionally death. Processing is, however, still necessary in some instances. For example, manioc must be crushed and soakedor crushed, heated, and treated with acidto remove hydrogen cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides before the resulting starch (tapioca) is safe to consume. •  Quality.

Processes to ensure the delivery of p process foods and mobile, beverages of the highest quality to the consumer continue to evolve. Quality attributes include taste, aroma, texture, color, and best creative writing classes, nutrient content. In most cases, these attributes begin to mobile paper, decline as soon as a raw food material or ingredient is harvested or collected. Analysis In Business Plan? The goal of the processes is to ensure that the decline in quality attributes is minimized. Voip? For example, blanching and freezing vegetables immediately after harvesting ensures that the nutrients remain at their peak level. In some cases, the quality attributes are enhanced by processing. For example, processing of college essays soybeans greatly improves their flavor.

•  Availability. Food processing helps to ensure that the consumer has access to mobile voip research, a wide variety of foods and food ingredients at any time, including those that help to improve the retention of quality attributes for the period of i believe time required for delivery of the product to the consumer. For example, controlling the composition of the atmosphere surrounding apples and other fruits leads to extended freshness. •  Sustainability. Food processing ensures that the resources required to produce raw food materials and ingredients for food manufacturing are used most efficiently. Responding to mobile research, the goals of sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials produced and integration of activities throughout all the production-to-consumption stages. To maximize the conversion of raw materials into consumer products, efforts begin at the production stage, with activities to reduce postharvest losses and increase use of by-products. Efforts continue, through food manufacturing and beyond, to ensure that energy, water, and other resources are used most efficiently and environmental impacts are minimized.

Refrigeration of fresh produce is an example of an action that reduces loss and increases the edible life of the of nucleosynthesis product. •  Convenience. Many processed foods and beverages are developed to allow them to be consumed after limited amounts of preparation. For example, a frozen or refrigerated entree is delivered to the consumer in a form ready for microwave heating. Snack foods are ready to eat when delivered to voip, the consumer. •  Health and Wellness. At a fundamental level, food is viewed as a source of nutrition to meet at least the minimum daily requirements for survival, but there is an ever-greater focus on the desire for health optimization from food. Creative Writing? Processing can enhance the nutritional value of foods in a number of ways.

For example, refiningseparation of the antinutritional componentsis the best means of mobile paper improving the nutritional quality of many foodstuffs of in business plan vegetable origin, and processing of fresh tomatoes (for example, into catsup) improves the bioavailability of the carotenoid lycopene. Some products are specifically designed to research, enhance individual health and wellnessthe focus of application essays many current trendsrequiring specific unique ingredients and an array of processes to ensure desired product attributes. Many products are fortified or enriched with vitamins and minerals (for example, orange juice fortified with calcium for bone health) and other nutrients (for example, margarine enriched with plant stanols and paper, sterols for this i believe essay, heart health) in voip paper response to defined nutritional needs of consumers. The success of these productsoften referred to as “functional foods”requires that flavor and texture also meet consumer expectations. Typical technologies, processes, and operations. The mechanical operations, processes, and technologies typically used to achieve these benefits in preparing and using raw materials in manufacturing foods and beverages (Potter and Hotchkiss 1995) are briefly described below: •  Mechanical Operations. There are many mechanical operations used throughout the food system, including simple conveying of raw materials from one location to another, as well as more intense operations to change the physical structure of the titling material.

All or most of these operations are larger scale versions of operations that have been used to prepare foods for centuries. The cracking and grinding of cereal grains to manufacture the mobile paper flour used in bakery products is a very visible example. Most often these operations are designed to produce one or more of the creative writing ingredients to be used in consumer food products. Voip Research? The extraction of oil from soybeans and other oilseeds requires a mechanical operation before efficient separation of the oil can be accomplished. In most cases, these operations are a component of series of steps needed to ensure the most efficient use of the raw material, often including the manufacturing of an array of by-products for term title generator, consumers to utilize. Another typical mechanical operation is dry mixing, involving the blending of various ingredients to mobile voip research, ensure homogeneous and uniform distribution of the various ingredients before a final stage of manufacturing. •  Heating . The use of thermal energy to increase the temperature of a raw food or ingredient is the of a most recognized and widely used approach to preservation of food. By increasing the temperature to appropriate levels and holding for an appropriate time that is dependent on both the nature of the food and the objective of the research process, pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms are significantly decreased in number or eliminated. Thermal processes applied to foods in food manufacturing are based on the same principles as those governing traditional cooking of foods during preparation. P Process? The impact of heatingthermal processingon components of the food is the same as that during cooking and often results in research the enhancement of creative classes flavors and texture, as well as some modest losses of research heat-sensitive nutrients. Many shelf-stable foods are available to analysis in business, consumers as a result of thermal processing.

Less-intense thermal processes, such as pasteurization, also ensure that dairy products and fruit juices are safe. Heating food to extend its shelf life probably dates back to antiquity, when people observed that food that had been cooked kept longer without spoiling. However, it was not until Appert and others investigated heating foods in containers that it was discovered that immediate recontamination of heated food from the environment did not occur. Since those meager beginnings, advances in mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, coupled with their application to food science and technology, have resulted in development of equipment and procedures to optimize the application of mobile voip research paper heat to foods for the purpose of extending their shelf life and enhancing their edibility (texture, flavor, and visual appearance). There are basically 3 types of heat processes that are applied to food, other than cooking: blanching, pasteurization, and creative writing, canning. The latter 2 are tightly regulated by federaland in some cases, stateagencies to mobile voip paper, ensure proper application of the technology and structure, prevention of food-borne illness.

Blanching  is a mild heat treatment (usually accomplished at research paper temperatures below 212F for less than 2 to 3 min) applied to foods that are to term title, be subsequently canned, frozen, or dried. The purpose is to eliminate or reduce activity of enzymes in the foods that catalyze changes in flavor, texture, or color. Voip Research Paper? Other benefits include removal of air from the food tissue to reduce oxidation, softening of the plant tissue to swot analysis plan, facilitate packing into packages, and inactivation of antinutritional properties (such as trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, a naturally occurring chemical that reduces dietary protein breakdown in paper the human gastrointestinal tract). The process is swot, usually carried out in research hot water or steam, although there are processes based on in business plan, hot air or microwave heating. Since the process is relatively mild, there is relatively little effect on nutrients, although when hot water is used as the heating medium some nutrients, especially water-soluble nutrients, are leached into the water. “ Pasteurization ” is named after Pasteur, who demonstrated that wine spoiled because of the presence of microorganisms and that a mild heat treatment could be used to inactivate the microorganisms and thereby extend the shelf life. Pasteurization is most well known for mobile voip, its application to milk, which is strictly regulated through the U.S. Public Health Service/FDA's Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Pasteurization is analysis plan, most generally applied to research paper, liquids, although it is also applied to titling, semisolid and solid foods. As applied to liquids, the temperature is elevated to 140 to 212F for a short period of time (usually less than 1 min) to inactivate microorganisms that can cause illness (pathogens).

As originally applied, the liquid was heated after it was put into the container; but by voip research paper, applying advances in food engineering, such as the understanding of flow dynamics and analysis in business plan, heat transfer to flowing liquids, continuous processes were developed using heat exchangers, machines used to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder one. Modern processes are almost exclusively continuous processes, with the pasteurized liquid being deposited into research paper sterile packages. Most pasteurized foods are subsequently kept in refrigerated storage to extend the shelf life because not all spoilage organisms present have been inactivated. “ Canning ” is primarily used to inactivate microorganisms that cause food-borne disease such as botulism, but it also inactivates microorganisms that cause food spoilage. This thermal process is commonly accomplished by holding the product at analysis temperatures well above 230F for several minutes. Canned food is not absolutely sterile (devoid of mobile voip research all viable microorganisms) but rather is commercially sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms that could grow under normal storage conditions). There are 2 major methods: heating the food after it has been sealed in college essays a container (referred to as  canning ) and sterilizing the food, then depositing it in a sterile container within a sterile environment and sealing the container (referred to as  aseptic processing ). These processes can also be optimized for retention of nutrients and quality factors such as taste, flavor, and mobile voip research paper, color. The success of this method of preserving foods in eliminating food-related deficiency diseases cannot be understated, with canned fruits and vegetables being a source of vitamin C independent of seasons, for example. •  Refrigeration and Freezing. The use of low temperatures to extend the shelf life of food and beverage products has a long history. The use of ice to reduce the p process temperature of foods and prevent spoilage has been recognized for mobile voip paper, centuries.

Refrigerators are now found in almost every home in industrialized countries. Although the writing online reduction of temperature does not eliminate microbial populations, it reduces the rate of microbial growth enough to prevent product spoilage and extend the shelf life of paper most food products. Most fruits and structure, vegetables are refrigerated to extend their freshness. In addition, refrigeration also reduces the reaction rates of enzymes that cause deterioration of most quality attributes of voip paper a food or beverage, making high-quality products available to the consumer for extended periods of i believe essay structure time (Heldman and Hartel 1997). Some foods and beverages receive a mild heat treatment to inactivate enzymes and eliminate microorganisms that can cause disease but still require refrigeration to mobile, control the growth of surviving microorganisms that can cause spoilage. Pasteurized milk is probably the paper generator best example, but many other foods and beverages are also pasteurized and then refrigerated.

In general, holding a food or beverage at refrigeration or freezing temperature has no negative impact on the quality attributes of the food but extends consumable product life. “ Freezing ” is a more intense use of refrigeration to reduce the temperature of a product to research paper, levels below the freezing temperature of water in the product. Of A? Lower temperatures cause the liquid water to change phase to ice. At these reduced temperatures (−0.4 to paper, −14F), the deterioration rates for product quality attributes are reduced to below those at refrigeration temperature, and this essay structure, microbial growth is reduced to mobile research paper, negligible levels. It is not unusual for frozen fruits, vegetables, and titling application essays, some meat products to maintain high quality for as much as 1 y while frozen. Many favorite desserts, such as ice cream, have been created by the freezing process.

Most nutrients are not affected by freezing; however, it is difficult to freeze a food product without impact on mobile voip paper, the some of its more evident quality attributes. The formation of ice crystals within the structure of a plant or animal food results in term paper title generator a series of research reactions with potential impact on in business plan, texture and voip paper, flavor. Thus, careful control of the time to freeze the product and the temperature of the frozen product during distribution and storage is important to minimize such reactions and ensure the best possible quality attributes over time (Erickson and Hung 1997). The size of ice crystals created during the freezing process can be controlled, but this is not possible with all products or freezing facilities. For example, small pieces of fruits or vegetables can be frozen very rapidly, and the product structure is preserved with uniform distribution of small ice crystals. In contrast, a large portion of beef or any product in a large package will require a longer time to freeze and will result in a less-uniform distribution of larger ice crystals. Of Nucleosynthesis? The extent of the impact on product quality depends on mobile voip, an array of factors occurring after freezing, including control of temperature during storage and distribution and final preparation of the food. For many foods, the quality attributes of refrigerated and p process, frozen foods compare favorably to those of the fresh counterparts (Mallet 1993). •  Dehydration. Drying is intended to halt or slow the growth of microorganisms and rate of chemical reactions.

The removal of mobile voip water provides food processors excellent opportunities to reduce volume and weight, extend shelf life, and convert liquids to powdery products, such as instant coffee or a vegetable soup base mix. Application? This process is mobile research, one of the oldest techniques used to preserve foods, one of the most utilized, and the most energy intensive (von Loesecke 1943; Saravacos 1965; King 1968; Thijssen 1979). Water removal is usually performed via evaporation, vaporization, or sublimation (drying while frozen) by college essays, means of a simultaneous heat, mass, and momentum transfer mechanism (Whitaker 1977). This transfer occurs within the research paper food itself and between the food and writing, the drying medium, resulting in mobile voip paper the reduction of moisture, a key variable in all drying operations. In addition to water removal, chemical reactions occur, such as Maillard browning (nonenzymatic browning) of amino acids/reducing sugars such as glucose, caramelization of sugar, denaturation/degradation of best classes cross-linking proteins, and pyrolysis (decomposition or transformation of a compound caused by heat) of the various organic constituents. In addition, loss of volatile compounds, gelatinization of mobile starches, and modification of food material structure change the characteristics of the original product significantly (Viollaz and Alzamora 2005). Many types of titling application essays dryers, dehydration methods, and associated equipment are applied to a very wide range of foods.

Sun drying on trays, mats, or platforms is the traditional method and is still used today. Mobile? Modern equipment includes cabinet, bed, conveyor, fluidized bed, drum, vacuum, and spray dryers. Freeze drying (lyophilization), osmotic dehydration, microwave, and p process, innovative light-driven refractance-window dryers are also in use. With continuous technological advances in different fields, drying is mobile paper, constantly evolving to offer better quality and novel products. Mathematical modeling and process simulation have significantly contributed to the understanding of the intricacies of this very complex process and the design of new dryers and drying systems. One trend is to combine 2 or more dehydration techniquesor a dehydration method with other processing approachesfor treatments that optimize cost, food quality, and safety. Term Paper Title Generator? Examples of voip paper these combinations include microwavevacuum drying, ultrasound-assisted air drying, and encapsulation and flavor impregnation to add value. •  Acidification. Paper Title? Raw foods and beverages vary significantly in levels of acid they contain. Foods with lower levels of acid are more susceptible to microbial growth and are thus more perishable. The intentional adjustment in the level of acid in a food has been a preservation method for mobile research paper, centuries, in making pickles, for example.

This approach to preservation is based on 5 parts, the inability of many spoilage microorganisms and voip paper, pathogens to grow at high levels of acid. Increasing the acidity prevents growth of many microorganisms and college application essays, extends the shelf life of the product, while maintaining many of its attributes. This preservation method can be accomplished by addition of acid to adjust the overall acidity level of the product, or biologically through fermentation. Since acid alone may not be sufficient to fully protect the product, adjustments in acidity are frequently used in combination with other techniques such as heat, additives, or refrigeration to mobile voip research, accomplish preservation and safety. •  Fermentation. The use of microorganisms to change a perishable food into a less-perishable product is another very old way of preservation that has been used around the world by societies without access to analysis plan, refrigeration to extend the edible life of a fresh food.

Many of these products, such as blue cheese, salami, sauerkraut, and yogurt, have become so popular that societies with ready access to refrigeration continue to enjoy fermented foods but still frequently use refrigeration to maintain safety and extend shelf life of these modern versions. Although some microorganisms lead to mobile research paper, food spoilage and others cause food poisoning, specific microorganisms that can induce desirable changes in foods are used to overpower those that can lead to unappealing or unsafe foods. Paper Title? Fermentation microorganisms primarily work to change the chemical makeup of research a product, making it less likely that undesirable microorganisms will reproduce and compromise product safety or quality. Beneficial microorganisms synthesize natural preservatives, such as lactic acid and other acids (increasing the acidity of the food), carbon dioxide (lowering the oxygen content), and ethanol (discouraging growth of p process of nucleosynthesis undesirable microorganisms). Yeasts produce carbon dioxide to expand the structure, such as dough for bread baking.

They are also responsible for mobile research, the production of ethanol to produce beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Fermented dairy products include yogurt and a host of ripened cheeses. Fermented cucumbers are called pickles in Western countries, but pickling is college, another word for fermenting and is used to produce pickled eggs, pig's feet, and even snakes in certain countries. Mobile Paper? Many countries and cultures have their own favorite types of fermented products, such as injera from Ethiopia, kimchi (fermented cabbage) from Korea, salami and other fermented sausages from Italy and Germany, and sauerkraut from northern Europe. Harvested cacao beans are fermented before cleaning and roasting, making all chocolate products the result of at least one fermentation step. •  Water Activity. A very important and p process, useful tool in the control of food quality attributes and voip paper, food safety is water activity (a W ). Defined as an equilibrium property (free energy) of water at this i believe structure a given temperature and voip research paper, moisture content, the concept of a W was first suggested in the 1950s when it became obvious that water content could not adequately account for online, microbial growth limitations. During the 1960s, researchers demonstrated that a W is also important in controlling the rates of voip chemical deterioration in foods, and then in the 1980s it was also found to term, relate to the texture of crisp dry foods and caking of powders such as instant coffee. Research? a W is not the same as water content, or the 5 parts quantitative amount of water in voip research paper a sample, nor is it a measure of analysis plan free compared with bound water in a food, an early misconception that is now abandoned. Through the research of research paper hundreds of food scientists, a number of a W paradigms have been established and used by food manufacturers to create safe, tasty, and nutritious dry and semimoist foods such as crispy snacks and breakfast cereals, semimoist cookies, and creamy confections. For example, it is known that at a W values between about 0.3 and swot in business, 0.65, changes in product texture occur (for example, loss of mobile paper crispness and onset of stickiness, caking, or hardening), and that at a W values around 0.85 and greater, significant growth of microorganisms, including illness-causing bacteria, occurs.

In fact, the concept of a W is titling college application, used in mobile voip paper regulation of food processing to ensure food safety. The  Code of Federal Regulations  (21 CFR 110.80 [b][14]) requires that “Foods such as but not limited to p process of nucleosynthesis, dry mixes, nuts, intermediate moisture foods, and dehydrated foods that rely on the control of a W for preventing the mobile voip paper growth of microorganisms shall be processed to term, and maintained at a safe moisture level. Compliance may be accomplished by any effective means including (i) monitoring the a W of ingredients and finished product, (ii) controlling the research paper soluble solids-water ratio, (iii) protecting finished foods from moisture pickup so that the a W does not increase to an unsafe level .” In addition, a W is the key to 5 parts of a, control of enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and many other reactions that have an impact on food quality, such as degradation of vitamins and changes in color, flavor, and mobile voip research, aroma (Labuza and others 1970). This? Figure 2 depicts the water content and a W of a few common foods. Moisture sorption isotherm relating water activity to moisture content at a specific temperature. Specific knowledge of the relationship of a W to moisture content, such as that shown in Figure 2, is useful to food manufacturers for choosing specific ingredients, such as in making a high- or intermediate-moisture food that will maintain a safe a W level (generally below 0.85). This information is also important in predicting and controlling textural changes and ingredient stability. Foods such as dry mixes, nuts, and dehydrated foods rely on control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms.

This can be accomplished by adding food-grade acids such as citric or lactic, by adding a microbial growth inhibitor such as sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate, or by also including a smoking step, as has been done with hams and mobile voip, fish. The systematic control of a W through product formulation ensures the maximum quality and shelf life for dry and intermediate-moisture foods (Labuza and others 1970), such as beef jerky, gummies, dried raisins and cranberries, or chewy granola bars. Many of these foods are traditional foods, but are available with improved quality attributes and titling, convenience. Our ancestors used this method of preservation centuries ago by simply adding salt or sugar to meat or plant foods. Mobile Voip Paper? The best examples are cured hams, semidry smoked salted fish, and sugared fruit slices. •  Smoking. The application of smoke to food products, primarily meats, is a very traditional process that was probably discovered by accident. It has been speculated that when ancient cave dwellers learned to cook food over open fires, it quickly became obvious to them that the swot analysis in business plan smoke from the fire helped reduce the spoilage of perishable food products such as meat and also imparted a very distinctive, desirable flavor. Over time, the smoke process was expanded to include not only meat, fish, and poultry but also, more recently, sausage products, ham, bacon, cheeses, and many other foods for which a unique smoked flavor and increased shelf life are desired. Classic survival foods, such as meat jerky, are produced by a combination of smoking and voip research paper, dehydration and have now evolved into a wide variety of savory snack foods.

The smoke application process has evolved dramatically from titling essays open campfires to a highly controlled, scientific process, but the benefits have remained the same. Smoke achieves 4 different functions when applied to food, all of which contribute to safer, more palatable products: Food safety.  Smoke kills some of the bacteria that are present on the product surface and prevents or slows the growth of others. While this has been one of the most important roles of smoke for food preservation in the past, this effect is less critical today because several other antimicrobial processes are available. Nevertheless, smoke is still an important contributor to bacterial control in smoked foods. The antibacterial effect of mobile research smoke is titling application essays, due to several components of wood smoke, specifically acids and mobile voip paper, alcohol, which are formed during combustion of swot plan wood and deposited on the product surface.

Furthermore, most smoke processes are done with application of heat at the same time, and voip research, the combination of smoke with mild heating increases the in business plan control of both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Smoke application usually results in some surface drying of the product as well, and this helps to prevent bacterial growth during subsequent storage. Qualityflavor and aroma.  Smoke imparts a very pleasant and desirable aroma and flavor to smoked foods, a role that has become more important today as consumers seek a greater variety of flavors and eating experiences. Wood smoke can be derived from a variety of wood sources, including hickory, apple, mesquite, and others, to add to the variety of flavors that can be achieved. Qualityvisual appeal. Paper?  Smoke provides a highly attractive surface color, especially for smoked meats. The deep, rich mahogany color of a smoked ham is easily recognized by consumers and communicates assurance that the analysis in business associated aroma and flavor expected of a smoked ham will be delivered.

Preservation.  Smoke functions as an mobile paper antioxidant or flavor protector. Several of the 5 parts five essay compounds in wood smoke, most notably complex phenols, will dramatically slow the flavor deterioration that typically occurs with development of rancidity following cooking. Despite the advantages, 3 criticisms have occasionally been leveled at the use of smoke for food preservation. First is that atmospheric emissions result from combustion of wood to generate smoke. Second is that it degrades some food nutrients; this has been demonstrated to be of very minor importancesmoke has been shown to not significantly alter the nutrient value of food under normal circumstances. Third is that combustion of mobile voip research wood can generate undesirable compounds (polycyclic hydrocarbons) shown to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Of note is that this process results in smoke deposition almost exclusively on the surface of the product, with relatively little penetration below the surfacesmoke deposition is limited to the outer ¼ to ½ inch of the product. However, smoke application can also be achieved with “liquid smoke,” a concentrated extract of natural wood smoke. Liquid smoke contains all of the important functional components of natural smoke and results in the same effects on swot in business, color, flavor, and bacterial control, but it is much more consistent in composition than natural smoke and therefore more reproducible in effect.

Other significant advantages to liquid smoke are that no atmospheric emissions are generated during smoke application, the undesirable toxic/carcinogenic components of natural smoke are not included in the extract, and the liquid smoke can be mixed into a product during manufacturing for a more uniform smoked flavor. Meat products with liquid smoke added can usually be identified by a term such as “smoke flavoring” in research paper the ingredients list on the product label. Liquid smoke can also be applied by drenching or dipping, spraying or atomization, or use of paper smoke-impregnated sausage casings. These application methods result in mobile voip surface deposition of smoke components with product effects that are very similar to those produced by the surface application of of a paragraph natural smoke. •  Irradiation.

For more than 40 y, ionizing radiation has been used commercially to destroy bacterial and insect contamination of food. Mobile Paper? Common sources of ionizing radiation today are electron beams, X-rays, and, more often, gamma rays (with the radioactive isotope cobalt-60, the same source used for structure, radiation therapy in hospitals). Mobile Voip Research? Elaborate physical safeguards assure worker safety. Irradiation is particularly effective in reducing microbial contamination of hamburger meat and poultry, which can be contaminated by pathogens such as  Escherichia coli  O157:H7,  Salmonella , and  Campylobacter  and result in food-borne illness. Irradiation also may be applied to eliminate insects in a wide variety of foods, for example, flour, spices, fruits, vegetables, and grains (IFT 2004), to best online classes, prevent seeds from voip research paper sprouting, and to control pathogens in fresh shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, fresh or frozen molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops), and fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach (Morehouse and swot analysis plan, Komolprasert 2004, FDA 2008). Low doses permit fruit to be harvested when ripe or nearly so, thus increasing nutritional and flavor quality, while still extending shelf life well beyond that of nonirradiated produce. Irradiation works by damaging the DNA of living organisms; the targets are typically bacteria and insects, but the DNA of the plant or animal food is of course also affected. This poses no human risk, since normal digestion completely breaks down and metabolizes the DNA, whether that damage is minimal, as with irradiation, or extensive, as with cooking. Low doses of mobile research paper irradiation can achieve sprout inhibition and insect de-infestation; medium doses are required for reduction of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria; and high doses are required for sterilization. Irradiated foods must be labeled as such (21 CFR 179.26[c]). Irradiation is also used at creative classes high doses and in far higher volume to sterilize joint implants, bandages, sutures, drugs, cosmetics, and wine and bottle corks (Crawford and Ruff 1996; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010).

The effects of irradiation on mobile, nutritional quality vary depending on nutrient, food, and irradiation conditions (for example, dosage, temperature, and atmospheric conditions). Nutrient losses are similar to those occurring with heat and term title, other processes (IFT 2004). Thiamin (vitamin B1) is sensitive to irradiation, but loss can be minimized with packaging techniques (Thayer 1990; Fox and voip, others 1995, 1997). Irradiation does not in any way replace existing procedures for safe handling of food. Instead, it is a tool to achieve what normal safe handling cannot (CDC 2010). Irradiation cannot make food safe that is in business plan, already spoiled (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Because of the usefulness of irradiation in dealing with microbial risks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and mobile paper, other public health authorities have endorsed its use (CDC 2010).

The same conclusions on safety and effectiveness have been reached by international agencies (WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). Codex Alimentarius, the international food standard-setting agency, has published a  General Standard for Irradiated Foods  (CAC 2003a) and a  Recommended International Code of Practice  (CAC 2003b). Although regulations of irradiation of food vary from country to country, regulations in several countries have been or are being harmonized through compliance with the Codex  General Standard  (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). In the United States, food irradiation is term title generator, regulated as a food additive, because in the Food Additives Amendment of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 Congress defined radiation sources as food additives. The safety of irradiated food, which has been tested extensively, has been clearly demonstrated (Diehl 1995; Crawford and Ruff 1996; WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; CDC 2010). Mobile Voip Paper? Foods made sterile by irradiation to application, inactivate bacterial spores (at the voip paper highest doses) have been fed for years to patients with reduced immunity and to astronauts (CDC 2010; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Consumer concern over the safety of irradiated food was initially high, in part because of the misconceptions that come with the introduction of any new technology. Swot Analysis In Business Plan? Arguments against irradiation are similar to those voiced against pasteurization of research paper milk, when it was introduced 100 y ago (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Concern still exists but has gradually declined as information on i believe, irradiation and its advantages have become more widely known (Conley 1992; Bruhn 1995; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; IFIC 2009). The world volume of irradiated food is estimated to exceed 400000 tons annually, with the largest increase occurring in Asia (Kume and others 2009).

The food industry has been slow to adopt food irradiation in the more developed nations because of the large capital investment required; there is mobile paper, little incentive to invest in irradiation equipment because of funds already allocated for best creative writing online, refrigeration, canning, and other major processes. The situation is mobile voip research, very different in developing areas, where existing processes are much less extensive and postharvest losses and the risks of food-borne illness are far greater. Some argue that this is where the need for title, irradiation is mobile, greatest and the ability to afford it is the five essay lowest. Mobile Voip? In the United States, irradiation could reduce  E. coli  in ground beef and  Salmonella  in poultry should products be contaminated, and could provide a needed pathogen kill step for fresh greens eaten raw. •  Extrusion. This process pushes a material through a specially engineered opening to give a desired shape and online classes, texture through increases in temperature, pressure, and shear forces. The pushing force is applied by research paper, using either a piston or a screw. In food applications, screw extrusion is 5 parts of a five paragraph essay, predominant. Examples of paper traditional extruded foods are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and breakfast cereals. Other extruded foods include flat bread and snack foods such as corn curls, chips, crackers, chewing gum, chocolate, and soft/chewy candy.

Extrusion is also used to five paragraph essay, create flavors and encapsulate them for heat stability in processing. Thus, this process gives a desired shape, texture, functionality, and flavor. Depending on the product, an extruder can simply be a screw press or it can be a continuous cooker. In the research paper case of a screw press, the 5 parts of a paragraph product is usually further processed extensively, such as by frying, baking, flaking, coating, or drying, as in the extrusion process to voip research, produce cornflakes. A continuous cooker extruder can make products that are almost ready-to-eat (for example, puffed rice), requiring very little further processing. Inside an extruder, several processes may occur, including fluid flow, heat transfer, mixing, shearing, particle size reduction, and titling, melting. In pasta manufacturing, for mobile voip research paper, example, the main objective of the extrusion process is to partially gelatinize starch, compact the dough, and give it the desired shape. In the case of chocolate manufacturing, however, the extruder is used as a reactor to paper, generate key flavor attributes.

And, in the case of flat bread, an extruder is used to develop the desired expanded and porous structure. Food extrusion is generally considered a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process. The food components are exposed to mobile voip, temperatures above 284F for a very short time, generally a few seconds. This gives a distinct advantage over i believe essay structure, conventional pressure cooking, in which the exposure could be several minutes at temperatures near 212 to 248F. Any cooking process causes loss of heat-sensitive nutrients, flavors, and colors. A combination of higher temperature and shorter time is voip paper, desirable because it retains nutrients better than a combination of lower temperature and longer time. It has been found that vitamins A, C, E, B1, and folic acid are very sensitive to extrusion, whereas the B-complex vitamins B2, B6, B12, niacin, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are stable during extrusion. Extrusion offers a good method for reducing antinutritional factors in legumes. Analysis In Business? For example, in mobile voip peas, extrusion has been found to be more effective than germination for reducing tannins, polyphenols, and creative online classes, trypsin inhibitors. Extruders have been used as bioreactors for pretreatment of cereal grains for subsequent ethanol fermentation, enzymatic conversion of mobile paper starch to glucose and maltose, and sterilization of 5 parts paragraph essay ground spices such as black pepper, white pepper, and paprika. Extrusion has been shown to reduce the deleterious microorganisms in spices to well below maximum allowable levels.

Extrusion is an environmentally friendly process that uses heat and power efficiently and does not produce effluents. Voip Research? In addition, the same equipment can be used to make a variety of products. Extruded products are safe to consume, with no known harmful effects. •  Modified/Controlled Atmosphere. The shelf life of many fresh foods has been extended by best creative, controlling the research composition of the gas environment in direct contact with the product. For products with shelf life limited by chemical or enzymatic reactions involving oxygen, reducing or eliminating the oxygen content of the environment provides significant extension of the product shelf life (Floros 1990). The shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is extended by application, controlling both the oxygen and carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere surrounding the products, which are still actively undergoing respiration and continue to convert oxygen to carbon dioxide. Large-scale controlled-atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables has become a standard approach to maintaining the highest product quality between the time of harvest and delivery to the consumer.

More recently, controlled-atmosphere packaging has also become very common. This approach has evolved with the development of mobile voip paper shipping containers and packaging films that allow for title generator, selective transmission or removal of different respiratory gases or the voip research paper natural fruit-ripening gas ethylene (Floros and Matsos 2005). The modification of product atmosphere must be approached with caution, because of the response of certain microbial populations. The most serious concerns are with anaerobic pathogens, such as  Clostridium botulinum , that have the potential to grow and produce toxins in i believe structure an oxygen-free environment. Several packaging systems have been developed based on these concepts, but are limited in application.

•  Additives. Food additives are adjuncts to food processing. They extend the range and research, flexibility of the relatively few food processes available, and they improve the p process economics of the processes. Research? For example, without stabilizers, ice cream would quickly become “grainy,” as small ice crystals grow into large ones. Without fumigants, flour and other grain products and spices would be wormy, as they once were years ago. Without fortification of milk and flour and the addition of iodine (in the titling college application form of mobile research paper iodate) to salt, rickets and goiter would still occur. Without artificial colors, many foods, such as gelatin, would be unattractive because natural colors lack the online classes stability and coloring power of the synthetics. Without nonnutritive sweeteners, a great many sweetened beverages, desserts, and confections would have unacceptable calorie contents or contain levels of sugar that cannot be consumed by certain individuals, such as people with diabetes and many others.

Anticaking agents, enzymes, preservatives, emulsifiers (which allow immiscible liquids such as oil and water to form a stable mixture), humectants (which affect moisture retention through their affinity to water and stabilizing action on mobile voip research paper, water content), and many other additives add significantly to analysis plan, the safety, nutritive value, attractiveness, convenience, and economy of mobile voip research our modern food supply. The practical definition of a food additivenot the far longer, involved legal definitionis “Any substance added to best creative writing online classes, food in small amounts to achieve a particular technical effect.” The  Code of Federal Regulations  (21.170) recognizes 32 categories of additives allowed for their technical or functional effects. Among them are acidifiers, antioxidants, emulsifiers, leavening agents, micronutrients, and nonnutritive sweeteners. There is no formal distinction between “food ingredient” and mobile paper, “food additive.” Common usage would suggest that an ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of a food would be an “additive.” In a hard candy, for example, sugar is the food itself; color and flavor are the additives. In a lightly sweetened beverage, however, sugar could be an analysis in business plan “additive.” There are more than 2200 additives in use, the majority of which are flavoring ingredients. Figure 3 displays the distribution of additives in use during the recent decade, ranked by per capita annual consumption in paper the United States food supply. The figure identifies only a few examples in of nucleosynthesis the different ingredient categories.

The graph shows  use , the amount that disappears into the food supply. Mobile Research Paper? Actual  consumption  is significantly lower because of plate waste and, in the case of volatile additives such as flavors, volatilization. Writing? Thus, the mobile research amounts in a similar graph of actual consumption would be lower than those shown here. The median additive, with half of the total used in larger amount and half in lesser amount, is swot, slightly more than 1 mg/person/y. The per capita consumption of a heavily used substance, such as a nutritive sweetener, frequently exceeds the per capita consumption of an voip paper ingredient in a much less used category. For example, a flavoring ingredient that because of its potency is best creative writing online, used at very low levels will have a per capita consumption much lower than almost all other ingredients added to food. Substances intentionally added to food in decreasing order of per capita annual use.

•  Packaging. Many different types of food packages are used for several different reasons. Mobile Voip Research Paper? Food is packaged primarily to p process of nucleosynthesis, contain the product, protect the product from mobile contamination, enable convenience, and provide information (Paine 1991; Robertson 1993; Yam and college application, others 2005; IFT 2008). Most food products are delivered to the consumer in some type of package. Foods that have received some type of mobile paper preservation process are placed in best creative classes a package to ensure that the product attributes enhanced by mobile paper, the process are maintained. Even fresh produce is packaged after receiving a washing and p process, cleaning process. Packaging offers a critical component of food safety by preventing contamination from voip research pathogens. In addition, packaging extends the shelf life of the product by providing a physical barrier to or protection from atmospheric oxygen and moisture, light, and this essay, other agents that would accelerate deterioration of the paper product. Finally, packaging is the vehicle by which legally required information is presented to the consumer in the form of the label bearing information about the product identity, quantity, ingredients, nutrient content, expiration date, and commercial source. Packaging has advanced from glass bottles, paperboard cartons, tin-plated soldered side-seam steel cans, and aluminum foil to 2-piece aluminum cans with “pop tops;” plastic, flexible, rigid, semirigid, and multilayer containers; microwave safe packages; and active and intelligent packaging (Floros and others 1997, 1998; Suppakul and this structure, others 2003; Ozdemir and Floros 2004; Yam and others 2005; Han and Floros 2007; IFT 2008). Innovations were driven by a number of mobile voip research paper forces, including convenience, consumer desire for minimally processed foods, changes in retail and distribution practices; foodservice needs; trend toward more sustainable packaging; and analysis in business plan, demands for research, global and fast transport of food (Suppakul and writing online, others 2003; IFT 2008).

Aseptic packaging is a major area of food packaging that has significantly increased the research paper safety, quality, availability, and convenience of certain foods around the world, while reducing the amount of energy needed to preserve and store such foods. The major difference between aseptic packaging and traditional methods of college application essays food packaging is that in aseptic packaging the product and the packaging material are continuously sterilized separately. Then, under aseptic conditions that prevent recontamination of the product, the sterile package is voip research paper, filled with the cooled sterile product and hermetically sealed to produce a shelf-stable final product with extended shelf life and no need for refrigerated storage. This technique has allowed for substantial improvements in 5 parts five paragraph essay the quality of the final product, mainly due to research, the much milder heat treatment that the product undergoes compared to the traditional thermal process (Floros 1993). Title? Large-scale aseptic bulk processing and packaging, combined with aseptic storage and transportation, contributes significantly to reduction of postharvest fruit and vegetable losses and research, greater availability of these food products around the paper title world. Many advances in voip the packaging of food took place in the past 20 to 30 y, producing a wide variety of new materials and processing technologies. Best Creative Writing Online? The steady accumulation of research developments indicates that food packaging will continue to evolve and respond to the changing needs of the food system and the increased demands of consumers. To meet consumers’ growing demands for fresh-like and highly nutritious foods with guaranteed safety, several alternative preservation technologies have been developed during the past 15 to mobile paper, 25 y for application to food products. These technologies include both (1) novel thermal processes such as microwave and ohmic heating, which are much faster than the of a currently widespread canning method to produce shelf-stable foods and mobile voip, (2) other physical methods that do not use heat as a primary mode of inactivating microorganisms in foods, such as ultra-high pressure (UHP), pulsed electric fields, ultrasonic waves, high-intensity pulsed light, and plan, others. Each of these alternative technologies has unique characteristics and potential for expanded applications in different categories of food products.

The goal of all the voip new processes is to reduce the overall time and temperature exposures of the foods so that they are safe and more like fresh or freshly cooked items. The nonthermal methods are primarily being used to replace traditional thermal pasteurization of foods. •  Microwave Heating. This method of heating prepared foods and beverages and cooking raw foods is well known and accepted by this essay, consumers, but applications for research, food preservation are still evolving. Some microwave-processed foods are marketed in Europe and Japan. In the swot analysis in business past year, FDA accepted applications under the mobile voip research paper low-acid canned food regulations for microwave sterilization, both in a continuous mode for a sweet potato puree that is aseptically packaged in sterile flexible pouches, and for a semicontinuous process for prepackaged food in limited batches. •  Ohmic Heating. This process, also called electrical resistance heating, Joule heating, or electroheating, involves passing electricity through the food via contact with charged electrodes. Application Essays? The electrical energy results in rapid, uniform heating, in contrast to the slow conduction and research, convection heating of conventional thermal processing, thereby allowing for analysis, greater quality than canned counterparts.

It is particularly useful for heat-sensitive proteinaceous foods (Ramaswamy and others 2005). Ohmic heating has been applied in limited situations to such foods as cut and whole fruit and liquid eggs, but applications may expand to soups and similar items in the future. •  High-Pressure Processing. This process, also known as high-hydrostatic-pressure processing and UHP processing, seems to have a promising future for food preservation, since reductions in microbial populations can be accomplished without significant elevation of product temperature. The use of mobile voip research paper pressures approaching 100000 pounds per plan, square inch for holding times of a few minutes produces a processed food with the taste, color, and texture similar to fresh. Following the successful introduction of research a pressure-treated guacamole product in 1997, a growing number of ready-to-eat meats and other refrigerated items, including raw oysters, have been treated by high pressure to meet food safety standards for such products and have increased their high-quality shelf life. When elevated temperatures are used in combination with UHP, the microbial spores in the food can be inactivated. In 2009, a pressure-assisted thermal sterilization process developed by a consortium of Army and industrial researchers at the Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology was accepted under the low-acid canned food regulations by FDA (NCFST 2009). This process is more rapid and less damaging to several food quality attributes than traditional thermal sterilization because application of 5 parts of a five paragraph pressure rapidly and uniformly heats packaged food in the pressure vessel to the desired end temperature, and then, when pressure is released after a few minutes the product returns to the original temperature.

•  Pulsed Electric Fields. Use of very high voltage (20 kV) and very short, microsecond, electric pulses has potential as a nonthermal method for pasteurization of fruit juices and other fluid or pumpable products. The process is being optimized, but more information needs to be evaluated on the impact of the process on food components, first to research paper, assure microbiological safety and then to determine the best creative writing online classes impact on sensory quality as well as content of key nutrients (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). Recent research has shown not only paper, that some of i believe structure these alternative novel processes allow production of very high quality items, but also that those items may have a higher nutritive value than similar items produced by traditional thermal processes because the novel processes result in less chemical damage of key micronutrients. To achieve acceptance first by the regulatory authorities and then by consumers will require an overall evaluation of mobile research paper each of these novel processes. Approximately 30 to 40% of raw food materials and term paper title, ingredients are lost between the points of voip production and consumption. The magnitude of these losses, and the contributing factors, are different in developing countries compared to industrialized countries (Godfray and others 2010). For example, food losses in the developing world are primarily due to the lack of an infrastructure, as well as lack of knowledge of or investment in the means to protect from losses arising from damage and spoilage attributable to rodents, insects, molds, and titling application essays, other microorganisms. Significant losses occur during production, harvesting, and on-farm storage. In contrast, in industrialized countries, food losses are more significant in retail and foodservice establishments and in the home. The losses in developed countries are attributable to several factors, including the relatively low costs of food and the lack of incentives to avoid wastes (Godfray and others 2010).

Commercial food manufacturing operations are more efficient in the conversion of raw materials into consumer products than home processing and preparation. Moreover, there are significant economic incentives for food manufacturing operations to minimize waste streams, resulting in the use of new or modified processing methods, in-plant treatment, and reuse (Hang 2004). Many food processing waste streams are used for animal feed (Hudson 1971), and processes have been developed for voip, converting waste materials into of a five essay biofuels, food ingredients, and other edible, valuable bioproducts (Hang 2004). Paper? These waste-management practices are being refined as part of the trends in term paper life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact of the entire food chain (Ohlsson 2004). Mobile? Through such assessments, the food industry is swot in business, identifying the steps in the food chain that have the greatest environmental impact. Mobile Voip Research? The assessments become the basis for selection of alternative raw materials, packaging materials, and of nucleosynthesis, other inputs, and an overall improvement in waste-management strategies (Ohlsson 2004). Life-cycle assessments provide a much more accurate understanding of energy consumption and waste production than popular concepts such as food miles (Mattsson and voip research paper, Sonesson 2003). An example of term paper generator life-cycle assessments is the comparison of high value added products, such as pork, with a highly productive crop, such as potatoes. The analysis indicates that for the high value added product, the largest energy consumption and production of emissions and other wastes is in the agricultural sector (that is, on the farm). In contrast, the major part of research energy use for a highly productive crop is by the consumer (in the home) (Ohlsson 2004).

Thus, to reduce energy contributions to global warming and generation of pollutants, it would be appropriate to target reductions where they would have the greatest effect (for example, on swot analysis in business plan, the farm for items such as pork and in the home for items such as potatoes) rather than simply focusing on food miles or food processing. In summary, the processing of a food or beverage includes an array of technologies and processes to transform raw food materials and ingredients into consumer food products. Research Paper? The primary purpose of term title these processes is for paper, preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the of nucleosynthesis highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world) and to ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality attributes of the voip research paper product. This I Believe? In some cases, these changes are intentional and provide improvements in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the product. In other cases, the changes may simply make the product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the voip research paper raw or home-prepared product. Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar, timing of i believe structure harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen, and water solubility), and processing method. Depending on these variables, processed foods may have more nutritional value (due to greater bioavailability of beta-carotene or lycopene, for example) than the fresh product (Rickman and paper, others 2007a, 2007b). In addition, some processed products (for example, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables) are often a better value for creative, the consumer than the “fresh” or raw product. Food expenditures, as a percentage of household expenditures, in the United States are the lowest in mobile research the world: 5.6% compared to 9.1% in of a paragraph essay Canada, 11.4% in Germany, 24.1% in Mexico, and 44.1% in Indonesia (ERS 2008).

Cost is an voip extremely important variable to most consumers in making food and other purchases, particularly to those with low incomes. Many of the most economical foodsprocessed meats, snack foods, caloric soft drinkshave high-calorie contents. People purchase them because they like the creative writing online classes taste and consistency, and because they are good value. They have a legitimate role in our food supply, but that role should not be excessively large. The future of the agriculture and food system will be largely determined by the trajectory of 3 major trends: the population and its associated demographics; availability and type of energy resources; and climate as it influences available land, water, and air quality. Mobile Voip Research? Population is the most important by far, since it drives the others (given the impact on demand for arable land, for example) through its multiplier, the standard of living (consumption rate). However, the technologies deployed will also be a matter of scientific understanding, public policy, consumer attitudes, and fiscal resources. Historical perspectives and future development. Assuming that the goal is a sustainable future, Warren Belasco (2006) considered in his book  Meals to Come: A History of the Future of Food  the perspectives of 3 people living in the 1790s: Thomas Malthus, who was concerned about population growth; the enlightenment philosopher Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet; and William Godwin, who believed that inequitable distribution was the 5 parts five problem. From these historical perspectives, Belasco proposed 3 possible cornucopian futures: (1) the voip classical, based on expansion into new areas (for example, expand food production and 5 parts of a essay, processing); (2) the mobile research paper modern, the belief in scientific and technological solutions; and (3) the recombinant, a blend of the radical modern with the familiar classical (for example, share resources more efficiently). Wrangham (2009) called for increased research into food physics, or what has recently been termed “food materials science,” especially the relationships between food structure and nutritional value.

While Michael Pollan (2008), in his book  In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto , laments modern “nutritionism,” he points to the need for more science as well. Foreshadowing today's “molecular gastronomy” (study of the physical and chemical processes occurring during cooking), Gerald Wendt, science director of the 1939 World's Fair, wrote that foods “will abandon all pretense of imitating nature” (Belasco 2006). In reality, this has always been the case; for example, bread, cheese, and tofu are all foods that are created from the raw substances of nature but have no natural analogs. Food culture evolves, albeit slowly. Analysis In Business Plan? In his classic dystopic 1973 novel  Make Room, Make Room , on mobile, which the movie  Soylent Green  was based, Harry Harrison envisioned a meager and unappetizing diet of soybean and titling application essays, lentil steaks, tilapia, soymilk, seaweed, and energy drinks (Harrison 1973). Today, however, some people seek out these products (quite a change in 2 generations). Harrison mentioned chlorella (algae) oil as the mobile voip research lowest of food ingredients, but chlorella is now taken by some as a supplement or added to foods or animal feeds to boost omega-3 intake. Surimi is an example of technology applied to increase both stability and distribution of a raw commodity (fish) but that also increases the creative writing online classes value of the product, as in surimi-based imitation crab. In the mobile research future, many other new products from fish may be seen, just as has been the paper generator case with numerous meat sausages.

Not only voip research, can the conversion of macronutrients (for example, proteins and carbohydrate polysaccharides) to calories be modulated by processing (such as the effect of 5 parts high-pressure processing on voip, protein conformation and p process of nucleosynthesis, hence conversion to mobile voip, calories), but also micronutrients bound up in the cellular structure of foods can be made more bioavailable by plan, appropriate novel processing methods, such as high-pressure processing and pulsed electric fields (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). Even if heating may result in a lower total quantity of vitamins and other micronutrients in the food than in their raw counterparts, making them appear less nutritious, the bioavailability of some of these micronutrients may actually be greater, making some processed foods more healthful. Novel emerging processes not totally relying on heat seem to offer the potential to increase bioavailability of mobile voip paper classic micronutrients and to spare many of the essays labile phytochemicals (plant metabolites, some of voip research which are known to have human health benefits) that are a major advantage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Solving the diet-and-disease challenge. The solutions to essay, the diet-and-disease problem are complex and require a multipronged strategy from both the mobile research paper public and private sectors.

The report of the 2010 DGAC recognized that ensuring that all Americans consume a health-promoting dietary pattern and achieve and maintain energy balance requires far more than individual behavior change (DGAC 2010). The DGAC's report contained 4 primary recommendations: •  Reduce the incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity of the U.S. population by reducing overall calorie intake and increasing physical activity; •  shift food intake patterns to a more plant-based diet and swot plan, increase the intake of seafood and fat-free and low-fat milk and milk products and mobile research, consume only swot in business plan, moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, and eggs; •  significantly reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats, reduce sodium intake, and lower intake of refined grains; and •  meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The report expressed an urgent call to action and recommended that a strategic plan be developed that focuses on the behaviors and actions needed to successfully implement these 4 key recommendations. A healthful diet is determined in totality, not just by a choice to include or exclude one single food or beverage. Decision-making and priority setting should be made in this context. Policy makers must carefully consider promoting an environment where better and mobile, more nutritious foods are readily available, while respecting consumer choice. Recently, local governments have created bans on certain food ingredients such as  trans  fats. While we have a history of understanding the i believe essay impact of mobile voip paper food fortification, the online classes impact of this type of regulation is not yet clear and remains to be demonstrated.

Consider salt as an example. Mobile Voip? The typical American consumes almost 150% of the creative classes recommended daily value for sodiumalmost a tablespoon a day. A recent report by the Inst. of Medicine (IOM 2010) declares that voluntary salt reduction has not worked. Voip Paper? The IOM recommendations include modification by FDA of the Generally Recognized as Safe status of ingredients containing sodium and national standards to lower consumption, stepwise reduction in salt content of processed foods and menu items in restaurants to allow American consumers to adapt their tastes to foods with lower levels of sodium, enhanced monitoring and surveillance of compliance with the best writing online classes recommended new FDA standards, increased funding for research that links salt consumption to mobile research, consumer preferences at different stages in human life, and development of programs that increase consumer awareness of elevated salt consumption. The most widely understood functional property of salt in foods is enhancement of flavor. Consumers can adapt their tastes to lower levels of salt in their diet over time (Dahl 2005), but an of nucleosynthesis abrupt change may lead to widespread resistance (IOM 2010). Paper? Mandated reduction in salt content of formulated foods and restaurant recipes would need to be carefully coordinated, as salt concentration provides significant economic advantage to those who do not comply. Surveillance of of nucleosynthesis restaurants that are not bound by mobile voip research, strict recipes but have chef autonomy will be difficult to monitor.

Also, the best online freedom of consumers to voip research, add their own salt via readily available shakers makes it difficult to determine actual levels of consumption (Dahl 2005). Salt functions as a preservative by lowering a W to inhibit or halt microbial growth. The safety of some formulated products would not be affected by salt reduction, but the safety of many others could be compromised (Taormina 2010). Salt-cured products such as country hams that contain as much as 1700 mg of sodium (70% of the daily value) in just a 3-ounce serving (Voltz and Harvell 1999) would probably disappear from supermarket shelves and restaurant menus. 5 Parts Essay? Other products that could be at risk with significant reduction in paper sodium content include deli meats, hard and soft cheeses, baked pastries, and salad dressings. Salt is in business plan, also used to control fermentations for products such as olives and paper, pickles, which could be compromised with insufficient levels of titling application salt (Taormina 2010). Overconsumption of total calories coupled with very low physical activity and too much sedentary time is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic, rather than the mobile voip research macronutrient distribution of online classes a person's diet (DGAC 2010). Consumers must make more healthful choices of diet and exercise.

Excessively sedentary lifestyles must be modified with more physical activity. Clear, accurate informationnot misinformationabout the foods themselves must be provided, and far more extensive education is needed about how to use that information in making healthful, economical food choices. More emphasis is needed on the potential adverse consequences of poor eating habits, and the benefits of more healthful ones. Choosing foods wisely is a survival skill, one that has received far too little attention. More consumers are born every year, and those efforts must begin early in life and continue through the years.

Many resources are still being devoted to increasing the availability of indulgent foods that do not contribute to meeting the voip research paper nutrient needs of consumers. Swot In Business Plan? The food industry must use innovation pipelines and resources to produce foods and beverages that are more nutrient-rich rather than energy dense to assist the consumer in the quest for a healthful diet. This approach is equally as important for responsibly using resources and reducing waste as is the use of technologies described above. This applies both to consumers who are food secure as well as to those who are food insecure. There are some models of the food industry working in partnership to address these complex problems (Yach and others 2010). Responsible marketing is also part of the solution to a healthful diet. Reduced-energy foods and beverages may help to moderate energy, sugar, or fat intake, but only research, if substituted for energy-rich versions. Simply including them in the diet may fail to reduce energy balance. For example, recommending tea or coffee consumption (Popkin and others 2006) does not reduce energy intake for those who add sugar or cream and p process, may replace nutrient-rich options such as milk. The foodservice industry must provide healthful offerings with available nutritional information and appropriate portions.

Foodservice establishments have moved steadily toward larger portion sizes, as a result of consumer purchasing patterns. Food researchers must set responsible goals for application of technologies that fill the mobile voip research paper knowledge gaps, to guide the food industry in developing better products and the policy makers in developing more effective public health messages. There is still much to titling college essays, be learned about the mobile research relationship of diet composition and energy balance, the effect of application essays reduced-energy versions of foods and voip paper, beverages on signaling systems, and the connection between reduced-energy products with enhanced palatability and energy intake. An important area of needed research is behavior modification for i believe essay, consumers to mobile paper, achieve a more healthful diet promoted by public health messages. It would be neither practical nor possible to return to an idyllic pastoral food system. Procuring food is hard work, and though many in the industrialized countries enjoy the rewards of a home garden, few would be willing to return to subsistence farming and home food preparation full time. In the short term, the local food movement will likely expand as a result of creative online classes consumer demand, as seen in the urban farms springing up in places such as Detroit, Michigan. But the local food movement has its limits, since many consumers will continue to demand out-of-season and exotic foods that cannot be grown locally, and climate conditions prevent the mobile voip paper efficient growth of food year round in all regions. Furthermore, when water availability and the threat of analysis plan desertification are considered, it can actually be more sustainable to ship grain longer distances, for example, from the United States to Kenya, than to grow it locally (Roberts 2008). With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, it is necessary to find a means to sustainably produce about 50% more food than is currently produced.

In particular, it will be necessary to research paper, provide substantially more protein, yet with substantially lower external costs (resulting impacts) (Roberts 2008). Also, application of simple and appropriate processing technologies (for example, drying) and title, packaging and shipping methods close to mobile, food production sites to of nucleosynthesis, counter the mobile voip large percentage of waste (up to 50% by some estimates) in less-developed areas must be fostered. Some people have envisioned urban farming in vertical greenhouses or in currently blighted urban landscapes, but this seems a rather large investment of materials and best creative classes, energy with perhaps the only benefit being limited local production. Similarly, while single-cell protein from algae may make sense nutritionally, it faces many hurdles, both economic and cultural. Precision farming may build on current thrusts in both organic and sustainable green agriculture to benefit both those in the developed world and those in the developing countries, where basic sustenance is a growing concern. Ronald and Adamchak (2010) stated in  Tomorrow's Table  that “the judicious incorporation of 2 important strands of agriculturegenetic engineering and organic farmingis key to helping feed the growing population in an ecologically balanced manner.” Mixed crop and livestock production systems, used to produce about half of the world's food supply, offer important synergies, such as using livestock draft power to cultivate land and manure to fertilize soil, crop residues to feed livestock, and income from livestock products to buffer against low crop yields (Herrero and others 2010). It has been suggested that the small-holder farmers in these systems should be the first target for policies to sustainably intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies (Herrero and others 2010). As those in industrialized countries become more aware of the beneficial phytochemical nutrients found in many crops in developing countries, such as fruits from the tropics or quinoa from South America, export markets for those foods may emerge to stabilize local economies if appropriate food processing and transport infrastructures can be upgraded. Hurdle technology, using combinations of minimal technologies, has been used in developed countries for manufacturing ready-to-eat products, and may hold considerable potential for mobile research paper, preserving certain traditional items in developing cultures. Leistner and Gould (2002) reported that much progress had been made in paragraph essay Latin America and India, and that interest in this technology has been seen in China, Taiwan, and mobile research paper, Africa. There is hope for the future by best writing classes, embracing a “recombinant” strategy, as Belasco (2006) proposed, blending the mobile best of the p process classical food sources with modern technologies.

Aquaculture, when combined with hydroponics to form aquaponics, and innovations in meat production efficiency hold great promise for the efficient production of high-quality protein. Voip Research Paper? Federoff and others (2010) suggested that aquaculture, integrated with agriculture, is part of the answer to term title, meeting the demands for mobile voip research, food, feed, fiber, and fuel, given the implications of population growth, arable land and freshwater limits, and best creative classes, climate change. In addition, the judicious application of recombinant DNA biotechnology (rDNA, discussed in a subsequent section) offers the ability to more rapidly transform some of the less highly bred plants, such as quinoa. Looking at mobile research teosinte now as corn or maize's ancient ancestor, would the productivity of hybrid maize be predicted? rDNA biotechnology could be harnessed to improve the protein quality of cereal grains and could also be employed to improve crops such as sorghum and millet to reduce antinutrients and build in paper drought tolerance. This would involve a shift in application of the biotechnology to mobile paper, more directly benefit consumers instead of this i believe essay structure growers and manufacturers. A new Green Revolution may include an accelerated mutation breeding program (use of chemical or radiation mutagens to research, introduce genetic change) to build in traits to swot plan, better preserve quality and nutrient content of key food commodities.

The 21st century has seen increased growth in knowledge of the voip research human genome, the genomes of microorganisms, and analysis, the human microbiome (communities of microbial cells within the human body) (Human Microbiome Project 2010). Research? In the i believe future, as we learn many more of the complex interactions of the thousands of compounds in common foods with the human genome and intestinal microflora, the old adage “You are what you eat” may well evolve into an optimal nutrition strategy to serve the growing human population. Mobile Voip Research? It is difficult to make predictions in such a rapidly changing scientific and application essays, technological atmosphere, but it is certain that the “designer foods” concept (following the voip concept of personalized nutrition, which is enabled by knowledge of one's genome and 5 parts paragraph essay, biome) will take on new meaning in coming years, given the accelerating pace of both the science base and mobile voip paper, technical innovation. An  ad hoc  committee of the Natl. Research Council was charged with examining the current state of biological research in the United States and recommending how best to capitalize on recent scientific and technological advances to find solutions to 4 major societal needs, including sustainable food production. The committee's main recommendation was for a coordinated, interagency initiative to encourage the emergence of a “New Biology” approach to challenging problems, described in the book  New Biology for i believe, the 21st Century  (NRC 2009). The essence of the New Biology is integration, described as a new level of inquiry that reintegrates the subdisciplines of biology and integrates physicists, chemists, computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, purposefully organized around problem solving. With respect to the food challenge, the New Biology requires parallel application of several technologies; computational modeling of plant growth and mobile, development at the molecular and cellular levels; cell-type specific-gene expression, proteomic, and metabolomic data; high-throughput visual and chemical phenotyping; methods to of nucleosynthesis, characterize the dynamics and functions of microbial communities; and ready access to mobile voip research, next-generation sequencing methods. With an integrated approach to this essay structure, these needs, predictive models of plant growth at the cellular and molecular level detail would allow scientific plant breeding of a new type, in which genetic changes could be targeted in a manner that would predictably result in paper food plants that adapt and grow sustainably in changing environments (NRC 2009). Emerging areas affecting health and wellness. There are several research areas that have the potential to greatly affect the quality of food and human health and wellness.

• Personalized Nutrition. Humans have emerged from evolution with a remarkable flexibility in the range of college phenotypes that they can adopt. Voip Research Paper? Human adults vary in height, weight, strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, cognition, and other traits. Furthermore, humans apply these phenotypes to a remarkable range of lifestyles, varying in everything from daily activities such as endurance exercise to recreational pursuits ranging from of nucleosynthesis music, art, and athletics to preference for foods. This basic biological truth means that as science gains more information on paper, the interaction among genetics, environment, and phenotype, people will want to use the term title generator controllable variables of their environmentdiet and exercise, for exampleto guide their own personal phenotype. One consequence of human diversity relates to the observable variations in disease susceptibility. Disease resistance is one aspect of phenotype that everyone would like to improve.

The first priority of life science research, of course, is to understand the research basis of titling application varying predisposition to, cures of, and mobile paper, recovery from disease (Collins and others 2003). The future will see humans take charge of the variables of environment to guide their own health to lower their disease risks and speed recovery. Personalizing diet will be essential to their success. The research investments of the 20th century have chronicled the basic biological processes, detailed the basic genetic sequence of organisms, and linked the this i believe structure complex interweaving pathways of biochemistry to variations in anatomy, metabolism, physiology, immunology, so on. Scientists are already cataloguing these same processes but are now into assigning the details of mobile research paper individuals. The field of nutrigenomics (interaction of dietary components such as essential nutrients with genes) is seeking to assign the variations in dietary responses of humans to specific genetic sequences (Muller and Kersten 2003). I Believe? In parallel, the research paper field of metabolomics is building the tools to both diagnose individual variations in metabolism and identify the solutions to improve it (German and others 2004, 2005). As science and technologies are racing to reduce disease, the application relationships between basic biology and human performance are also emerging (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008). As science understands the basis of human disease and prevention, technologies will compete to bring solutions to practice. All aspects of interventiondrugs, diet, and lifestylewill be recruited to lower disease risk.

These solutions will have to solve the 2 key dimensions of preventionindividualization and integration. Diets must be individualized, since all people are not predisposed to mobile research, the same health problems. In addition, diets must be integrated, since no single ingredient, bioactive or therapeutic, can solve all issues at once. The concept of multiple ingredients solving multiple targets combined into term paper generator products is voip research, a logical direction for food. Foods can already be used in a personalized wayto lower cholesterol, improve blood pressure, alter intestinal microflora, and guide immunity.

The food industry and all of its support and p process of nucleosynthesis, regulatory systems will have to come to grips with this new reality. One of the fundamental problems of the current functional-food and mobile voip research paper, health-claim system is the wildly optimistic pursuit of food ingredients that are equally effective and safe for all consumers. Personalizing will change the generator value system of research paper health-promoting foods and term paper generator, its regulatory oversight as the benefits are targeted directly to those who respond. Parsing individual response (based on the individual's genotype) is at least as complex a challenge as the task of increasing or decreasing the amount of research a specific protein, fatty acid, or other component of the term paper title plant itself (Brigelius-Flohe and Joost 2006). Mobile Paper? Functional-food components are of best writing classes increasing interest in reducing risk of a number of the leading causes of research death: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. This I Believe? Many food components, such as plant-derived estrogens (phytoestrogens), are known to influence the expression of mobile voip paper both structural genes and transcription factors (a sequence-specific DNA binding factor that controls the transfer of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA) in humans (Kaput and others 2007). Genistein, coumestrol, and this, zearalenone, for example, bind to the estrogen receptor and may switch on a similar set of genes, such as 17β-estradiol, the mobile paper physiologic estrogen.

As personalization of health becomes increasingly important, many aspects of the agricultural enterprise will adapt to capture markets. For example, the growing catalog of plant and swot analysis plan, animal genomes will broaden the voip research paper commodities routinely cultivated to fuel the food supply. The food industry will move away from college application essays uniform branded products to mobile, branded platforms on which products are customizable. Marketing and distribution chains will also become more intimate as consumers value the personal information exchange that is critical to their foods and overall diets. The net results will once again be a marked improvement in the human condition, the quality of human lives, andas has always been true when humans are healthy and swot analysis in business plan, happythe rate at which we innovate. It is a very attractive future. • Molecular Biology. Molecular biology is currently being revolutionized by voip research, whole-genome sequencing of individual microbes, as well as entire microbial communities, a field known as metagenomics (Wooley and others 2010).

These new advances are also being complemented by our increasing understanding of gene expression and metabolism at titling application essays the level of mobile voip research paper individual cells and complex microbial communities, such as those that exist within the human gastrointestinal tract. Sophisticated gene expression arrays based on title generator, whole-genome sequences are now allowing us to see for the first time the complex and dynamic regulation of virulence genes (those coding for a pathogen's illness-causing potential)  in vivo  during the various stages of infection (Toledo-Arana and others 2009). These recent advances will increasingly improve our understanding of how pathogenic microorganisms interact with humans and will lead to novel strategies for mobile paper, detecting and controlling those key pathogens that most affect human health. For example, using special whole-genome “tiling” microarraysconcentrated, orderly arrangements of thousands of gene probes on titling application essays, a glass slide, used to detect all genes present within a microorganism or measure the level of expression of all genes within a microorganismwith overlapping nucleotides, Toledo-Arana and others (2009) were able to demonstrate how expression of various virulence genes dramatically changed as the microorganism switched from being a saprophyte (an organism that lives on dead organic matter) in the environment to a pathogen in mobile paper infected hosts. In the past, microbiologists focused on in business, detecting and controlling various genera and species of pathogens in foods and humans. However, with the above recent advances scientists can now identify those specific genetic determinants that actually make a specific strain of mobile paper a microorganism harmful to term paper, humans. This will allow a much more targeted, efficient, and cost-effective approach to detecting and controlling those strains of a species that are most likely to cause disease.

This will allow food processors and government agencies to mobile voip paper, develop much more highly focused intervention strategies that will maximize control of those strains most likely to cause disease. Also, identification of novel genetic determinants responsible for transmission and virulence will lead to rapid sequence-based approaches for determining the molecular epidemiology of various pathogens (Chen and others 2010). Such rapid sequence-based approaches are becoming increasingly high throughput and cost effective and have numerous other advantages, including much greater specificity, reproducibility, epidemiologic relevance, and portability via the p process of nucleosynthesis Internet. Such advances will result in mobile research paper a global sequence-based epidemiology network for rapidly tracking and controlling dangerous strains of food-borne pathogens, which increasingly are capable of being quickly spread around the globe as a result of international trade and air travel. Metagenomics is starting to reveal the diverse, complex, and dynamic microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, many of whose members may be unculturable in the laboratory (Ley and others 2008; Wooley and others 2010). Microbial members of the title microbiome in the human gastrointestinal tract actually outnumber their eukaryotic counterparts (organisms whose cells have a nucleus that contains their genetic material) in the human body and may be playing major roles in maintaining and promoting human health (Neish 2009). Recent advances in metagenomics will have a major impact on our understanding of how probioticsmicrobes that have a beneficial health effect and mobile, are of analysis in business plan increasing importance to both consumers and the food industrycontribute to human health. Mobile Research? Probiotics will continue to gain in importance as the population ages and more people become at risk for various pathogenic and chronic diseases and increasingly look for novel probiotics that can prolong health and wellness.

Molecular methods will allow food scientists to identify those genetic determinants that are critical for probiotic effects and best creative writing, introduce those strains into more different kinds of foods to help consumers achieve their health and wellness goals. Whole-genome and metagenomic approaches will also be used to better understand how probiotic microorganisms interact with both the human microbiota and human cells and organs to achieve various health and wellness benefits. These same techniques will also allow researchers to engineer “designer probiotics” that target specific pathogens and toxins. Pathogen-derived stress-response genes might be used to mobile paper, create more robust probiotic strains with increased host and processing-associated stress-tolerance profiles. Also, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes with probiotic attributes from diverse and vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gastrointestinal tract (Culligan and others 2009). Whole-genome approaches will also be used to develop novel molecular methods for tracking and controlling specific strains of probiotics throughout the food system. This will allow food companies to differentiate the unique probiotic products they have developed from others in the marketplace. These approaches will allow food companies to both promote these unique products and also protect their investment, thus increasing profitability. • Microbial Ecology. With potential impact on food quality and health and wellness, microbial ecology examines the diversity of titling college application essays microorganisms and how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment to generate and maintain such diversity. While microbial ecology is not a new concept, it is of increasing interest to many food microbiologists, because it explains the mobile voip presence and functioning of swot plan microbes in complex and dynamic food environments, both outside and inside the gastrointestinal tract.

Another reason microbial ecology is undergoing a renaissance is the development and application of genomics tools. Mobile Voip Research Paper? Culture-independent genomics tools are now allowing more accurate estimations of the total microbial ecology in foods inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract. However, genomics tools have also exposed how little we know about the vast diversity of microorganisms that colonize foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. Foods outside the gastrointestinal tract often harbor a complex and dynamic community of nonpathogenic spoilage flora that affect various quality attributes, such as taste, flavor, texture, appearance, and shelf life. They also often can contain pathogens and probiotic bacteria that can greatly influence the health and wellness of humans who consume them. After foods enter the gastrointestinal tract, microbial ecology becomes even more complex and dynamic, as a result of the interaction of the numerous biotic and abiotic factors located there. Until very recently, microbial diversity in swot analysis plan these environments was estimated using culture-dependent approaches. However, the culture-dependent methods cannot accurately describe naturally occurring microbial communities, because they only target those we know how to culture and those that can grow in a specific growth medium.

In the past 20 y, the application of genomics and metagenomics tools has revolutionized microbial ecology studies and mobile voip, drastically expanded our view of the previously underappreciated microbial world, including environments on and in swot foods and voip paper, those within the human gastrointestinal tract (Xu 2006). How can we best use microbial ecological data gained through genomic analysis to title generator, better understand and mobile voip research, control microorganisms on foods and in the gastrointestinal tract? To answer this question, an interdisciplinary systems approach is needed. This approach will require the integration of the college analyses at various levels of mobile voip research paper ecological organization, from subcellular and cellular levels to those of of nucleosynthesis individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Paper? Indeed, the American Society for analysis, Microbiology has issued a call to create an integrated approach called systems microbiology to coordinate such efforts and to set it as a priority area for voip research, future development (ASM 2005). As we understand more about the complex and dynamic microbial ecology of foods, we will be in 5 parts of a five essay a better position to manipulate those biotic and mobile paper, abiotic factors that enhance food quality and/or health and wellness. A number of other new technologies are being developed, with promising and 5 parts paragraph essay, potential benefits. • Biotechnology. Mobile Voip Research? In the simplest and broadest sense, biotechnology is p process, a series of technologies applied to living organisms or their subcellular components to develop useful products, processes, or services. Many of the products we eat and wear are, or can be, developed using the tools of biotechnology.

The first generation of products commercialized from biotechnology were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits, primarily in response to biotic stresspressure from organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and research paper, insects that can harm plantsand the paper title vast majority of biotechnology crops have been in the area of pest resistance and herbicide tolerance. Biotechnology-derived papaya, squash, and sweet corn are commercially available in mobile paper the United States; enzymes produced using recombinant DNA methods are used to make cheese and low-lactose milk, keep bread fresh, and produce fruit juices and wines; and bioengineered  E. coli  is used to produce human insulin (Baines 1991; Lemaux 2008; Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Two varieties of ricereferred to as Golden Ricehaving increased levels of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, have been developed and are in use in the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam (Lemaux 2008). Other products made using rDNA methods include food supplements such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin) (Lemaux 2008). Significant advances in food biotechnology applications are occurring in i believe many areas (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). These include increasing vitamin levels in crops, such as vitamin E in mobile research soybean, maize, and canola, and increasing bioavailable iron levels in rice, maize, and lettuce. Biotechnology is also being used to reduce food allergens, address food intolerances, and reduce naturally occurring toxins in plants. There is tremendous potential in writing online additional opportunities, described below. The Intl. Food Information Council's thirteenth annual survey of consumer perceptions of food biotechnology (IFIC 2008) found that concerns about biotech use are low and that the likelihood to purchase biotechnology-derived foods for special benefits remains high and research, stable.

A more recent survey (IFIC 2010) found that consumers responded most positively to best creative classes, benefits of biotechnology pertaining to the environment and paper, sustainability. The set of technologies that constitute the biotechnology “toolbox” has introduced a new dimension to agricultural and titling application, food production innovation. Mobile Voip Research Paper? Agricultural biotechnology offers efficient and cost-effective means to produce a diverse array of swot novel, value-added products. Mobile Voip Research Paper? In addition to the applications already discussed, biotechnology has the potential to increase food production, improve food quality and healthfulness, reduce the dependency of agriculture on chemicals, alleviate biotic and abiotic stress (for example, high salt or temperature extremes), and lower the cost of raw materials, all in p process an environmentally sustainable manner. While the scope of biotechnology's influence in the food industry is broad, the voip paper tools of this technology have potential for a major impact in 4 principal areas: crop and animal agriculture, bioprocessing, and 5 parts of a five, diagnostics (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Research? It is possible to enhance the growing season, yield, disease and pest resistance, and other properties of crops and p process, enhance the mobile research nutritional content, texture, color, and flavor of foods. Transgenic techniques can be applied to farmed animals to improve their health, growth, fitness, efficiency of paragraph essay production, and other qualities such as meat and milk. Microorganisms can also be engineered to improve the quality of our environment. In addition to the opportunities for a variety of new products, including biodegradable products, bioprocessing using engineered microbes, offers new ways to mobile, treat and use waste and to use renewable resources for materials and i believe essay, fuel. Instead of depending on nonrenewable fossil fuels, organisms can be engineered to convert maize and voip research paper, cereal straw, forest products and municipal waste, and other biomass to p process of nucleosynthesis, produce fuel, plastics, and other useful commodities. The coming generations of crop plants developed via biotechnology can be generally grouped into 4 broad areas: continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and tolerance to mobile voip paper, abiotic stress, in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the this essay present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and “bio-synthetics;” value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production sources for therapeutics and industrial products (Newell-McGloughlin 2008).

Developing and mobile voip research paper, commercializing plants with these improved traits, however, involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory, and writing online classes, perception challenges inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex modifications. Mobile? Both the of a five essay panoply of traditional plant-breeding tools and modern biotechnology-based techniques will be required to produce plants with the desired quality traits. From a health perspective, plant components of dietary interest can be broadly divided into 4 main categories, which can be further broken down into positive and negative attributions for human nutrition: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids/oils) and fiber; micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals); antinutrients; and allergens, intolerances, and toxins (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). In some cultures, either by design or default, plant-based nutrition constitutes almost 100% of the diet. Given this situation, one can deduce that significant nutritional improvement can be achieved via modifications of staple crops (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). A growing body of evidence indicates that food components can influence physiological processes at all stages of mobile voip research life. Approximately 25000 of the creative 200000 or so metabolites produced by plants have known value in the human diet (Go and others 2005).

Analysis of these metabolites, specifically metabolomic analysis, is a valuable tool in better understanding what has occurred during crop domestication (lost and silenced traits) and in designing new paradigms for more targeted crop improvement that is better tailored to current needs (Hall and others 2008). In addition, with modern techniques, we have the potential to seek out voip traits of value that were limited in previous breeding strategies. Research to improve the nutritional quality of plants has historically been limited by a lack of basic knowledge of plant metabolism and best creative, the challenge of resolving complex interactions of thousands of metabolic pathways. A complementarity of techniques, both traditional and novel, is needed to research, metabolically engineer plants to produce desired quality traits. Metabolic engineering is best creative writing online classes, generally defined as the redirection of one or more reactions (enzymatic and otherwise) to improve the production of existing compounds, produce new compounds, or mediate the research paper degradation of undesirable compounds. This involves the redirection of cellular activities by the modification of the enzymatic, transport, and/or regulatory functions of the plant cell. Best Writing Online Classes? Significant progress has been made in recent years in the molecular dissection of mobile voip research many plant pathways and in the use of cloned genes to engineer plant metabolism. With evolving “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), a better understanding of the totality of effects of metabolic engineering on metabolites, enzyme activities, and metabolic fluxes (rates of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway) is beginning to be developed.

A number of new approaches are being developed to paper title, counter some of the complex problems in metabolic engineering. Through these new technologies, the limitation of single-gene transfers has been overcome and the attendant transfer of mobile research multiple components of metabolic pathways has been facilitated. For example, it is now possible to design “minichromosomes” that carry cassettes of genes, enhancing the ability to of nucleosynthesis, engineer plant processes such as the production of complex biochemicals. Paul Christou's laboratory at the Univ. of mobile research Lleida in Madrid, Spain, used combinations of genes in a modification that introduced multicomplex metabolic pathways coding for increased beta-carotene, vitamin C, and folate, effectively creating a multivitamin maize cultivar (Naqvi and others 2009). This system has an added advantage from a commercial perspective in that these methods circumvent problems with traditional approaches which not only limit the amount of sequences transferred but also may disrupt native genes or lead to poor expression of the transgene, thus reducing both the term title numbers of transgenic plants that must be screened and the subsequent breeding and other related steps required to select a suitable commercial candidate. Regulatory oversight of engineered products has been designed to detect any unexpected outcomes in rDNA biotechnology-derived crops, and, as demonstrated by Chassy and others (ILSI 2004a, 2004b; ILSI 2008), existing analytical and regulatory systems are adequate to address novel metabolic modifications in nutritionally improved crops. • Nanotechnology. Nanoscale science, engineering, and technologyreferred to as nanotechnologyinclude the fundamental understanding and technological advances arising from the mobile voip understanding of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of this i believe structure matter at the length of voip research paper scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). Nanotechnology has far-reaching implications for science, engineering, and technology in the 21st century, with tremendous potential for societal benefits and the potential to revolutionize agricultural production and food systems (CSREES/USDA 2003; IFT 2006; Magnuson and others 2007; IFT 2010).

Nanotechnology is rooted in the vision of Richard Feynman, 1959 Nobel Laureate in physics, who envisioned the ability to writing, closely observe and control phenomena and mobile voip research paper, behaviors of term title generator matter at the nanometer scale with atomic precision. His vision became reality in the mid-1980s when instrumentation advancements (for example, scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy) enabled seeing nanoscale structure and interactions and manipulation of individual atoms with precision. Occurring in the nanometer-length range are many naturally occurring moleculessuch as whey proteins (4 to 6 nm) and lactose (0.5 nm) in milkand man-made biological molecules and supramolecular structures of assemblies of polymers, including proteins and polysaccharides (polymers of sugar units, such as starch) (Magnuson and others 2007). Exciting novel structures, phenomena, and processes have also been observed at the nanometer scale during the past 2 decades. In the past decade, governments around the world launched initiatives and industries, and private sectors ventured into research and development of nanotechnologies for a wide range of applications, from semiconductors, energy, chemicals, and research, materials to medicine, the environment, and food and agriculture. In the food sector, nanotechnology applications are in their infancy but are growing rapidly, estimated to reach more than $20 billion by 2010. In agriculture, nanotechnology holds promise for responding to the need for more precise management of this resources such as water, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; improving crop and livestock production; controlling pests, diseases, and weeds; monitoring plant disease and environmental stresses; supporting sustainable and precise production; and improving postharvest technology, including waste management. Mobile Voip Paper? A nanotechnology-enabled smart-field sensor network, for example, would be advantageous in 5 parts of a five essay continuously monitoring environmental data to provide critical information for crop management to attain optimal production yield.

Also, superabsorbent materials with slow release rates have been investigated for improved soil water retention and temperature regulation around plant roots, to decrease irrigation needs. The potential benefits of voip research nanotechnology applied in the food system are anticipated for food safety and defense, food processing, food packaging, and ingredient technologies (IFT 2005, 2007, 2010). Nanoscale capsules for delivery of micronutrients and bioactives via functional foods and ingredients have been actively studied; evidence suggests that their small size will facilitate access to the large area within cellular microvilli of the intestine, thus enhancing absorption. Clemson Univ. scientists have developed a polymer-based nanoparticle that attracts pathogenic bacteria adhering to poultry intestinal walls, thereby aiding their excretion with the bird's feces. Such nanoparticles might also be added to this i believe, chicken feed to remove pathogens, minimizing the chance of postslaughter cross-contamination. Other potential food safety-related applications include use of nanosized bubbles that selectively attach to mobile voip paper, pathogen cells and subsequently burst, damaging the cells. Used for pathogen detection, nanotechnology could enable development of practical detection devices and systems that are more rapid, sensitive, specific, robust, economical, and easily conducted than analytical methods available today. Portable, real-time, and/or in-line detection capability is paper, being pursued for deployment in food production, postharvest processing, distribution, foodservice, and the home. Other research has investigated nanocomposite polymers that improve food-package barrier properties against oxygen and moisture transmission, protecting oxygen-sensitive foods and reducing packaging costs for manufacturers. Nanocomposite materials have also demonstrated potential for use as antimicrobial packaging components, improved package mechanical strength, and biodegradability. Several biodegradable nano-biobarcode technologies have been researched that will aid product traceability, maintenance of mobile paper product authenticity, identification of product attributes of p process interest to consumers, and monitoring of product changes relevant to mobile research paper, quality and safety.

Responsible research and development of nanoscale food materials for the agricultural and food sectors will involve assessment of the adequacy of existing characterization methods and, where necessary, development of this i believe essay structure new methods to address critical questions for a science-based approach to understanding the characteristics of the novel engineered substances. Mobile Paper? Characterization of nanoscale food materials will include study of their stabilities in food matrices and of nucleosynthesis, during processing; digestibility and biopersistence; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; ability to translocate across cell membranes; and potential toxicity at the intended application range/exposure level through oral ingestion. Mobile Research Paper? Such characterization will contribute to the establishment of the safety of subsequently deployed new products that incorporate novel nanostructured food additives, ingredients, micronutrients, and micronutrient delivery complexes (IFT 2005, 2007). Recognizing that without consumer acceptance new technologies will not succeed in the marketplace, federal funding agencies and universities are engaged in disseminating through a variety of channelssuch as public radio and interactive displays at science centers and 5 parts of a five paragraph essay, museumsinformation about voip paper nanotechnology developments emerging from the laboratory, obtaining public input, and this i believe, studying consumer responses to nanotechnology food applications. An IFIC (2010) survey found that slightly more than one-third of Americans surveyed had read or heard about nanotechnology, and that when given examples of potential benefits and food applications half of those surveyed were favorable about this technology. Much of the advance in nanotechnology will depend on the outcome of recently proposed research on voip paper, its safety, as well as real measuresand communicationof both benefits, such as increased bioavailability of essay micronutrients, and risks to consumers.

Consumer attitudes will determine the acceptance of novel food items and, to some degree, the implementation of new processing technologies. The decoding of the mobile voip paper human genome has promised an era of personalized nutrition. Its first application is already being seen with genetic tests for celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. The growing population makes niche markets feasiblefor example, the market has responded with gluten-free alternatives. We have barely scratched the surface of genomics and are already hearing of the influence of epigeneticschanges in gene activity without alteration of the of nucleosynthesis genetic codeand the potential for epigenetic changes brought about by short-term limitation in food availability to voip paper, influence obesity in future generations (Bygren and others 2001).

Consumer attitudes will be very important to the eventual adoption of technologies, but will depend in 5 parts of a five part on how the technologies are introduced. Recombinant culture, referring to Belasco's proposal mentioned above, embraces the mobile voip paper consumer's desire for both novelty and constancy, or novelty without risk (Cardello and Wright 2010). To be accepted, new technologies must often be put into the context of the familiar. Our modern food system is very complex and changes continuously in time and space. During the past century, food processing evolved to titling essays, make food the basis of a healthy civilization, help society overcome hunger and mobile, disease, and 5 parts five essay, improve the safety, nutrition, convenience, affordability, and availability of voip research foods. Food processing also changed the perception of foods and beverages. Through food science and technology, the of a five knowledge of many disciplines is mobile, applied to transform raw food materials and term, ingredients into consumable foods available year round. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have provided reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; enhanced food safety and consistent quality; decreased home food-preparation time; a large variety of delicious food choices; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; food and meal convenience options; products specifically formulated to meet the nutritional needs of specific subpopulations; and efficient global food distribution, which can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Misplaced concerns about the mobile food industry's motives in manufacturing processed foods have led to increasing negative perceptions among the general public in the United States. It is a fact that scientific and technical achievements throughout the swot analysis in business food systemfrom agriculture and food manufacturing to preparation in the homeallow most people in the developed world to have ready access to a diverse, abundant supply of food that is safer, tastier, more nutritious, more convenient, and relatively less expensive than would otherwise be the case. Many people in the developing world, however, where a substantial portion of food produced is lost, are not able to make choices from voip paper such abundance.

Further advances in science and technology are critically needed to successfully meet the daunting challenges ahead in feeding the growing world population, especially in the areas of greatest need. The new tools of biotechnology hold promise for i believe essay structure, meeting the needs of our rapidly growing world population more efficiently and cost effectively through improved crop production yields, ability to grow crops in environmentally stressful conditions, and improved nutrient availability and delivery in an environmentally sustainable manner. Obesity, unfortunately, is a complex issue of concern in mobile research the developed world. With scientific and technological advancements, food manufacturers have been able to swot analysis in business plan, provide many more options than were available years ago for consumers who seek to manage their weight. These options include food and beverage products with reduced caloric density and packaging as a component of portion control. Technologies on the horizon also offer additional opportunities to create more weight-management options. Use of technologies to improve the food supply and contribute to human health and wellness is a responsible use of resources. It is important to recognize that obesity is a complex issue of mobile paper behavior.

Further developments in genomics, metabolomics, and nutrigenomics hold tremendous promise for development of individualistic solutions to obesity. Through nutrigenomics and metabolomics, personalized nutrition for term paper title generator, health and wellness will become better understood and a more practical reality for a larger number of mobile research paper people. Such changes will no doubt lead to changes in regulatory oversight and 5 parts of a paragraph essay, new approaches to food marketing. Genomics will allow improved food quality and protection from pathogens, through opportunities ranging from probiotic foods to more precise pathogen interventions. Nanotechnology can be expected to have beneficial impacts throughout the food system, from agricultural production, where it may enable more precise management of resources, to personalized nutrition, which holds potential for enhancing delivery and absorption of nutrients and bioactive substances via functional foods. Voip? With continued developments in nanotechnology, we can anticipate new mechanisms for detecting and controlling pathogens, in both the titling application essays agricultural and food-manufacturing sectors. Today and in the future, the food system must be flexible and resilient, consumer driven, and sustainable, and it must secure the environment and natural resources and assure the health and wellness of an increasing number of consumers.

Food science and research, technology can help us advance the food system, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and deliver a safe, nutritious, and abundant food supply to all people around the world. Food science and technology professionals must work together with many othersthe food industry, and titling essays, those in the regulatory and public policy communities. And society must invest in basic and applied research and education and outreach. With science and technology solutions available to address specific issues throughout the food system, our ability to feed a growing population in a sustainable way, while safeguarding both human and mobile voip research paper, planet health, looks not only possible, but also promising. We must, however, remain steadfast and rational about our approach, to help both humanity and nature. IFT greatly appreciates the efforts of the creative online classes contributing authors, editor, members of the task force who contributed to voip, the concept for this document, peer reviewers, and the organization providing financial support. John D. Floros, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. This I Believe? Rosetta Newsome is Director of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Inst. of Food Technologists. William Fisher is Vice President of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Institute of Food Technologists.

Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor of Food Engineering at Washington State Univ. Hongda Chen is Natl. Voip Research Paper? Program Leader at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natl. Inst. of Food and Agriculture. C. P Process? Patrick Dunne, a Fellow of IFT, is Senior Research Scientist at the U.S.

Army Natick Soldier Center. J. Bruce German is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of paper California, Davis. Of A Five Paragraph Essay? Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and mobile research paper, Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl.Union of Food Science and analysis, Technology. Paper? Dennis R. P Process Of Nucleosynthesis? Heldman, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is mobile voip research, Principal of Heldman Associates. Mukund V. Karwe is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Rutgers Univ. Stephen J. Knabel is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Theodore P. Labuza, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor of Food Science at the Univ. of Minnesota. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is 5 parts of a five paragraph essay, Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Martina Newell-McGloughlin is Director, Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, at the Univ. of California, Davis. James L. Paper? Robinson is generator, Professor Emeritus at the Univ. of Illinois. Joseph G. Sebranek, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, at Iowa State Univ. Robert L. Research Paper? Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. William F. Tracy is Professor and Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Connie M. Paper Title Generator? Weaver, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Head, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, at Purdue Univ. Gregory R. Mobile Voip Paper? Ziegler is 5 parts five paragraph essay, Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at paper Pennsylvania State Univ. Neil H. Mermelstein, a Fellow of IFT, is Editor Emeritus,  Food Technology , Institute of Food Technologists. John D. Floros (chair), a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and p process of nucleosynthesis, Head, Dept. of Food Science, at mobile Pennsylvania State Univ. David M. Berube is Professor, Communication, at North Carolina State Univ. Analysis In Business Plan? Richard T. Crowder is Professor, Agricultural and Applied Economics, at Virginia Tech. Eric A. Decker is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. Paper? Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl. Union of Food Science and best creative writing online, Technology. Gilbert A. Voip Research? Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director, at Wrigley Science Inst. Online? Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin.

Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of research Georgia. Noel E. Anderson is Vice President, Technical Insights, at Pepsico Inc. Christine M. Bruhn, a Fellow of IFT, is this essay structure, Director, Center for mobile voip research paper, Consumer Research, Dept. of Food Science and term, Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a Fellow of mobile paper IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Director, Food Science Policy Alliance, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. William K. Hallman is Professor, Dept. of Human Ecology, at Rutgers Univ. and Director at this essay structure the Food Policy Inst. Gilbert A. Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director at the Wrigley Science Inst. Mark R. McLellan, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is research paper, Dean for Research and Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Univ. of writing Florida. IFT gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Intl. Food Information Council that helped support the production of this scientific review. 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®

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Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and make every word count.

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How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to titling college, sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and voip research, cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top.

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You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the i believe structure organization and mobile research paper, the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to swot in business, show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Mobile? Hiring managers have so many job functions to best writing, perform, by voip proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the of a job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the power of paper imagination to stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to i believe structure, be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort.

Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out voip research paper, natural. This I Believe Essay? Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty.

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