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Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis and Modern Economics. Hyman Philip Minsky (b. 23 September 1919, d. 24 October 1996) was best known for his Financial Instability Hypothesis of the essay goals, business cycle, which emphasized the dynamics of business investment finance as a recurring cause of macroeconomic instability (Minsky 1972, 1980). During a boom, the expansion of debt-financed investment spending causes initial “robust” financial structures to evolve into “fragile” financial structures, and it is this evolution that ultimately brings the expansion to an end. In the poverty, subsequent contraction, typically some fragile financial structures collapse while others are refinanced into on achieving, more robust financial structures, thereby creating the is a state essay, preconditions for renewed expansion. A central reason for policy intervention in this boom-bust process, Minsky emphasized, is the essay your, ever-present danger that the contraction will get out of control and spread into essays online, a system-wide debt-deflation. In this way, a normal business recession can become instead a deep and long-lasting depression, such as happened in 1929-1933 when debt deflation brought down the US banking system and ushered in a depression that did not end until World War II, notwithstanding all the essay, attempts of Roosevelt’s New Deal.
Wartime public spending and wartime public debt finally did succeed in recreating the robust financial preconditions for how to development plan renewed economic expansion in essay your the immediate postwar decades. But over selected task time, once private debt had a chance to build up for a while, robust financial structures again evolved into essay your goals, fragile structures, and instability returned starting in about 1966. Unfortunately, the return of instability coincided also with the ascendancy of a new interventionist orthodoxy in economic theory which, extrapolating from the entirely unusual circumstances of the immediate postwar, attributed business fluctuations not to changing financial structures but rather simply to fluctuations in aggregate demand. According to this new orthodoxy, incipient downturns could and should be countered by how to do business appropriate government fiscal and monetary policies. Government spending could maintain aggregate demand directly, and/or tax cuts and on achieving goals, subsidies could stimulate private consumption and investment indirectly, so as to does it cost to do a business plan, maintain aggregate income near the level of full employment. In the goals, short run, this policy orthodoxy achieved its stated goal, but in the longer run it acted to block the natural process of restoring robust finance, with the consequence that an essays increasingly fragile financial structure served as an increasing obstacle to capital investment and hence also to robust economic performance.
Because of essay goals, government intervention there was no debt deflation and no great depression, but rather stagnation and inflation during the decade of the 1970s. Finally, the extraordinary tight monetary policy of 1979-1982 under Paul Volcker turned the tide and created the financial precondition for renewed expansion in the decade to follow (Minsky 1986). However, the subsequent expansion was different from the immediate postwar, because the essay philosophy, financial preconditions were different. What followed after Volcker was a new kind of institutional arrangement that Minsky called “money manager capitalism”, driven by a new breed of your, institutional investors in pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds. Unlike the immediate postwar, long-term capital development of the nation was off the table, replaced instead by the pursuit of short-run financial portfolio returns.
In effect, tight monetary policy had succeeded in creating a parallel banking system, focused more on real estate and housing speculation than on does it cost increasing business productivity. Your Goals? Minsky viewed the financial crisis of 1987 as a first crisis of this new system. He did not however live to see the essay, global financial crisis of 2007-2009, which the press dubbed a “Minsky Moment”. Minsky got his start in economics at the University of Chicago, where he enrolled in September 1937 in the middle of the Great Depression. There is no reason to doubt Minsky’s own assessment that two Chicago professors, Oscar Lange and Henry Simons, were the most significant early influences on his thought (Minsky 1985). The inspiration to study economics came from Lange, who was at that time working out a synthesis of Marx and neoclassical economics that he called market socialism. Essay Your? Henry Simons was the source of on indian writing, Minsky’s lifelong interest in finance, as well as the idea that the fundamental flaw of on achieving your, modern capitalism stemmed from its banking and financial structure. Minsky took the lesson that capitalism could be stable if, first, large-scale capital investment were owned and financed publically rather than privately and, second, smaller scale private business were financed with equity rather than debt. After a three-year interruption for war service (Papadimitriou 1992), Minsky continued his education at Harvard University where he fell in with the young Keynesians who gathered around Alvin Hansen. However it was Joseph Schumpeter, not Hansen, who was the more important influence.
A “conservative Marxist”, as Minsky would later characterize his mentor, Schumpeter’s earliest work on the Theory of how to do business, Economic Development (1912) had emphasized the importance of money creation by the banking system as the crucial source of entrepreneurial finance. Banks can and do lend by creating deposits, which serve as purchasing power that entrepreneurs use to acquire the real resources they need in order to your, make their future plans into present realities. This mechanism, according to Schumpeter, is the on indian in english, source of the dynamism of capitalism, just as it is also, according to Simons, the source of capitalism’s instability. Minsky’s 1954 PhD thesis “Induced investment and business cycles” represents his attempt to insert his concerns about finance into the then-standard Hansen-Samuelson accelerator-multiplier model, which has no finance in it. Viewed in retrospect, the more fundamental contribution Minsky made in essay on achieving goals his thesis was to critical presentation, conceive of ordinary business firms as akin to on achieving your, banks, insofar as they can be seen fundamentally as cash inflow-outflow operations that confront both solvency and liquidity “survival constraints” (1954, p. 157-162). Critical Thinking? From this point of view, the natural accounting structure for the economic system is not the goals, National Income and Product Accounts, which served as the empirical basis for the Hansen-Samuelson model, but rather the newer Flow of Funds accounts developed by American institutionalist Morris Copeland (1952). On Banking Online? In effect, Minsky’s mature Financial Instability Hypothesis would build on this alternative empirical basis, though Minsky goes beyond the Flow of Funds accounts to emphasize the time-dated pattern of on achieving, cash commitments embedded in essay philosophy the structure of outstanding debts of various kinds (Minsky 1964). A final, but crucial, early formative influence was Minsky’s experience as a participant observer at a major Wall Street brokerage house, where he learned about new developments in essay on achieving your goals the Federal Funds market and the use of repurchase agreements (Minsky 1957). He concluded from that experience that the goal of using monetary policy for aggregate stabilization was probably illusory on account of the attendant financial innovation. To Do Plan? The central bank could try to limit the supply of public bank reserves, as a way of holding back expansion, but the result would only essay your goals be to essay, encourage banks to develop their own private mechanisms for economizing on scarce reserves.
The Fed Funds market and essay your goals, the repo market were already doing that as early as 1957. In later years, non-reservable bank certificates of deposit, and essay philosophy, eventually a parallel system of on achieving your goals, non-bank finance, would go even further (Minsky 1966). With each additional step the link between policy tools and macroeconomic outcomes became further attenuated (Minsky 1969, 1980). The Financial Instability Hypothesis. At the how to development plan, very center of Minsky’s conception of what makes a financial structure robust or fragile is the relationship between the time pattern of cash commitments and the time pattern of essay goals, expected cash flows. A firm with cash flows greater than cash commitments for every future period is said to be engaged in “hedge” finance, because the is a state, unit can meet its commitments from its own resources. So-called “speculative” financial structures expect cash flows greater than interest payments on outstanding debt, but also anticipate the need to refinance the principle at maturity. That makes the firm vulnerable in the event that refinance turns out to be unexpectedly expensive or even unavailable. So-called “Ponzi” financial structures are even more vulnerable since they anticipate cash flows insufficient even to cover interest payments, so refinance depends on capital gains in the underlying investment as well as general financial conditions. The core idea of the Financial Instability Hypothesis is that there is a built-in tendency for the system to shift over on achieving goals time from robust “hedge” financial structures to fragile “speculative” and “Ponzi” financial structures. Critical Thinking? A central driver of this tendency is the apparent cheapness of on achieving your goals, short term finance relative to long term finance, a consequence of liquidity preference which means that wealth holders are willing to accept a lower yield on essay philosophy selected task assets that are more readily (or imminently) turned into current cash.
Thus it is always tempting to on achieving goals, finance long-lived capital assets with short-term debt, planning to roll over the debt at maturity into another short-term debt. Online? That temptation pushes firms from on achieving your goals hedge to speculative finance. The temptation is always there, but in the immediate aftermath of a contraction that has visibly involved the collapse of on indian in english, fragile financial structures, both borrowers and lenders are able to resist the your, temptation. Is A Of Mind Essay? Liquidity risk is on their minds. Thus, it is only gradually over time that robust financial structures give way to your goals, fragile financial structures, as evidence accumulates that giving in to temptation is once again a profitable strategy, for both borrowers and lenders. On Banking Online? Eventually it seems to be safe, and margins of on achieving, safety begin to erode in the pursuit of higher expected gain. In Minsky’s mature work, a key mechanism leading to this erosion is the positive feedback between investment spending and business profits, which Minsky took from the work of Kalecki (1971).
When investment spending is strong, aggregate demand and hence aggregate business profits are also strong so that business cash flows exceed expectations, proving more than sufficient to meet existing cash commitments. Thus the lesson is learned that previous caution was excessive, and poverty is a state of mind essay, thus the road is opened for a shift to more fragile finance. And of course the essay your, same mechanism works the opposite way on the way down, as lower investment leads to lower profit than expected and how much it cost, hence greater than expected difficulty in meeting cash commitments. Minsky’s discovery of Kalecki, probably during his sabbatical year 1969-70 at St. Johns College in Cambridge, England, was crucial also for shifting Minsky’s view of Keynes. On Achieving Goals? Back at Harvard, the Keynes that Minsky had learned was supposed to be about a liquidity preference theory of money demand, which interacted with an exogenously fixed money supply to set the rate of interest.
There was nothing much in that Keynes for research on indian Minsky, with his Simons-Schumpeter vision of essay on achieving your goals, integral role of philosophy task, elastic bank finance for essay on achieving your goals business investment, a commercial loan model of the (endogenous) money supply rather than Keynes open market operations (exogenous) money model. By contrast, although Kalecki’s Marxism was not the conservative type favored by Schumpeter, it was a familiar frame and it was through that frame that Minsky found his way to Keynes. In his subsequent book John Maynard Keynes (1975), Minsky finally embraced Keynes in words that could apply equally to himself: “The knowledgeable view of the operation of finance that Keynes possessed was not readily available to how to development, academic economists, and those knowledgeable about finance did not have the skeptical, aloof attitude toward capitalist enterprise necessary to understand and appreciate the basically critical attitude that permeated Keynes’s work” (p. 130). In the end, Minsky came to think of his own financial instability hypothesis as a completion of Keynes’ work by filling in the details of the financial system, the “logical hole” (p. 63) that Keynes left out in his own academic formulations. Reading Keynes with his new understanding that Keynes, like himself, was always looking at the world through the lens of banking—the “Wall Street” or “City” view–led Minsky to essay your goals, formulate what he called his “two-price theory of investment”. Contra the on banking online, quantity theory of on achieving, money, monetary conditions do not drive the price of papers on indian, output; but they do drive the price of capital assets. Essay? The kind of liquidity-stretching innovations that banks use to overcome central bank constraint (as Minsky 1957) not only enable them to provide the investment finance demanded by how to their business clients, but also operate directly to stimulate that demand through their effect on the price of existing capital assets. Specifically, creation of private liquidity to satisfy demand for liquidity preference lowers the premium required to on achieving your, hold illiquid capital assets, and hence drives up their price.
Subsequently, a widening gap between the price of existing capital assets and papers on indian writing, the current output price of new capital assets provides incentive to add new capital assets to the old, which is investment. This “Keynesian” asset price mechanism offers yet another path leading from robust finance to fragile finance. Minsky’s Simons-Schumpeter-Kalecki-Keynes view of the world put him at odds with the postwar monetary Walrasian orthodoxy of essay your goals, Patinkin-Tobin-Modigliani. Whereas orthodoxy emphasized the do business plan, use of essay your, monetary policy to “control” aggregate fluctuation, Minsky always emphasized instead the “support” function as lender of last resort in a crisis and market maker in does normal times. Regular engagement with market participants through the discount window would, Minsky thought, allow the central bank to shift the balance a bit toward hedge finance by favoring robust structures in its collateral policy. Toward that end, he urged widening access to the discount window in normal times to include a broader cross-section. This divergence from orthodoxy on policy reflects a deeper methodological divergence.
Whereas postwar economic orthodoxy characteristically operated within an intellectual frame of market equilibrium, even intertemporal market equilibrium, with abstract individual agents making rational intertemporal allocation decisions, Minsky characteristically operated closer to the lived reality that actual agents confront, namely an on achieving your open-ended future that is substantial uncertain (not just risky) and a present choice set that is substantially constrained by survival constraints of philosophy task, various kinds. Minsky’s agents are not irrational, but rather more like Schumpeter’s constructive entrepreneurs who imagine a possible future and then use their cash inflow-outflow interface with the economic system to acquire resources in essay on achieving your an attempt to make that imagined future a present reality. In a world like this, it matters a lot which agents get the poverty is a state of mind essay, chance to make that attempt; it matters for the capital development of the essay on achieving goals, nation. Minsky’s financial instability hypothesis was designed to explain the times he was living in, not so much the post-Volcker era of money manager capitalism. At the center of Minsky’s picture is how much plan, business investment finance not household mortgage finance, bank lending not capital market finance, and his purview is characteristically domestic not global. But the analytical apparatus he developed is more general. The banking view that he took toward business investment is equally applicable to any other economic agent—we are all of essay on achieving goals, us cash inflow-outflow entities, facing solvency and liquidity survival constraints. Similarly applicable is Minsky’s emphasis, at the level of the system as a whole, on the shifting match between the time pattern of cash commitments that is how to plan, embedded in the existing structure of debt as compared to the time pattern of expected cash flow to fulfill those commitments.
Copeland, Morris A. 1952. A Study of Money-flows in the United States. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Kalecki, M. 1971. Selected Essays on the Dynamics of the Capitalist Economy (1933-1970). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Minsky, Hyman P. 1954. “Induced investment and business cycles.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Economics, Harvard University. Minsky, Hyman P. 1957. “Central banking and money market changes.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 71 (2): 171-187.
Reprinted as Ch. 7 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1964. “Financial Crisis, Financial Systems, and on achieving your goals, the Performance of the Economy”. Pages 173-380 in Private Capital Markets. Commission on Money and Credit Research Study. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Minsky, Hyman P. 1969. Essays Online? “The New Uses of Monetary Powers.” Nebraska Journal of Economics and Business 8. Reprinted as Ch. 8 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1972. “Financial Instability revisited: the economics of essay your goals, disaster.” In Reappraisal of the Federal Reserve Discount Mechanism, Board of essay philosophy selected, Governors, Federal Reserve System.
Reprinted as Ch. 6 in essay on achieving your goals Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1975. On Banking? John Maynard Keynes. New York: Columbia University Press. Minsky, Hyman P. 1980. “Finance and Profits: the changing nature of essay your goals, American business cycles.” In The Business Cycle and critical, Public Policy 1929-1980: A Compendium of Papers submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, 96th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Reprinted as Ch.
2 in Minsky (1982). Minsky, Hyman P. 1980. “The Federal Reserve: Between a Rock and a Hard Place.” Challenge 23 (May/June), 30-36. Reprinted as Ch. 9 in Minsky 1982. Minsky, Hyman P. 1982.
Can ‘It’ Happen Again? Essays on Instability and Finance. On Achieving? Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. Minsky, Hyman P. 1985. “Beginnings.” Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 154: 211-221. Minsky, Hyman P. 1986. Stabilizing an Unstable Economy.
Twentieth Century Fund Report. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Papadimitriou, D. Do Business Development? B. 1992. Essay On Achieving Your Goals? “Minsky on himself.” Pages 13-26 in Essays in Honor of Hyman P. Minsky, edited by S. Fazzari and D. B. Papadimitriou. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe. 4 comments on “ Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis and Modern Economics ” Good essay by Mehrling summing up Minsky’s work. For Minsky’s view of how much does it cost a business, monetary policy to work properly (use the discount window, not the open-market desk), you have to have honest and competent discount window administration. I encountered that at the two Federal Reserve Banks at essay your goals which I worked, at essay the times that I worked for them (1974-1994). I’ve been writing about essay goals it ever since. Essay? If you politicize the essay on achieving your, discount window, then how can Minsky’s corrective or stabilizing model work? Alas, today we might live in the worst of both worlds: Politicized open-market operations (see, e.g., above-market interest rates paid on reserves and a subsidy rate paid on research on indian writing in english reverse repos) and a politicized discount window during the crisis (anything involving Section 13(3)).
And we haven’t even discussed foreign exchange swap lines. Perry, this is great; it widens my understanding and goals, appreciation of Minsky. Did you mention when in Utah that you are working on critical a book? Was it on Minsky? Re: Paul Volcker.
“So back to essay on achieving your goals, the 70?s, and continuous oil price hikes by a foreign monopolist. All nations experienced pretty much the same inflation. And it all ended at about the same time as well when the how to do business development, price of crude fell. The ‘heroes’ were coincidental. In fact, my take is your, they actually made it worse than it needed to philosophy, be, but it did ‘get better’ and they of course were in the right place at the right time to get credit for that.” “Next, President Carter’s appointment of Paul Volcker to Chair the your, Fed was a disaster for people in low wage jobs, since Volcker and selected task, his successors used wage rises as a criterion for evaluating whether inflation was accelerating. So, during and after Volcker’s tenure, the Federal Reserve systematically repressed wages by raising its overnight rate targets whenever private sector wages began to rise, and cooling the on achieving your goals, economy, a policy that may or may not still be somewhere in the background of the Fed’s toolkit under Janet Yellin. In short, summarizing all of the foregoing, President Carter did not advocate strongly for fiscal policies that would create jobs, and, in addition, he opposed the efforts of many in the Democratic Congress to legislate such programs. This attitude toward fiscal policy was also reflected in Congress, though to a lesser degree. Critical Thinking? So, overall it has to be concluded that during the Carter Administration, little was done by the Government to achieve and maintain full employment at a living wage. Why was the Government so opposed to doing what was necessary to achieve living wages and full employment?
Again, it was because a majority of Government decision makers, including President Carter, believed in the gospel of fiscal responsibility and austerity. They were incapable of recognizing that they could spend what was necessary to accomplish these goals, even though FDR had shown them what was possible during World War II and part of the Great Depression, and essay on achieving goals, even though they had even more policy space than FDR had to on indian, deficit spend, due to the shift to a non-convertible fiat currency, with floating exchange rates, and no debts in foreign currencies, completed by President Nixon in 1971.”
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HR reps equate typos and errors with laziness, says Greg Faherty, a certified professional resume writer and owner of a-perfect-resume.com. Make sure itЂ™s perfectly polished and error-free Ђ” and donЂ™t forget to put the most important information on page one.. 5. Use a header. Include a clear, hard-hitting statement at the very top of the resume that effectively defines who you are, keeping the specific position in mind, says Ann Baehr, a professional resume writer and founder of Best Resumes of New York. ЂњDo not use an objective. Think of it like a billboard.Ђќ.
Baehr says the essay philosophy, header is a branding statement that is typically all caps going across the top of the page, usually sitting under your name and contact info. (555) 555-5555 | 123 Main Street | email@example.com. GLOBAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIST. 6. Keep things professional. Don't include negative information about previous jobs or employers. Don't discuss your hobbies or personal qualities or politics. Simply stick to your career facts. Essay! 7. Include metrics. ThereЂ™s no better way to demonstrate how youЂ™ll add to the bottom line or cut costs than to show quantifiable achievements, Smith-Proulx says. Essays! ЂњPlus, employers often assume past performance is indicative of future results.Ђќ. Faherty agrees.
He says a majority of resumes fail because all they provide are job descriptions. On Achieving! ЂњThe HR rep knows the basic duties of your job. What he or she wants to it cost plan, see is how you made a difference to previous employers. On Achieving Your! In a piece Marc Cenedella wrote for TheLadders earlier this year, he says you should always c ount the number of $ signs and % signs on your resume, and then double them. Thinking! 8. On Achieving Your! Keep the readerЂ™s needs or industry requirements front and center. You need to know what they are looking for in your candidacy. Instead of a business developing your resume and essay on achieving, then conducting a job search, it is wise to research the requirements of several opportunities to get a sense for how you should be presented in terms of essay task branding, focus, and keywords, Baehr explains. 9. Customize your resume to tell a story. Your resume should bring the reader through your professional experiences, accomplishments, skills, and essay on achieving your, knowledge.
It should show how youЂ™ve advanced over the years, and is a state essay, what you can bring to the table. ЂњMake your resume long enough to tell your story, but short enough to skim in essay on achieving goals, a single sitting, Smith-Proulx says. The key is readability and relevance to the job youЂ™re targeting.Ђќ. 10. Don't overuse fancy fonts and colors. While you donЂ™t want to how to plan, overdo it, you can use color in a conservative manner to make your resume visually differentiated from the sea of documents the recruiter will review, Rangel says. For example, a subtle navy blue border can be very effective. These effects can draw the your goals, recruiterЂ™s eye to poverty state of mind essay, the document and make it stand out against on achieving goals the many black and white documents theyЂ™ve received, she says. But know that using color on how much a business plan your resume is more acceptable and appropriate in some industries than others.
11. Your Goals! Make it longer than one page if it needs to be. Use the thinking presentation, appropriate amount of space for your experience. ЂњIf youЂ™ve been in the workforce for 15-plus years, do not feel forced to trim information about your achievements to keep to an arbitrary one-page resume rule,Ђќ Rangel says. Essay On Achieving Your! Use what you need to, but do not make it unnecessarily long.. 12. Supplement your resume with a cover letter. About half of all HR reps say they won't even read a resume if the candidate hasnЂ™t submitted a cover letter. So, unless the employer explicitly says they donЂ™t want a cover letter, write one.
SEE ALSO: Top 9 Resume Mistakes To Avoid. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 12 Ways To Make Your Resume Stand Out. It Cost To Do A Business Plan! For any given job opening, HR personnel and. Get the on achieving your goals, best of Business Insider delivered to selected task, your inbox every day.
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essay on goals, special day Inclusion in the American Public Schools: 7U: 100 Mainstreaming the Exceptional Learner. One of the current trends in education in the American Public School is the development move toward full inclusion of students with disabilities. There has been a rapid rise in the number of students with disabilities who are spending their school day in a general education classroom under the guise of full inclusion. The practice of inclusion came about as a natural outgrowth of the Mainstreaming movement of the 1960's. Inclusion is essay on achieving goals purported to be based on the rights of the students and the social benefits that they receive from being in a general education classroom. There are many who see this as a solution to the problem of how to do business plan, how to best educate children with disabilities. On the other hand, there are those who believe that this practice is based solely on the feelings of what the inclusionists see as socially correct, and not on any real benefit to the students involved. The question, which is now an often debated one, is whether or not this practice of full inclusion is successful. Is including children with special needs in the general education classroom beneficial to their education?
Since we cannot expect to cure or fix these kids who have disabilities, how can we educate them to their fullest capacity? The goal of educating these students with disabilities should be no different than the on achieving your goals of educating the students who are in selected task, general education, which is that we should educate them in such a way as to help them realize their full potential. This is where the problem and controversy arises in regard to on achieving your goals, students who have disabilities; how best to do this? To fully understand the issue of does it cost plan, inclusion in on achieving your goals, the American Public School, we must examine the history of inclusion, the laws regarding the education of critical presentation, students with disabilities, and what some of the experts in education have to say about essay on achieving your, it. Only after a full examination of the how to do business plan facts can we decide for on achieving your, ourselves which is most beneficial and appropriate in the education of students with disabilities today: to fully include students with disabilities in the general education classroom or not.
Inclusion is defined as a professional belief that students with disabilities should be integrated into general education classrooms whether or not they can meet traditional curricular standards and should be full members of those classrooms (Friend and Bursuck, 2002, p. Essays Online? 505) . Just how did the practice of essay goals, inclusion come about? Modern day special education began in the 1960's after several hundred years where we saw thinking change from the time prior to1800 where the how to do business development plan disabled were thought to be demon possessed; to the time in the 1800's where public thinking was largely based on the misinterpretation of Darwin's Theory of Evolution and the disenchanting effects of the on achieving Civil War; to theearly 1900's where the work of scientists such as Freud, Kanner, and Binet began to impact the public thinking; to the post-war era of the 1950's when special education was shaped by the work of Bettleheim, Redl and Wineman, and Bower and many categories of disabilities became identified. From the 1960's through 1985 we saw a real take off in public funding, the beginning of many organizations to assist the how to development plan disabled, and the emergence of a number of conceptual models of essay, special education. Modern special education in philosophy selected task, the 1960's was from the point of view that because students with disabilities were so different in both their problems and essay your goals abilities, that it did not make sense to treat all of essay task, these students the same. Children with disabilities were placed into self-contained classrooms with other students who had the same type of disability. The programs were categorical and essay your goals the teachers were those with a degree in essay philosophy selected task, special education who had a specialty in a specific area of your goals, disabilities. The idea was to research writing, get these kids in school and get them in a program tailored specifically to their disability. In the early 1970's parents wanted to be assured of essay on achieving your goals, a suitable education for their children, so Public Law 94-142, the Education for is a state of mind essay, Handicapped Act (EHA) , was passed which set guidelines for the services of special education (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . In 1975, the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was passed which marked the dawn of what is commonly referred to as mainstreaming.
This was a practice designed to on achieving your goals, get the students with disabilities out of their categorical classrooms and back into general education for specials (Music, Art, and essays Physical Education) , but for the most part the on achieving goals students were still separate and research papers in english segregated within their schools. Proponents of mainstreaming were of the mind that social behavior does not occur outside of social contact and therefore, students with disabilities should be with their non-disabled peers. This involved the physical integration, functional integration, and social integration of the students. So, mainstreaming went from a time where we just wanted to get these kids in on achieving goals, school, to a time where we mainstreamed them for specials, to a time where they were mainstreamed to become a part of the school. Does A Business? Thus the on achieving argument became that if we can include these kids with disabilities some of the time, why not include them all of the time?
This was the basis for our current trend toward full inclusion of all students with disabilities, regardless of their disability or abilities. Full inclusion is based on the rights of the students to be in the general classroom and the perceived social benefits that being in that classroom provides. There is, however, a difference in the social integration we saw in early mainstreaming versus that which we see in today's inclusion practices; the social integration of the 80's was done under highly controlled situations, while the social integration of full inclusion is not controlled. On Banking? Understanding where the trend toward inclusion comes from is only essay on achieving, a factual beginning in the understanding of how much a business plan, whether or not inclusion is appropriate in the American Public School of today. What does the law have to your, say about the practices of inclusion? Have there been any tests of the law? How can this knowledge shape what is happening in our schools? One can find commentary on the laws regarding inclusion on online, a website of the University of Northern Iowa which includes IDEA, passed in 1975, which states the essay your current federal mandate regarding the laws on inclusion in the American Public School: Each State must establish procedures to philosophy selected task, assure that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities . are educated with children who are not disabled, and that special education, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of your, supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. 20 U. S. C. 1412(5) (B) (Website, Inclusive Education, http: //www. uni. edu/coe/inclusion, Feb.
27, 2003) . Dr. Essay Philosophy Selected? Susan Etscheidt, University of Northern Iowa professor and administrative law judge, says that some of the first legal analysis of IDEA came when the Supreme Court said that everyone is to be given a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) (Inclusive Education, 2003) . This is important to note in essay on achieving your, regard to the practices of inclusion. A school cannot legally exclude a student from an how to do business development plan education, regardless of their abilities, and the education must be provided without cost. On Achieving Goals? IDEA did leave room for interpretation, but several things were made clear. The responsibility would lie with each state. Does A Business? A child with disabilities can not be removed from on achieving your goals, a regular education classroom until such time as it is determined that a satisfactory achievement can't be made in how to do business development plan, a regular classroom even with the addition of supplementary aids and services. Just what is a satisfactory achievement? This is one area of hot debate.
Is this strictly an essay on achieving your goals academic achievement, or a social achievement? Who makes this determination and how do they make it? What are supplementary aids and services? These questions and their interpretation is poverty is a state of mind essay what cause the controversy on whether or not full inclusion is appropriate. Amendments to essay your goals, IDEA, in 1977, helped to clarify a few of the issuessupplementary aids and services were defined, and general education teachers were included in the teams which write the Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each student so that they can be a part of the regular classroom (Inclusive Education, 2003) . This is where IDEA and our federal mandate stand currently. There is still plenty of room for debate. There are people with strong views and opinions on both sides of the debate. The results of researchers who have studied issues in regards to inclusion are of critical thinking presentation, a mixed variety: there is seemingly evidence to support both sides (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . A legal precedence has been set to include children with disabilities into general education classrooms. IDEA, preceded by and including EHA, is based on several principles including zero reject (a rule against excluding any student) , nondiscriminatory evaluation (requires the fair evaluation of students to determine if a disability exists, and if so what kind and how extensive treatment should be) , individualized education (a tailored education for each child based on evaluation and enhanced by supplementary aids and services) , least restrictive environment (LRE--the education of students with disabilities along the side of students without disabilities to the highest extent possible) , and procedural due process (protects students rights and allows for necessary court actions) (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . These principles still do not provide a clear cut analysis of the law; there is still room for interpretation and opinion. On Achieving Your Goals? Specific cases which have been brought before the poverty state of mind courts have helped to clarify the meanings of IDEA, as well as provide an argument on the side of full inclusion. Several court cases demonstrate the difficulty in essay on achieving, making a clear cut analysis of the law, as well as setting precedences for the practice of inclusion.
The case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) is on banking online discussed by essay on achieving goals, Friend and Bursuck as a case establishing the development plan principle that school segregation denies some students equal educational opportunity . . It has since become the cornerstone for ensuring equal rights for students with disabilities. (p. On Achieving Your? 8) This case is widely used by inclusionists to support their stand that all students with disabilities have a right to be in a general education setting, with support if necessary, regardless of their abilities. Friend and Bursuck also note a case which is widely believed to be critical in how to do business development, forming the foundations and legal precedence of inclusion: in Oberti v. Board of Education of goals, Clementon School District (1993) , which dealt with a student with Down syndrome, it was ruled by the court and later upheld by research papers on indian writing, the court of appeals that school districts are required to make the supports available to students with disabilities to fulfill their needs in the regular classroom, and furthermore that they can't exclude a student from a regular classroom because they learn in a different manner than other students (p. 8) Inclusionists certainly view this as legal proof that full inclusion should be maintained in essay your goals, the American Public School of how much to do, today. There are a number of goals, other cases which further support the notion of full inclusion. The University of Northern Iowa's Inclusive Education website contains discussion of two such cases: Greer v. Rome City School District (1990/1991/1992) and Board of Education v. Holland (1992, 1994) (Inclusive Education, 2003) . In the Greer case, the courts found that school officials had not made the necessary changes to a kindergarten curriculum to thinking, facilitate the inclusion of a child into a regular classroom and that the whole range of supplemental aids and services must be offered by the school (Inclusive Education, 2003) . LRE was shown to be a distinct inclination of Congress in the case of Board of Education v. Holland and the educational benefits that a child with disabilities would receive in a regular classroom, as well as non-academic benefits should be considered (Inclusive Education, 2003) . Through these cases, as well as others, inclusionists have maintained and argued their views as supported by law. Essay On Achieving Your? The law has shown a penchant for the inclusion practices of ensuring equal rights for students, for not excluding students because of is a state of mind, their abilities, for facilitating inclusion through the support of supplemental aids and services, and for always maintaining that LRE is the best way to on achieving, assure a student gets the benefits of his/her education. These court cases are a strong support for critical thinking presentation, the argument of inclusion. In the goals journal Childhood Education , Douglas Fuchs and Lynn S. Fuchs write about the opposing views on thinking, the inclusion of students with disabilities (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . They bring up several points which inclusionists use as arguments in maintaining the practice of inclusion. Inclusionists state the necessity of essay on achieving goals, depending on a regular classroom to provide the how to development plan instruction necessary for students to succeed in school, and eventually get a jobteachers in these settings are experts in instruction . On Achieving Your? To the fullest extent appropriate, teachers and students work on general education curricula and have an explicit understanding of the on banking level of academic accomplishment necessary for success in regular classrooms (Fuchs and essay your Fuchs, 1998) . Full inclusionists believe that educators' primary responsibility for children with disabilities should be to help them establish friendships with non-disabled persons . inclusionists claim that children with special needs must be placed in regular classrooms full-time (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . Dorothy E. Hardin and Sally J. McNelis give details of a school which practices full inclusion in Baltimore in the article, The Resource Center: hub of inclusive activities , which they wrote for the journal Educational Leadership (Hardin and McNelis, 1996) . Hardin and McNelis speak highly of the success of full inclusion in this school with the support of a resource center which is used by all students, those with and without special needsit is their conclusion that this would work in all schools (Hardin and McNelis, 1996) . It is the opinion of the inclusionists that full inclusion and the changes necessary to make it work is critical presentation something to which we are morally bound (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . Essay? This reinventing [of the schools shows] one of the new roles that special educators need to poverty state of mind, assume, first and foremost, is that of collaborators with classroom teachers . Essay On Achieving? special educators . should spend 100 percent of their time with mainstreamed students, with and without disabilities, who require additional help ( Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . It is the stand of online, inclusionists that without full-time placement in regular classrooms, students with disabilities will not receive the your goals type of academic teaching or the how much to do a business opportunities to essay on achieving your, make friends that is necessary to their success. They say that it is the moral obligation of our society to make the necessary changes in our schools, including full collaboration of general education and special education teachers, to allow full inclusion to be successful.
Those who are against full inclusion see this in another light. Most students are in special education to begin with because they have failed in regular education, so how can putting them back in the regular setting be beneficial to them? What evidence shows that full inclusion is the critical answer for all students? In a full general education classroom of students, a teacher must teach to an array of students. How can there possibly be time to manage the additional requirements of a child with disabilities? One teacher cannot possibly be expected to be all things to all students. Many things see their way into essay on achieving goals schools as programs without empirical evidence. Those who argue against the full inclusion of all students further maintain that a regular education teacher does not or cannot teach to the special needs of a child with disabilities which require much specialization, they are not trained to teach to that child, and essay philosophy there are no resources available for such. James M. Your? Kauffman states in his book, Education Deform: Bright People Sometimes Say Stupid Things about Education , that Some of us have maintained the poverty position that although inclusion in general education in regular schools with support from essay, special educators may work well for some students, such inclusion is development plan neither feasible nor effective for all students (Kauffman, 2002, p. 177) . Essay On Achieving Your Goals? Those who argue against full inclusion maintain that the needs of each student must be assessed individually; inclusion can not and essay must not be done in a manner which does not explore what is right for the individual. Those who are in opposition to essay on achieving your, full inclusion have a very different view on on banking online, Brown v. Board of Education (1954) than do their inclusionist colleagues.
The decision in this case referred primarily to racial segregation (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . The oppositionists to inclusion are adamant that a case of racial segregation is totally different from and not related to segregation based on student ability in the American Public School. These oppositionists believe that inclusion has been seen as a right for students of special needs rather than what it actually is, one of a myriad of treatments available for the student with disabilities. Full inclusion, in essay on achieving, their eyes, used as a blanket treatment for every child with a disability can be counter-productive. Where it may work for some students, it can't and won't work for how much it cost to do, all and therefore should not be used in every case. The oppositionists, like the inclusionists, use court cases as a basis to support their arguments on whether full inclusion should be used to essay on achieving, educate all students in the American Public School. In Clyde K. Online? v. Puyallup School District (1994) , as discussed on the University of Northern Iowa's site Inclusive Education, the determination was made that a boy with Tourette syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder could be put into a special education setting, outside of the regular classroom,because he wouldn't benefit in a social or academic way from being in a general education settingthe court further stated that the your goals school had met the demands of IDEA by providing the necessary supplementary aids and supports which were to no avail (Inclusive Education, 2003) . Thus, the how much does it cost to do plan oppositionists conclude IDEA suggests that inclusion is not the essay your goals best solution for some students; therefore inclusion must not be applied in all cases. In Fort Zumwalt School District v. Missouri State Board of Education (1996) , again discussed on online, the site Inclusive Education, it was found by the courts that inclusion of a student with serious learning disabilities was inappropriate after the school refused to essay on achieving, retrain its teachers (Inclusive Education, 2003) . Here we see the oppositionists argue that the poverty is a state courts agree that inclusion for all students is not always appropriate. The use of your goals, these court cases by the oppositionists to support their views is used in a similar fashion as the essay task way in which the inclusionists used court cases to essay on achieving your, support their views. We can see that the essays on banking IDEA laws and subsequent court cases are open to a broad range of interpretations and essay that both sides use them and translate them to their best advantage.
To not use full inclusion as a blanket treatment for all students with disabilities is the basis for the argument presented by on banking, the oppositionists. Essay On Achieving Goals? Their views are in agreement with many educators as demonstrated in journal articles. In the Journal of how much it cost to do, Disability Policy Studies , Jean P. Hall writes an article, Narrowing the Breach: Can disability culture and your goals full educational inclusion be reconciled? , where she states People and how much does it cost a business organizations favoring inclusion, however, are overlooking the value of the disability culture that is fostered when children with disabilities have the opportunity to associate with and learn alongside other individuals who share similar identities and life experiences . changes to the existing system rather than a movement to full inclusion will be more effective in supporting disability culture and , ultimately the essay on achieving goals needs of children with disabilities (Hall, 2002) . Oppositionists would make the analysis that if full inclusionists believe that students with disabilities are better off in a regular classroom, that they are not taking into account the true effects of that classroom and that some students are in actuality affected negatively by that environment. Oppositionists maintain that the education of a student should always be a top priority when placing a child, or writing an IEP for a student. This opinion is supported by Tom E. C. Smith and Carol A. Dowdy in plan, their article for Childhood Education, Educating young children with disabilities using responsible inclusion (Smith and your goals Dowdy, 1998) . Smith and Dowdy say, Placing children with disabilities in general education classroom settings, without regard to individual needs, because it reflects current ideas about best practice, does not support the least restrictive environment concept nor the goal of providing appropriate educational programs for all children (Smith and Dowdy, 1998) . The analysis of the oppositionists here concludes that education is to be accounted for first and is more important, ultimately, than any current trend in education. How To Plan? This analysis is also supported by Kauffman, who in his book states that Instruction, not place, should be the central issue in special education. Place is important because it constrains what instruction can be offered, but it is a secondary consideration by essay your, logic and by law (Kauffman, 2002, p. 183) . The oppositionists inherently believe that full inclusion is wrong and that students are not necessarily better off in a regular educational setting; in thinking, addition, they believe that education of each student should always be the driving force in essay your goals, determining the IEP and poverty is a of mind education of a student with disabilities, whether in a general education setting or not. Looking at on achieving your goals, inclusion from both sides, we see biases and opinions. We see that both sides are guilty of measuring the it cost plan effectiveness and using units of analysis which can be biased toward their agendas.
We must not let these biases, however, cloud the real issue. The real issue is the education of all children in the American Public School. All children's educational needs should be addressed individually. What is often seen missing from essay goals, this debate is the effect that full inclusion has on the non-disabled students in the classroom. What effects does it have on a teacher in a day and age when teacher retention is a burning issue in many school districts? We must remember that our decisions in how to development plan, regard to the education of students with disabilities will affect real children and are not just hypothetical situations. Your? We must not forget that if we follow the path the inclusionists would have us follow, that we get rid of an array of services for essays online, students with disabilities leaving only two real options: full inclusion, or no school. There would be no middle ground. What happens then when full inclusion does not work for a student? We cannot be naïve enough to believe that one solution will solve a variety of problems. In education, one size does not fit all.
We must also remember that just because one does not support full inclusion does not mean that one doesn't see it as an effective treatment in some cases. It is the opinion of this author that to institute full inclusion in essay your, the American Public School would be to do a disservice to our students. It Cost To Do A Business? We mustn't look at only limited factors, that of student rights and social benefits to students, in determining the appropriate education plan for a student with disabilities. Many factors should be reviewed to obtain an IEP for each student which reflects what is appropriate for the education and learning of that particular child. The most important factor in this determination should always be that of the child's learning. Goals? Every child should be placed in the environment, whether a traditional setting or not, that best affords that child to reach his/her potential. We should also remember that when we place a student, that the needs of other students in that classroom also need to be considered. Philosophy Task? One child's rights to an education should not supercede the essay rights of it cost a business plan, another child.
In fact, this author contends that one child's rights end where the next child's rights begin. We must consider that a child who is fully included in a classroom may not be fully served in that classroom. Are we letting these kids' education slip through the cracks just so we can feel good about the social situation that we have placed them in? Is this social situation actually the best for each student, or would we just like to believe that it is? Are we really serving the needs of these kids, or are we pleasing ourselves by their inclusion? Full inclusion is right for some students, and not for others.
We must learn to put the needs of the your goals child first, making accurate assessments of papers on indian in english, their needs and abilities, and passing policies which protect them from social do-gooders. We must ensure the rights of all students, both abled and disabled, to receive the education to which they are entitled by law. On Achieving Your? Inclusion, even if it is the appropriate treatment for a child needs to be monitored for progress. This author spent volunteer time in a fifth grade classroom in Cedar Rapids, Iowa where there was a student with multiple disabilities who was being fully included. The IEP of the critical presentation student did allow for a full time aid to assist the student and teacher in the applications which would allow the student to essay on achieving your, benefit from her full inclusion. This all looked good on critical thinking presentation, paper, but in reality this was disastrousnot only for this student, but also for other students, one in particular, in that classroom.
The problem here was that it took months to wade through the red tape, assessments, committee meetings and the like, before a suitable plan was made for this child. Once the plan to hire an educational aid to work with the child and her teacher was made and implemented, the aid quit after only three days because of the essay goals difficulty of the situation. It was weeks until another aid was placed and who knows how long that arrangement will last. In the meantime while all of this was going on in the research on indian background, the child was spending her days in a general education classroom with very little in the way of supports. On Achieving Your? The teacher had another student assigned to be the permanent helper of this childthe child was expected to help the disabled student with her work, help with the discipline of said student, and to be an selected task advocate for this child in the classroom. This was done under the guise of education. The teacher believed that it was beneficial for this student to help another. There is nothing wrong in teaching one student to on achieving goals, help another, or to essays on banking online, be empathetic toward his/her situation, but it is essay your goals entirely another issue in making one eleven year old child responsible for philosophy, another child in the classroom. This author found this situation to be a gross violation of both students' rights to essay, be educated.
We must not only place a student where they will be best served, but we must also make arrangements for what happens to poverty state, that student in the time that the appropriate treatment is being arranged. We must not let the child, in the mean time, to slip between the cracks and essay goals receive no appropriate education at all. It is because of this experience, as well as the thinking presentation examination of the history, the laws, and the views of educators that this author believes that full inclusion should only goals, be used as one of many treatments for a child with disabilities, not as an answer for all. There are strong points of law, court cases, and expert opinion to support both sides of the inclusion debate. On Indian? We know that more and more students with disabilities are spending their school days in general education settings.
The debate on the issue of inclusion will continue for some time. Essay Your? We must remember what we have learned from both the proponents of full inclusion, as well as those who oppose it. The inclusionists are right to essays online, bring special education out into a new light, to consider the rights of children and the social ramifications of their placement. Essay On Achieving Your Goals? The oppositionist would ask, is this enough to determine the placement of how to plan, a student with disabilities? The oppositionists are right to see inclusion as one of many treatments available for the disabled student and to consider the education of that student as paramount in determining his/her placement. The inclusionists would ask, where are the rights of the student?
The history and goals subsequent laws of inclusion can help us to understand how we got to this point. Where will we go from here? When all is on banking online said and your goals done, it still comes down to thinking, the lives of children. We cannot forget that how we proceed in on achieving your goals, the issue of inclusion will dramatically effect these children and their futures. What if it was your child? Friend, Marilyn and Bursuck, William D. (2002).
Including Students with Special Needs, A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn Bacon, 2002. Kauffman, James M. How Much To Do? (2002). Education Deform, Bright People Sometimes Say Stupid Things about essay on achieving your goals, Education. Selected? Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc. Fuchs, Douglas and Fuchs, Lynn S. (1998). On Achieving Your Goals? Competing visions for development, educating students with disabilities: inclusion versus full inclusion. Childhood Education, Midsummer 1998 v74 n5 p309 (8). Hall, Jean P. (2002). Narrowing the breach: can disability culture and full educational inclusion be reconciled?
Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Winter 2002 v13 i3 p144 (9). Hardin, Dorothy E. and McNelis, Sally J. (1996). The resource center: hub of inclusive activities. Educational Leadership, February 1996 v53 n5 p41 (3).
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essay format uni The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Your? Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it. Presentation? Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in essay on achieving order to produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the thinking product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the on achieving your goals question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process.
2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the how to do business development plan texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of essay your, solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in how much it cost to do plan with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for essay your goals each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. Papers On Indian Writing? A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem.
It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of information will you need to answer the on achieving your goals question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to how to development plan, do. It is useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of goals, organising an answer which follows naturally from the essay philosophy selected format of the question and which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence.
You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of essay on achieving goals, some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the subject of the question is the on banking online 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure.
One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on essay on achieving goals, Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to research papers in english, identify the issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the on achieving your goals best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. You should consider the merits of a variety of responses. If possible you should always examine the book or article from selected task, which the quotation has been taken in order to essay your goals, discover what its author meant by in english it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences.
One method of tackling such an essay on achieving your goals essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of how to plan, similarity and contrast, and to devote a section of the essay on achieving goals essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the is a state of mind essay various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. On Achieving? In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the poverty is a state of mind essay evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and your expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Research Papers? Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an essay on achieving your overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues.
Citing such works will undermine the poverty is a state of mind credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. On Achieving Goals? But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research.
It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and poverty state refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument?
Do I need to know more about the examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the essay your reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and essay philosophy collect the information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to your goals, make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to state, footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to collect?
Much will depend upon essay on achieving, how confident you now feel about your argument. Development? Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. On Achieving? It is better to start again than to write an papers essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the goals first draft up in essays on banking two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to answer the question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an essay on achieving overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of material or evidence you will be using. How Much Does It Cost To Do A Business? It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the essay on achieving question as briefly as possible with your first sentence.
The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to thinking, the success of an essay. Often, it is best to essay on achieving goals, organise the it cost to do a business plan paragraphs so that each makes and on achieving your defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and development plan essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the essay on achieving your goals topic leaving the do business development marker to join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to your goals, demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the how much does it cost plan point of each paragraph.
These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the on achieving essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of critical thinking, 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of medieval Europe. It is also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from goals, a high in research on indian writing in english 1310 of. [several sentences of essay, examples] . The dramatic fall in how to do business development the prices of goals, land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in essays online the actual number of on achieving your, people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by essay philosophy selected task the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from essay your goals, one to another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the how much does plan essay that all important sense of critical depth and essay on achieving goals originality: Seapower was a crucial to research writing, European expansion.
This much is illustrated by the way in on achieving your goals which Europe expanded between the poverty is a state of mind essay tenth and on achieving sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon poverty state of mind essay, the availability of essay on achieving goals, effective fleets of how much to do a business plan, warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and on achieving goals Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and essay philosophy task of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the reader. If the supporting evidence is essay on achieving your goals, not a well-known and essays on banking online irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the your additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of research papers writing in english, evidence being deployed you have chosen to goals, follow. It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. How To Do Business? It is often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. Essay On Achieving? 'According to Mayer the poverty state of mind essay first crusade.'), since this helps to your goals, show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of your essay.
It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is critical, best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the on achieving your goals rhetorical apparatus of do business, a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the notes at the bottom of the page rather than at essay goals the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else.
Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward.
You will need to essay philosophy selected, edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to essay on achieving your goals, remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the it cost a business required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. On Achieving? There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to the development of this art.
Credits: This guide was devised and poverty is a state of mind essay developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).